阅读与作文
初三 散文 16315字 373人浏览 Oo北海小龙oO

阅读理解的目的和出题规则

大纲要求:考生应能读懂不同题材和体裁的文字材料。题材包括经济、管理、社会、文化和科学等,体裁包括说明文、议论文和记叙文等。

根据阅读材料,考生应能:

(1)掌握文章的中心思想,主要内容和细节;

(2)理解上下文的逻辑关系;

(3)根据上下文推断生词的含义;

(4)进行一定的判断和推理;

(5)理解说话的意图、观点或态度。

考试内容与形式:主要考查考生理解具体信息,掌握文章大意,猜测生词词义并进行推断等能力,共20题,每小题2分,共40分。

要求考生根据所提供的四篇或五篇(总长度约为1800词)文章的内容,从每题所给出的4或5个选项中选出最佳答案。

阅读理解的目的在于read to learn, 即阅读是为了获取解题所需要的信息;而不是learn to read, 即为了阅读而阅读。这种信息的获取有两个特点:首先,它有严格的时间限制;另外,它最直接的目的是解好短文后的四五道测试题。因此在阅读文章时就不必一字一句地精读,而应该根据考试要求,学会捕捉、分析相关信息并区别对待。

从篇章层次看,短文的首尾两段常常包含重要信息,议论文和说明文尤其如此。

从段落层次看,一段的首尾两句往往包含重要信息,当然,偶尔也会置于段中或不写出来。

从句子层次看,句子的主干部分或主干部分的谓语部分往往包含重要信息。 从词的层次看,实词往往比虚词更重要,但虚词中的连词是例外,它常用来表明

词与词或句子与句子之间的关系。

英语阅读技巧

一、快速阅读方法一: 略读法(skimming )

略读又称跳读(reading and skipping)或浏览(glancing ),是一种专门的,非常实用的快速阅读技能。

所谓略读,是指以尽可能快地速读阅读,如同从飞机上鸟瞰

(bird's eye view)地面上的明显标志一样,迅速获取文章大意或中心思想。换句话说,略读是要求读者有选择地进行阅读,可跳过某些细节,以求抓住文章的大概,从而加快阅读速度。在查找资料时,如果没有充分时间,而又不需要高度理解时,就可以运用略读技巧。略读的理解水平有50%或60%就可以了。

略读法的作用:获取文章的中心思想和逻辑方式,有助于确定解题信息的大概位置,也有助于解答有关中心思想方面的问题。

如果对作者的行文思维没有清晰的认识,可能会有“只在此山中,云深不知处”的感觉。有两种思维模式在英语文章中最为常用。一种是演绎思维,常见于论说文体,特点是从一般到个别、从论点到论据。另一种是归纳思维,常见于说明文体等,特点是从个别到一般,从观察到结论。此外,平行结构和时间顺序也常用于说明性文体。

略读的步骤:

(1)注意印刷细节(typographical details),如小标题、斜体字、黑体字等。

(2)以一般阅读速度(200~250wpm )阅读文章的首尾两段,力求抓住文章大意、背景情况、作者的文章风格、口吻或语气等。

(3)快速找到并浏览段落的主题句。抓住主题句就掌握了段落大意,然后略去细节不读,以求得略读速度。

二、快速阅读方法二: 寻读法(scanning )

寻读又称查读,是一种从大量的资料中迅速查找某一项具体事实或某一项特定信息,如人物、事件、时间、地点、数字等,而对其它无关部分则略去不读的快速阅读方法。运用这种方法,读者就能在最短的时间内掠过尽可能多的印刷材料,找到所需要的信息。例如,在车站寻找某次列车或汽车的运行时刻,在机场寻找某次班机的飞行时刻,在图书馆查找书刊的目录,在文献中查找某一日期、名字、数字或号码等,都可以运用这种方法。

作为一种快速寻找信息的阅读技巧,寻读既要求速度,又要求寻读的准确性。具体地说,寻读带有明确的目的性,有针对性地选择问题的答案。因此,可以把整段整段的文字直接映入大脑,不必字字句句过目。视线在印刷材料上掠过时,一旦发现有关的内容,就要稍作停留,将它记住或摘下,既保证寻读的速度,又做到准确无误,所以寻读技巧也很有实用价值。

寻读与略读不同。略读时,读者事先对材料一无所知,而寻读则是读者对材料有所了解的情况下进行的。例如,寻读电话号码簿,读者知道受话人的姓名,还知道电话号码簿是按姓的字母顺序排列的。

寻读的步骤:

(1)确定文章哪一部分包含所需信息,直接到那个部分进行寻找。

(2)注意信号词。读者找到包含所需信息的段落,准备寻读,这时要留心与那个具体信息有关的信号词,即提示行文线索(起承转合) ,预示将要读到的内容与上文存在什么样的关系或本身具有什么逻辑意思的一些词。

信号词可以归纳为以下几种:

(1)预示将有相同或类似内容的信号词:and, also, moreover, further, likewise, in addition, besides, similarly等。

(2)预示将有不同或相反内容出现的信号词:but, however, on the contrary, to the opposite, otherwise, yet等。

(3)预示有总结性内容出现的信号词:in short, in a word, in brief, briefly, in conclusion, as a result, to sum up等。

(4)表示有因果关系的信号词:as, for, because, as a result,

consequently, thus, so, therefore, for this reason, so … that … 等。

(5)预示所述内容有先后顺序的信号词:before, after, another, first, next, then, last, finally, afterwards, later on等。

三、快速阅读方法三: 意群法

所谓意群是指具有一个中心意思的词的群体。意群阅读法是指在阅读句子时以意群为单位,而不是以单个的词为单位进行阅读,眼光从一个" 字群" 跳到另一个" 字群" 进行识读,这个过程中眼球按" 凝视──跳跃──凝视" 的程序进行连续不断运动。此阅读法能帮助考生将文字符号快速转化为信息内容,使考生迅速准确地理解句意,从而帮助提高考生的阅读速度和准确性。

例如:

Moreover, / to recognize the fact / that women are as perfect as men, / it is necessary / to clarify the idea / that there are many jobs women cannot do. / Not only are women denied(拒绝、不给予) some jobs / reserved for men, / but also men refuse to acknowledge women's abilities and / give them their due(应有的权益、应得的事物)/ even if they have proved them.

They told me ∣ that he went on talking ∣ for a long time, ∣but he spoke so fast ∣ that they could hardly catch ∣ what he said. 他们告诉我,他连续谈了好长一段时间,但他说得太快了,他们几乎没有听清他说什么。

题型及解题方法

(一) 主旨大意题

主旨题要求考生在阅读有关文章后能够概括出中心思想,确定段落大意或选定最佳标题。

主旨题的典型提问方式有:

1. The best title for this passage is_____

2. Topic of the article is______

3. The main idea of the passage is______

4. The passage is mainly about (concerned with) ______

5. The passage mainly (primarily) deals with_____

6. The author mainly discusses_____

7. The title that best expresses the main idea is_____

8. The central idea conveyed in the above passage is_____

9. The author's purpose in writing this passage is_____

10. The main idea of this selection may be best expressed as_____

11. What is the main topic (theme, subject, point) of the passage_____?

12. Which of the following is the best title for this passage_____?

13. What would be the most appropriate title for this passage_____?

14. What does the passage mainly discuss?

15. Which title suits this passage best?

16. Which sentence best summarizes the article?

解题方法:用略读法将首尾两段(或首尾部分) 快速浏览一下,然后快速寻找和浏览一下其他段落的主题句,将这些内容结合起来,原文的中心思想就一目了然了。四个答案中最接近这个中心意思的就是正确答案。

正确选项特点:

(1)不出现细节信息。

(2)不含过分肯定或绝对意义的词。

干扰选项特点:

(1)细节信息明显。

(2)过于笼统。

注意事项:

(1)不管它出现在文章的什么位置,都作为最后一道题去做,因为做完其他题以后会对文章主旨的理解有帮助。

(2)着重理解首末段、首末句。

(3)遇到文章前后段意思转折,需提高警惕,可能是主旨在文章中间的情况。

(4)作者有意识地反复重复的观点通常是文章主旨。

(5)首段出现疑问句时,对该问题的解答通常是文章主旨。

(6)提出文章主旨时常伴有的词是:therefore ,thus ,but ,however ,in short等等。

(7)段落中出现转折时,该句很可能是主题句。

(二) 事实细节题

细节题要求考生理解与文章主题有关的事实依据,赞同或反对的理由,以及找出其他有关的细节或具体的数据等。细节题的出题类型主要有以下三种:

1.特殊疑问句

以what ,who ,when ,how ,where 等引导的问题。

A. What do we know about...?

B. Why is (are)...?

C. How many (much)... in this article?

D. In what year...?

E. In what way...?

F. According to the passage, who (what, where, when)...?

2.正误判断题

通常询问文章中所述的事情是否真实,某种提法是否正确或文章(作者) 是否提及某事。

A. What do we know about...?

B. Why is (are)...?

C. How many (much)... in this article?

D. In what year...?

E. In what way...?

F. According to the passage, who (what, where, when)...?

A. Which of the following statements is (not) true?

B. Which of the following is (not) mentioned in the article?

C. Which of the following does not explain...?

D. Which of the following statements is wrong according to the author? E. Which of the following in NOT listed as...?

F. All of the following are true except...

G. The author mentions all of the items listed below except... H. The author (passage) does not tell us...

3. 填空题

通常涉及与主题有关的事实或细节,但涉及的范围比正误判断题要广。

A. The real cause is______

B. According to the author, the techniques can be used to______

C. The author states that______

D. The experiment shows that______

E. Mr. X expects (hopes, wishes) ______

解题方法:找出指文章中与问题中所划关键词的意思相同或相近的对应词(该对应词可能与关键词相同也可能不同) 。对应词所在的句子或句子部分极可能 为包含解题信息的信息句。将该句认真阅读后,再将四个答案与该句内容逐一对照后,就会发现某个答案的信息与信息句的信息大致相同,则该答案即为正确答案。

正确选项特点:

(1)一般可以在文章中直接或间接找到答案,但是不可能与阅读材料一模一样,而是用不同的词语或句型表达相同的意思。题干+正确选项的信息值等于或者约等于原文中某句的信息值。

(2)体现中心思想,一般与文章主旨直接关联。

干扰选项的特点:

(1)部分正确,部分错误。

(2)是原文信息,但是不是题目要求的内容。

(3)符合常识,但不是文章内容。

(4)与原句的内容极为相似,只是在程度上有些变动。

注意事项:

(1)主旨与细节是相辅相成的,确定了主题,才能深刻理解材料的作用。同样,对具体细节有较为全面的理解,就能更好的判明主题。

(2)文章的事实细节内容不会孤立地出现,它与前后的内容密切相关,考生要善于利用因果、类比、时间、空间的关系将零碎的细节组成一个有机整体。

(3)看细节内容要" 跳出来" 看,即要对文章的组织结构有很清楚的认识,然后判断这个细节为什么主题服务。

(4)坚决遵循" 本本主义" ,文章里有什么就用什么,不可凭感觉发挥做题。

(三) 词语含义题

词语题主要是测试考生根据上下文判断生词或新短语意义的能力。有两种类型:一是要按照上下文与字里行间的线索进行分析和大胆的猜测最后确定正确的含义;二是要特别注意新词汇和短语的引申意义。有不少的词或短语考生也许见过或认识,但这些词或短语的意义在新的背景或上下文中可能与原义不同或者有进一步的引申。

词语题的提问方式主要有:

1. What is the possible meaning of the word "..." in line...?

2. Which is the probable definition of the word "..." ?

3. The italicized word in line ... means_________

4. Which of the following is nearest (closest) in meaning to "..."?

5. By "..." , the author means________

6. In line ... the word "this (that, these, those, it, them)" stands for_______

7. The word (phrase) "..." probably means__________

8. The word (phrase) "..." is closest to____________

9. In line ... , the word "..." most probably means___________

10. In line ... , the word "..." could best be replaced by_____________

解题方法:词语题可分为两类:一类是生词,而另一类是常见词。考题问它在特定语境中的具体意思。解这两类词义题可遵循同样的方法:根据该词找到它在原文中的位置,然后运用猜测词义法,根据上下文所提供的各种线索猜测或确定它们的词义。

注意事项:

(1)不管这个词多超纲,根据上下文都能得出其意思。

(2)不管这个词多熟悉,都要通过上下文得出其在特定场合的意思。

(3)正确选项不含有意义过于绝对化的词语。

(4)含原文词或短语越多,就越不可能是正确选项。

(四) 推理引申题

推理题要求考生在理解原文的基础上,根据文章中所阐述的事实细节和上下文的暗示与线索进行综合分析,然后做出推断预测或得出合情合理的结论。因此,考生必须细读全文,不仅要懂得文章的表层意义,还要理解深层的内涵;不仅要掌握言词的观点和倾向,还要获取字里行间隐含的信息。

推理题的常用提问方式有:

1. The passage is intended to_______

2. The passage implies that______

3. It can be inferred from the passage that______

4. It can be concluded from the passage that______

5. We can conclude (infer, see) from the article that______

6. The writer implies that______

7. The author suggests that______

8. An inference which may (not) be made from the article is______

9. According to the article, many people may______

10. The next paragraph would most probably deal with______

11. The paragraph preceding (following) this one may discuss______

12. In the paragraph following this one, we may expect the author to discuss______

13. What does the paragraph preceding this one probably discuss?

14. What does the writer imply about...?

15. Which of the following can (not) be inferred from the article?

16. What conclusion can be drawn from the passage?

17. Where would this paragraph most probably be found?

18. Where would this paragraph most probably appear?

解题方法:这类题难度较大,具体解题方法也各不相同。但总体来说,根据题中的关键词或主要内容从原文中找到相关信息。透过它的表层意思,将它所隐含的深层意思(implied meaning) 理解透彻,并根据其深层意思做出合理的推断,预测或引申。

正确选项的特点:

(1)不是文中明确说明的内容,有引申推理。

(2)正确选项大多含义深刻,不是常识选项。

干扰选项的特点:

(1)只是原文的简单复述,而非推断出来的结论,把直接表达当作间接推理。

(2)看似从原文推断出来的结论,然而实际上与原文不符,如因果倒置,手段变目的等。

(3)根据考生已有的常识是正确的,但是却不是基于文章内容,一切以文章内容为准。

(4)推理过头,引申过渡。

注意事项:

(1)注意那些似乎话中有话的的间接表达句,它们往往采用说半句,打比喻,反着说的方式,让考生有推理的余地。

(2)注意含义深刻或结构复杂的句子。考生对作者表达的意思能不能一下子看透,也是命题点所在。

(五) 作者态度题

态度题要求考生从文章的论述方法、语气和遣词措辞中把握作者对人与事的好恶,了解作者的态度和情感。

态度题常用的提问方式有:

1. Which of the following the author is most likely to agree with?

2. The author seems to be in favour of the idea of______

3. What's the author's opinion (attitude)?

4. What does the writer think of ... ?

5. The author's attitude towards ... might be best summarized as______

6. In the writer's opinion______,

7. The author of the passage seems to be______

8. The tone of the author is______

9. The author's purpose of writing this article is______

10. How does the author feel about?

11. The tone of the author can best be described as______

12. What's the tone of the passage?

13. From the passage we know that the author______

14. It can be seen from the passage that the author regards with______

15. By using the expression "..." , the author implies that______

解题方法:这类题也属于高难度的题型。做此类题时考生要注意分清什么是作者的客观陈述,什么是作者自己的观点和态度。这就要求考生从文章的论述方式,语气,遣词造句中把握作者的观点、态度、倾向和情感等。

注意事项:

(1)作者对某一事物的看法,要么支持,要么反对,要么是带有程度限制的词,而带中立色彩的词最不可能是正确答案。

(2)漠不关心类词语一定不对,既然写文章就不会不关心。

(3)一般绝对化或过于强烈的表示必错,如:strong ,complete ,entire ,enthusiastic 等。

(4)持有保留态度的比较客观,常常是正确选项,如:reserved ,qualified ,tempered ,guarded ,consent 等。

(5)不要把自己的态度揉入其中,也要区分开作者的态度和作者引用的别人的态度。

(6)当作者的态度没有明确提出时,要学会根据作者使用词语的褒贬性去判断作者的态度。

(7)作者观点一般与文章主旨相关联。

猜测词意法

虽然MBA 考生大多积累了一定的词汇量,但在考试时不可避免地会或多或少地碰到一些生词。这些生词对于快速准确理解文章内容是一大障碍,克服这一障碍的方法就是运用猜测词意法将该词大概的词义猜测出来。一般情况下考生可根据上下文内容所提供的一些线索进行猜测。

猜测词意时考生不必过细,因为有的生词只能猜出大概的意思,有的生词则根本无法猜出其意思。一般来说,碰到一、两个不会的词,无关紧要。重要的是,要弄懂整篇文章表达了什么思想。如过分苛求,一则不可能做到,二则会影响阅读速度,从而影响阅读情绪。

根据上下文的内容,猜测词意所依据的线索可分为以下几类:

1、定义(definition)

通过上下文给出的定义,考生可以将某些生词的意思猜测出来。这种定义是广义的,它可能是一个句子,也可能是一个单词或一个短语。经常出现在定义中,使定义与被定义的内容之间建立起关系的词有:be, mean, in other words, that is, or, namely等等。

例如:Telecommunication means, simply, communication from a distance. It may be by cable or by the use of electrical(电的、电力的、电动的、电气的) or electronic(电子的、电子学的、电声的)signals.

2、同位语或定语

利用文中说明词义的同位词或定语等,猜测词义。

例一:The invention of snorkel, a long air tube that reaches up to the surface, has made it possible for submarines(潜艇) to use their diesel engine even when they are submerged.

句中snorkel 一词的意思,可通过其同位语“a long air tube that reaches up to the surface”来猜得,由此,我们可确定该词义为“通气管”。

例二:The type of meter is called multimeter, which is used to measure electricity.

通过定语从句“which is used to measure electricity”(用来测量电的) ,我们可将“multimeter”的词义确定为“万用表”。

例三:They will be on the night shift — from midnight to 6 a. m. — next week.

由破折号之间的解释内容,我们可以了解到“night shift”意思为“夜班”。

3、重述(restatement)

所谓重述是指作者用另外的词,短语或句子将前面已述及的内容再重述一下。根据重述内容,考生可将前面内容中的生词的意思猜测出来。

例一:Japan is now in recession. Its economic growth is slowing down, business profits are declining, and more and more people are out of work. 上例中第一句中的recession 一词的词意可以从该句后面的重述" 日本经济发展减慢,工商业利润滑坡,越来越多的人失业" 猜测出: "(经济) 衰退" 。

例二:Should the government regulate the cost of resources such as oil and gas? Some people do not believe that government control is the solution to the problem of the rising cost of fuel.

文中“regulate”的词义可猜测为与“government control”的意思相近。 例三:One of the predominant concerns today is the future of our natural resources. This issue is of greatest importance because it is becoming clear to many people that our present resources will not last forever.

文中“predominant”的词义可猜测为具有与“of greatest importance”相近的意思。

例四:Cleaning up waterways is an enormous task. The job is so large, in fact, that the government may not be able to save some of the rivers and lakes which have been polluted.

文中“enormous”的词义可猜测为与“so large”的意思相近。

4、举例(examples)

从such as,like ,for example,for instance等词后所列举的例子可以猜测出一些单词的词意。

例一:Doctors recommended that everyone exercise everyday,

particularly those who spend many hours doing sedentary activities like reading, typing, or sewing.

上例中的sedentary 一词的词意可以从like 后的具体例子reading ,

typing ,or sewing很容易猜测出来: "坐着的,需要(或习惯于) 久坐的" 。 例二:Some artists plan their paintings around geometric (几何学的,有几何图形的)forms like squares, circles and triangles.

如不知道geometric forms 的意思,可从文中所列举的三角形,正方形、圆形来猜得其意义为“几何图形”。

例三:Today young couples who are just starting their households often spend lots of their money on appliances for instance, washing machines, refrigerators and color televisions.

如不知道appliances 的意思,从文中的举例“washing-machines(洗衣机) ,refrigerator(冰箱) ,televisions(电视机)”可以猜得该词的意思为“家用电器”。

5、对比(contrast)

从表示对立或相反的信号词可以判断某些内容前后意思对立或截然相反。根据这一线索,考生可以从其中一个词猜测出另外一个词的意思。

例一:He is very dependable,but his brother is untrustworthy. 以上例句中的but 说明了两并列分句的意思截然相反。dependable 表示 "可靠的" ,那么untrustworthy 肯定是指" 不可靠的或不可信任的" 。

例二:American businessmen expect employees to be punctual. They do not expect that the workers will come late.

文中be punctual的意思,可理解为“not come late”,即“准时,不迟到”。

例三:Unlike her gregarious (爱交际的、合群的)sister, Jane is a shy person, who does not like to go to parties, or to make new friends.

根据文中“unlike...”的意思,可将gregarious 理解为与文中“a shy person who does not like to go to parties, or to make new friends.”相反的意思,即:表示“好交际的”。

6、构词法(word forming)

例一:They overestimate the interviewee's ability and asked him many difficult questions.

在overestimate 词中over-是前缀,意为“过分”。因此overestimate 的词义可以猜测为“过高估计”的意思。

例二:We were told that our's was the most spacious room in the hotel. That was why we had to pay so much for it.

Spacious 是由词根space(空间)+ious(形容词后缀) 构成。由此我们可以猜得其大概意思为“有空间的,宽敞的”。

7、其他相关信息(related information)

除了以上线索外,考生还可根据上下文内容中的其他一些相关信息,结合一些基本常识或背景知识来猜测一些生词的意思。

例一:Just before the exam,Bill's heart beat fast and his hands shook so much that he could not hold a pen.He really had a phobia(不正常或病态的惧怕)about taking tests.

根据常识可以推测,如果一个人在参加测试时 " 心跳加速,手颤抖得握不住笔" ,那么他肯定存有 " 恐惧" 心理。不难猜出phobia 的意思为 " 恐惧(心理)" 。 例二:The female mosquito is a vampire (吸血鬼、敲诈勒索者、吸血蝠) and lives on blood.

如不知道vampire 的词义,从下文lives on blood(靠吸血而生存) 则可得知其词义为吸血昆虫。

例三:The old man put on his spectacles and began to read.

如不知道spectacles 的词义,从下文“戴上‘spectacles’后开始阅读”可以猜得其词义“眼镜”。

8. 词根词缀法:详见所发材料

在阅读理解中要求判断词语意义的问题,通常有下列形式:

(1)According to the author, the word “...” means ___________ .

(2)By “...”the author means ___________ .

(3)Which of the following is nearest(closest)in meaning to “...”?

(4)The word “...”in the passage means ___________ .

(5)“...”is ___________ .

(6)The word “...” most likely means ___________ .

总之,总的方法应为:先读题干 原文定位 正确答案为前句,后句 或本句。翻开历年没MBA 考研英语试卷的阅读部分,考生首先应当掌握的最基本的应试总则可以概括为12个字:题干信息、圈点到位、重叠原文。事实上这12个字已经概括了阅读解题的全部过程。

万能模块(正反对比)

Why 、How 、Where 、When 等单词 ?(针对题目提问,把题目变成疑问句抄过来就好了) There is a general controversy nowadays as to the issue; some people claim that there are various advantages of ____. (随便说一方观点) They believe that _____. (写一个句子,阐述一下) Other people argue that the

disadvantages are more evident. Their belief is reinforced by _____(调查、图表等)which shows that about ____ percent of the _____s (学生、老人等,会什么词写什么词吧!) _______. _______. (再重复一次观点) Weighing the pros and cons of both sides, I am inclined to agree to the former (latter ) point of view.

The explanation for this phenomenon involves many complicated factors. In the first place, ______. (第一种情况,编一句吧)。A case in point is that ____. (举个例子,随便写) 。In the second place, _____. (第二种情况,再编) 。 For instance, ______. (还是举例子) 。 Last but not least, ______. (最后一种情况,仍然编)

Judging from all evidence offered we may reasonably arrive at the conclusion that ___ (作者观点)since _____.(综合一下上诉理由)

现象作文

Nowadays, with the development of economy and society, it is well known that there are more and more [某种现象] in [某种场合]. It is estimated that [相关数据]. Why have there been so many [某种现象]?

As far as I am concerned, maybe the reasons can be listed as follows. The first one is [原因一]. Besides, [原因二]. The third one is [原因三]. To sum up, the main cause of [某种现象] is due to [最主要原因].

Taking all the reasons into consideration, it is high time that something was done upon it. For one thing, we can [解决办法一]. On the other hand, we can[解决办法二]. If all these measures were taken in the right way , the number of [某种现象] will be certainly reduced\increased on a big scale.

图表作文

From the chart we can easily see that +现象作文