六级作文
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经济发展与环境保护

Economic Development and Environmental Protection

Economic development and environmental protection are a pressing issue primarily for developing countries where, in trying to catch up with developed countries, they have to consume natural resources on an unprecedented scale. This has seriously polluted our environment and, with the global environmental campaign gaining momentum, many people in China call for the precedence of environmental protection over economic development.

Any attempt to pose economic development and environmental protection as diametrically contradictory is simple-minded. Since no country is willing to stop its economic development, the best way is to strike a balance between the two and to heighten the environmental awareness of those solely concerned with economic development.

European countries both economically developed and environmentally friendly can serve as perfect examples for China. Their success story in both undertakings illustrates that environmental protection does not mean a complete standstill of economic activities or exploitation of natural resources, but rather an active development and application of effective technologies to minimize environmental consequences. In Germany, environmental protection has become part of economic development as it boasts the world’s most successful environmental industry. With a developed economy, we are well equipped to develop sophisticated technologies that can effectively safeguard our environment.

The relationship between economic development and environment protection is a complex one. For modern men, neither a primitive society which is perfectly ecologically friendly nor an industrial civilization which is ecologically hostile is what we want. Environmental problems arise as a result of industrialization and only technologies can deliver solutions to those problems. Rather than simply returning to the past of non-human activity, we can seek active technological solutions in solar energy and wind energy to replace fossil fuels. By the time this key contributor to environmental deterioration is eradicated, man will achieve a win-win result between economic development and environmental protection.

【参考译文】

经济发展与环境保护

经济发展与环境保护构成了一个迫在眉睫的问题,这主要发生在发展中国家,因为在这些国家,在不遗余力追赶发达国家的过程中,人们不得不以史无前例的规模去消耗自然资源。这便严重地污染了我们的环境。随着全球范围内的环保运动势头日趋强劲,中国国内的许多人便大声疾呼,相对于经济发展,环境保护应被摆在首要位置。

任何将经济发展与环境保护绝然对立起来的做法,都显得头脑简单。既然没有哪个国家会愿意让其经济发展停滞下来,最好的方法就是在两者之间达成一种平衡;对于那些只关注经济发展的人,应努力提高其环保意识。

那些既经济发达又环境友好的欧洲国家,可以为中国充当一种完美的典范。它们在这两项事业中的成功故事,例证着这样一个道理,即环境保护并非意味着经济活动或自然资源的开发利用彻底陷入停顿,而是意味着积极主动地去研发并应用有效的技术,以便将环境后果

降至最低限度。在德国,环保已变成经济发展的一个部分,因为该国拥有世界上最成功的环保产业。拥有了发达的经济,我们才有充分的条件去研发尖端的技术,才能真正有效地保护我们的环境。

经济发展与环境保护之间的关系甚为复杂。对于现代人而言,完全环境友好型的原始社会,或者是充满生态敌意的工业文明,二者中没有哪个是我们所要的。环境问题因工业化过程而产生,但也只能经由工业技术才能对这些问题带来解决之道。我们不应该简单地回归过去,让人类陷入无为的状态,而是要在太阳能、风能等能源中寻找积极主动的技术解决方案,来替代化石燃料。当化石燃料这个环境恶化的主要推手被铲除之际,人类在经济发展与环境保护之间,就能实现一种双赢的格局。

【值得熟记的句式与短语】

1. consume natural resources on an unprecedented scale以史无前例的规模去消耗自然资源

2. global environmental campaign gaining momentum全球范围内的环保运动势头日趋强劲

3. many people in China call for the precedence of environmental protection over economic development 中国国内的许多人便大声疾呼,相对于经济发展,环境保护应被摆在首要位置。

4. strike a balance between the two在两者之间达成一种平衡

5. to heighten the environmental awareness提高环保意识

6. a complete standstill彻底陷入停顿

7. exploitation of natural resources对自然资源的开发利用

8. to minimize environmental consequences将环境后果降至最低限度

9. environmental industry环保产业

10. develop sophisticated technologies that can effectively safeguard our environment研发尖端的技术,真正有效地保护我们的环境

11. a primitive society which is perfectly ecologically friendly nor an industrial civilization which is ecologically hostile完全环境友好型的原始社会,或者是充满生态敌意的工业文明

12. only technologies can deliver solutions to those problems只有技术才能对这些问题带来解决之道

13. environmental deterioration环境恶化

14. a win-win result一种双赢的格局 一、热点话题:保护自然资源、石油天然气紧张、空气污染、全球变暖、自然灾害、太阳能的利用

二、热门词汇

to protect the environment 保护环境 ecology; ecological system 生态系统abundant natural resources丰富的自然资源petroleum 石油

renewable resources可再生资源solar energy太阳能

electric power电力 hydropower 水电

to destroy the ozone layer破坏臭氧层nuclear energy核能

wild life; wild animals 野生动物endangered species濒临灭绝的物种

to deplete; depletion of; exhaust; use up用尽 deforestation 砍伐森林 abuse the earth’s resources滥用地球资源 global warming全球变暖

desertification 沙漠化endanger existing species 危害现存物种

greenhouse effect温室效应sustainable development可持续发展

to recycle; recycling重复利用;再生 exhaust gas废气

industrial waste 工业废料energy crisis能源危机

liquid waste废液 water waste废水

the deterioration of environment环境恶化make joint efforts携手

destruction of ecological balance生态环境破坏chemical plant化工厂

cut down large numbers of trees大量砍伐树木public hazard公共危害

drain a large amount of waste water排出一大堆废水 sweep 席卷

give off a strong smell发出强烈的味道 global climate全球气候

adopt several strong measures采取强烈措施flood farmland淹没农田

take control over our environment控制我们的环境 acid rain酸雨

be plagued with因……而遭受痛苦unclear and impure混浊不清

mountain torrents break out山洪爆发suffer a great deal from深受其害 appeal to the government向政府呼吁set up a foundation建立一笔基金 punish severely by the law依法严惩encourage city-residents鼓励市民 protect forest resources保护森林资源air pollution空气污染

extremely serious problem极其严重的问题 fight against与战斗

pose a host of public hazards造成了许多公害greenhouse effect温室效应 lead to grave consequences导致了严重的后果 ever-accelerated 不断发展 water and soil conservation水土保持 weather forecast天气预报

exert a disastrous effect on产生灾难性的影响 raw materials原料

let this situation go as it is任由态势发展

suffer a great destruction遭受破坏

pursue one’s short-term interest追求眼前利益

deterioration of the ecology生态恶化

raise people’s awareness of the environment提高人们环境意识

use up valuable energy resources用尽珍贵的资源

conservation of the natural environment保护自然环境

enhance the quality of life提高生活质量

cause serious environmental pollution造成严重污染

break the ecological balance破坏生态平衡

for the future generations; for our descendants 为了子孙后代

bring about a lot of losses / disasters造成巨大损失/灾难

三、经典句式:

1.There is no denying the fact that air pollution is an extremely serious problem: the city authorities should take strong measures to deal with it.

无可否认,空气污染是一个极其严重的问题:城市当局应该采取有力措施来解决它。

2.Any government, which is blind to this point, may pay a heavy pric . 任何政府忽视这一点都将付出巨大的代价。

3.In view of the seriousness of this problem, effective measures should be taken before things get worse.

考虑到问题的严重性,在事态进一步恶化之前,必须采取有效的措施。

4. We should spare no effort to beautify our environment.

我们应该不遗余力地美化我们的环境。

5. This view is now being questioned by more and more people.

这一观点正受到越来越多人的质疑。

6.Environmental experts point out that increasing pollution not only causes serious problems such as global warming but also could threaten to end human life on our planet. 环境学家指出:持续增加的污染不仅会导致像全球变暖这样严重的问题,而且还将威胁到人类在这个星球的生存。

7.In view of such serious situation, environmental tools of transportation like bicycle are more important than any time before.

考虑到这些严重的状况,我们比以往任何时候更需要像自行车这样的环保型交通工具。

8. A series of environment protection rules and regulations need to be laid down必须制定一系列的环境保护条例。

9. This issue/phenomenon has caused wide public concern in many places of world.

这一问题/现象在全世界许多地方已引起了广泛关注。

10.At the time when technology means ever more harmful carbon in the air we breathe, we need these forests now more than ever.

当技术的发展意味着我们会吸入更多有害气体时,我们比任何时候更需要森林。四、热点预测:能源短缺问题/加气难问题 自然灾害例文一

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic How to Solve the Energy Shortage. You should write at least 150 words according to the outline given below in Chinese:

1. 当今,能源短缺成为越来越严重的问题;

2. 如果采取适当的措施,这个问题是可以解决的;

3. 我的看法。

【思路点拨】

典型的问题解决型作文。根据提纲本文各部分内容应包括:开门见山指出当前存在的资源紧缺的问题极其严重性;以说理或举例的方式来说明这一问题是可以解决的;总结并陈述“我”的看法。

【参考范文】

How to Solve the Energy Shortage

Energy shortage is a very serious problem in the world. Many people worry that energy resources on the earth will be exhausted if we use them in an unchecked way. This, most people agree, will cause serious problems and even crisis and jeopardize the survival of mankind .

On the one hand, most people agree that the problem can be solved in one way or another. One is to conserve and save our energy. Energy refers not only to coal, oil, or natural gases but also to goods, land and water , etc. Most countries have realized the wastefulness in their using of energy. They are trying to conserve energy. For example, some countries have a daylight saving system to use less electricity for lighting. Some cities have enforced water savers at public such as restrooms and bars. Some have enforced serious penalties on overuse of electricity, water, and farming land. By these means, people hope the drain on energy resources could be slowed down.

However , conservation alone cannot solve the problem. Another way,

perhaps the best I think, is to develop new energy resources. Obviously, no matter how hard we try to save energy resources and how abundant they are, we will use them up sooner or later. I think there are many energy resources that we can develop and utilize. We don't have to depend only on the current conventional energy resources. There are many other energy resources that we can develop such as nuclear power , waterpower and solar power . These resources, if developed, can completely replace the conventional energy and thus solve the problem of energy shortage.

【点评】

文本是问题解决型作文。文章首先提出能源匮乏这一现象,接着讨论这个问题的解决方式,并提出自己的看法。符合提纲中的要求。另外文章亮点不断,例如:one way or another,conserve energy,slowed down,sooner or later等等。

例文二

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic A Letter of Appeal. You should write at least 120 words and you should base your composition on the outline given below:

在过去几年中,我们已经目睹了人类活动引起的各种灾害。作为一位大学生,请写一封倡议书,呼吁大家关注这些自然灾害并保护环境,内容应包括:

1.举出人类活动引发的灾害的实例;

2.指出一些必要的防范措施;

3.号召大家行动起来拯救地球。

【思路点拨】

本题要求写一封倡议书。首先应明确的是这是应用文,要注意其开头的格式。其次从主体内容上来说,还是提纲式作文的一贯思路。首先点明写信的目的:呼吁大家关注人类活动对地球造成的危害,陈述灾害的具体表现;为了拯救地球,我们应当采取哪些措施;号召大家行动起来拯救地球。

【参考范文】

A Letter of Appeal

June 13, 2008

Dear friends,

I am writing this letter to call on everyone to pay attention to the present disasters caused by human activities. As some of you may know, over the past years, floods, droughts, landslides, and dust storms have frequented our planet. Not long ago, tsunami swept the Southeast Asia, which caused enormous damage. All these have sounded an alarm to human beings. So it is high time that we join efforts to save our planet.

Above all, a task of top priority for us is to plant trees as many as possible, especially in the arid areas. At the same time, we should stop deforesting in large amount. And we can save our planet through many other ways, such as saving water and using recycled paper.

So don't hesitate to act out these measures. Even a small action is meaningful to our planet. Please join us in the action of protecting our planet. If you are willing to do something to save our planet, please start from the little thing right around you. Thank you!

Sincerely yours,

Li Ming

【点评】

本文是一封倡议书信。首先文章形式上符合书信的格式。在内容上首先说明写作目的,接着提出自己的倡议。最后发出呼吁,并表示感谢。语言上,亮点不断,如:call on,pay attention to,frequented our planet,sounded an alarm to,in large amount,act out these measures等等

1. Describe the picture2. Deduce the purpose of the drawer of the picture3. Suggest your counter &nd

1. Describe the picture

2. Deduce the purpose of the drawer of the picture

3. Suggest your counter – measures

Basically, what we see in this picture is a bird lamenting the fact that its home has been destroyed. Of course, birds usually make their homes in trees, and since there are no trees left in the picture – only the stumps, to show that the original trees have been

chopped down – the bird is left without shelter. In fact, the bird has no choice but to perch on the handle of an axe, which has been used to destroy its original home.

We can deduce from this picture that the drawer is trying to attract our attention to the tragedy of the destruction of forests, which is part of the threat to the ecological balance of the planet. He seems to be saying that soon there will be no trees left in the world. In my opinion, the sad little bird is a symbol of all living things, including human beings, and, like the bird, we too will be left homeless if we allow the destruction of the environment to continue.

This simple picture is a wake – up call for the whole of the human race. If this vivid image of the grim future of our planet is not to become a reality, we must take positive steps right now to put an end to the plundering of the Earth’s natural resources. It is clear that the drawer of the picture is urging us to start with a campaign to save the forests, which is something all of us can join by urging our local authorities to take positive measures to save the trees.