IELTS作文
初三 记叙文 7239字 55人浏览 Daniel2do

Cause and effect 因果关系

标志词

1) 表示原因的 because, as, since, due to, owing to (画横线的连接词请重点掌握)

2) 表示结果的 hence(因此),thus(因此),therefore(因此),As a consequence, „(作为结果)Accordingly „(相应的),As a result „(作为结果)Consequently „(作为结果) so „that „(如此„以致„)

E.g. The ecological problems are being aggravated. Hence, it is imperative that we take measures to curb the pollution of the environment.

生态系统正在急剧的恶化, 因此, 我们必须采取严厉的措施遏制对环境的污染.

Exemplification 举例关系

标志词„is a case in point.(某人或某事是一个恰当的例子.)Take „for example.(以„为例) for instance. (比如„) To Illustrate„(例如„) As an illustration„(作为例证„)

e.g. The Asian countries are getting westernized at a staggering rate. Take China for example, when youngsters go to the movies, it is standard practice for them to choose Hollywood blockbuster over domestic films.

亚洲国家正以一种惊人的速度变得西方化, 以中国为例, 当年轻人去电影院的时候, 通常都会选择好莱坞大片而不是中国电影.

Comparison and contrast 对比关系

标志词 While „,whereas „,whilst „,in contrast

e.g. Whereas/ while modern man is so rushed and so stressed, our ancestors could often perform their business in a relaxed manner.(对比)

现代人的生活是如此的奔忙与紧张, 而我们的祖先却可以不慌不忙的从事他们的事务.

e.g. The educational and medical facilities in big cities are mostly very advanced. In contrast, their counterparts in the country tend to be of inferior quality.

Concession 让步关系

标志词 Despite /in spite of „(后面只能跟名词名词词组或者动名词)(尽管有„),albeit „(尽管 , 后面只能跟形容词或者介词短语), 形容词+as it may be „(尽管, 前面只能加形容词),Nonetheless/Nevertheless,(尽管如此)

e.g. 1 Tough as it may be to get accustomed to a new culture, it will prove very rewarding. 尽管适应新的文化可能很难, 但这会被证明是很值得的.

Rote Learning is at times necessary, albeit monotonous.

死记硬背有时候是必要的, 尽管很枯燥和机械.

3The government plays a crucial role in scientific research, Nonetheless, private companies hold certain advantages in conducting scientific research.

Definition 下定义关系

标志词 A is best characterized by „( A 最明显的特征是„),A constitutes „(A 构成„) A means „, A consists of „(A 由„组成).

e.g. A fine journalist is best characterized by discipline, determination and keenobservations. 一个好的记者最重要的特点是自律, 毅力和敏锐的观察.

Animal experimentation, in some cases, constitutes callous abuse of test animals.

Supposition 假设论证,

标志词 provided that „(如果) given the choice „(如果可以选择的话„)only if „(只有„)as long as„(只要) if„, suppose that„

e.g. Provided that we can minimize the pain of test animals, animal experimentation should be continued.

e.g. Given the choice, many people would live in big cities rather than the countryside.

Modification 修饰关系

标志词 that, which, who

In this day age, we have a proliferation of buildings that look exactly like the buildings our ancestors built.

Today, teenage students are under increasingly severe stress in their studies, which has disturbed and alarmed many adults.

下是小作文中你一定用得到的句型精选:

1. 宾语从句

【解析】常用于写作的开头段,引出题目大意,俗称改写题目。(基础,必学!)

常用句型:The graph indicates/shows/illustrates„

【真题实例】(剑七-Test2)

The graph illustrates changes in the amounts of beef, lamb, chicken and fish consumed in a particular European country between 1979 and 2004.

【真题实例】(剑二-Test1)

The chart shows that the percentage of British households with a range of consumer

durables steadily increased between 1972 and 1983.

2. 形式主语从句

【解析】常用于描写一些特殊的细节和最大值等信息。(关键时刻,能提升不少字数。) 必备句型:It is interesting to note that / It is noticeable that

【真题实例】(剑五-Test2)

It is also interesting to note that almost all showed a decrease in 1994 in amount of goods transported except for the pipeline, which actually peaked in that year.

【真题实例】(剑四-Test1)

It is noticeable that for both types of household with children, a higher than average

proportion were living in poverty at this time.

3. there be句型:

【解析】常用于小作文中表示趋势或表示“有”或“存在”的意思。(非常万能的句型。)

【真题实例】(剑二-Test2)

There were no figures given for male part-time workers, but female part-time had forty

hours of leisure time, only slightly more than women in full-time employment, perhaps reflecting their work in the home.

【真题实例】(剑四-Test2)

There is a sharp rise in the next hour to reach its maximum before collapsing again to a lower level by the end of the day.

4. 倒装句:

【解析】常用于地图题表示某个方位有某样东西。(其实写起来真的不难,一看就懂。)

【真题实例】

In the west was a river running from north to south.

以下句型导入数据的时候一定用得到:

5. 被动句

【解析】常用于导入数据以及流程图。(当主语是物体的时候,可以考虑用被动。)

【真题实例】(剑七-Test4-Task1 Pie charts)

The remaining 40 units were produced largely from oil and nuclear power, with hydro contributing only 5 units.

【真题实例】(剑七-Test2-Task1 line graphs)

Lamb and chicken were eaten in similar quantities (around 150 grams), while much less fish was consumed (just over 50 grams).

【真题实例】(剑六-Test3)

The first is to select cocoons, which then are heated in boiled water.

6. 非谓语

【解析】A 超过B 的句型,一般用于后半句。

常用句型:overtaking/surpassing/exceeding

【范例】

The consumption of chicken, in the other hand, showed an upward trend, overtaking that of lamb in 1980 and that of beef in 1989.

7. 定语从句

【解析】导入数据。(非常好的增加内容,给出数据的写法。)

【真题实例】(剑三-Test4)

In March, 1993.United Stats had seven percent of their workforce which might not seen disastrous until compared with Japan, where 2.5% were unemployed.

【真题实例】(剑三-Test4)

Noticeably, the highest divorce rate was in 1980, when about 1.4 million divorces attracted the attention.

8. from„to „句型

【解析】常用于导入数据,表示从某一年份的数据上涨或表示下跌到某一个年份的数据。(描写动态图一定会用得到。)

【真题实例】(剑2–Test1)

The greatest increase was in telephone ownership, rising from 42% in 1972 to 77% in 1983.

9. 非谓语从句

【解析】常用于表示伴随,一般用来导入数据。(多从范文中积累。)

必备技巧:根据语境选动词。

【真题实例】(剑七-Test4)

But by 2000 nuclear power, which was not used at all in Australia, had developed into the main source, producing almost 75% of electricity, at 126 units.

【真题实例】(剑八-Test2)

Teachers’ pay remained the biggest cost, reaching 50% of total spending in 1991 and ending at 45% in 2001.

10. with表示伴随

【解析】常用于表示伴随,一般用来导入数据。(非常简单好用的结构。)

【真题实例】(剑八-Test1)

The impact of this on Oceania and North America was minimal, with only 1.7% and 0.2% of land affected respectively.

11. 括号的用法

【解析】常用于表示伴随,一般用来导入数据。(一定要学会的加分写法。)

【真题实例】(剑八-Test1)

Europe, with the highest overall percentage of land degraded(23%), also suffered from over-cultivation(7.7%) and over-grazing(5.5%).

以下句型在比较几个对象的时候一定用得到:

12. 倍数30 times less than

【解析】常用于比较,同时用到倍数。(注意语序,数字在前,than 在后。)

【真题实例】(剑五-Test4)

It only has 11 kilometres of route, which is more than 30 times less than that of London.

13. This was then followed by

【解析】常用于比较大小,可以跟在最大值后面。(很实用,高分范文中一般少不了它

们。)

【真题实例】(剑五-Test4)

This was then followed by the opening of the railway systems in Tokyo, Washington DC and Kyoto.

14. Next came+非谓语伴随(高分写法)

【解析】常用于后半句,引出第二大的对象,同时还可以结合非谓语伴随导入数据。(和上一个句型原理相同。)

【真题实例】(剑二-Test1)

Next came central heating ownership, rising from 37% of households in 1972 to 64% in 1983.

15. A>B句型

【解析】常用于比较大小,尤其是在静态图中的overview 位置。(静态图高频句型。)

【常用句型】was always larger than...

【真题实例】(剑六-Test4)

within the thirty years, the number of marriages was always larger than that (BTW: 注意加这个that) of divorces.

【真题实例】(剑四-Test4)

The county with the largest number of British tourists was France (around 11 million), followed by Spain (around 9.5 million).

16. while/whereas句型

【解析】常用于前后两个对象对比数据大小或趋势(只要对比,while 一般少不了。)

【真题实例】(剑七-Test2)

Lamp and chicken were eaten in similar quantities (around 150 grams), while/whereas such less fish was consumed (just over 50 grams).

综合运用:

17. With伴随+括号法+followed by

【解析】常用于静态图。先用with 简洁地引出最大值,然后括号法导入数据,再用followed by 引出对比的项目,然后再用括号简洁地导入数据。(当遇到最大值和第二大值比较的时候,可以参考此用法。)

【真题实例】(剑四-Test4)

The county with the largest number of British tourists was France (around 11 million), followed by Spain (around 9.5 million).