2011届高三英语读写任务作文专题突破---如何写概括
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1 2011届高三英语读写任务作文专题突破(1)---如何写概括

30个词的摘要怎么写?

Part I. 什么是摘要? detailed.

概括部分包含几种能力。第一要看清楚文章的结构,设法反映出原文中作者的观点。第二要具有意义筛选的能力,学会区分事实和观点、重要和次要、普遍与特殊、相关与不相关、原因和结果等复杂的逻辑关系。第三要有用英文解释英文的能力,用自己简单的语言解释比较复杂的语言文字,不能抄袭原文。

一、概括的标准:抛弃次要,瞄准写作目的。

标准的概括采用浮凸式的表达方式,第一句话是主题句,清楚明白地告诉了读者文章的写作目的,这句话的质量决定了概括的成败。后面的句子对主题句进行解释和支撑,凡是意义在主题之外的要毫不吝啬地予以删除。

二、概括的写作步骤:

1. 确定主题句。确定阅读文章的主题句,一般在段首。没有主题句的需要自己组合。

2. 寻找关键词。分析主题句意义,确定关键词,关键词一般体现为名词、形容词,关键词的数目决定了概括的信息浓度。

3. 重构主题句。概括的主题句逻辑上要统摄后面所有的支撑句。可以从作者的写作目的逆推,反映写作目的主题句是高度抽象的,它基本决定了概括的质量。

4. 重组支撑句。支撑句的意义在逻辑上受制于主题句,可以是补充过程或者提供证据。

口诀:简括为:缩长见短,省却细腻。(括:概括性。见:间接引语。短:短的连词。细腻:细节和例子)

1.完全糊涂地照抄原文,连人称都不改的,得0分;

2.机械死板地照抄原文,只改人称的,得1分;

3.稍微灵活地抄原文,改主语,宾语、原文词序的,得2分;

4.创造性地抄,改主语,宾语、原文词序还有句子结构的,最多得3分。

5.结构、用词,词性变化比较好的4至5分。

2 Part II. 写概括的具体方法

Ⅰ.The Steps of Writing a Summary

A. 定时态:如果阅读材料是过去时,那么基本时态用过去时;如果是现在的,那么基本时态用现在时;不过,模板的开头语一般为现在时如The passage B. 定人称:一般情况下采用第三人称来写作。(特殊如的,可能会使用第

一、二人称;)

C. 定技巧:结合相关技巧,重新组句。

1)Use words of similar meanings同义替换法

I didn’t catch any fish I didn’t catch any fish_________ I was not patient.

2)Adopt the opposite way when saying a sentence正话反说法

3)Change the part of speech词性转换法 _____________________ .

4)Change the structure of a sentence句式变化法

语态变换:Parents should give children more praise.

→Children should ________ more praise.

简单句变复合句:

Children should be encouraged more. This will help them learn faster.

Children should be encouraged more, _______ will help them learn faster..

5)Use the shortest possible transitions连词衔接法

注意使用一些短而精的连词,如but, and, so, while, however, then, yet, for, therefore, thus, including, instead of 等。

We should encourage children. We should not scold them.

We should encourage children__________ scolding them.

6) Change the order of the words.词序改变法

D. 下列是常规的实用技巧。

Skill1: Omit (省略) the details

Skill2: Omit the repetitions

Skill3: Omit the examples

Skill4: Use general(概括性) words instead of specific(具体的) words ) Skill5: Put the main points of a dialogue in indirect speech

写摘要时可以采用下列几种小技巧:

1) 删除细节。只保留主要观点。

2) 避免重复。在原文中,为了强调某个主题,可能会重复论证说明。但是这在摘要中是不能使用的。应该删除那些突出强调的重述句。

3) 删除具体例子。不过,阅读材料本身是由几个具体例子构成的,如阅读材料是谈西方种种节日的,如删除具体例子,则概括很难达到30个词,那就选择一至两个例子(即一两个主要节日)。注:原文中可能包括5个或更多的例子,你只需从中筛选一至二个例子。

3 4) 使用概括性的名词代替具体的词,比如:

“She brought home several Chinese and English novels, a few copies of Time and Newsweek and some textbooks. She intended to read all of them during the winter vocation.”

可以概括为:“She brought home a lot of books to read during the vocation.”

5) 把文章的对话或直接引语(的要点) 改成间接引语叙述。

6) 把长段的描述变成短小、简单的句子。如果材料中描述某人或某事用了十个句子,那么你只要把它们变成一两句即可。

7) 压缩长的句子。如下列两例:

“His courage in battle might without exaggeration be called lion-like.”

可以概括为: “He was very brave in battle.”

“He was hard up for money and was being pressed by his creditor.”

可以概括为:“He was in financial difficulties.”

8) 你还可以使用词组代替整句或者从句。

II. 练习篇---- 学以致用。(Task1: Please follow the example to choose the proper skill from the above ones.)

1,Then, you can think of a way to make both sides happy. Here are some tips

1)Make time to talk. You could talk about your school life and your plans for the future.

2)..Keep a diary. It can help you understand more about yourself and your feelings.

3). Show your parents you are growing up. Wash your own clothes and help around the house.

Which skill: ___________________________________________________

Summary:___________________________________________________________

2. Sometimes, kids don’t think their parents are fair to them. When you want to dress in a modern way, your mum doesn’t like you to wear a mini-skirt. When you are making phone calls to friends, they ask whether you’re

speaking to a boy or a girl.

Which skill: ___________________________________________________ Summary:

______________________________________________________________

3. Kate looked at Paul disapprovingly, “You use too much salt on your food, Paul. It’s not at all good for you!” Paul put down his knife and frowned, “Why on earth not! If you didn’t have salt on your food it would taste awful…like eating wood or sand…just imagine bread without salt in it!”

Which skill:___________________________________________________ Summary:______________________________________________________

4. She brought home several Chinese and English novels, a few copies of Time and Newsweek, and some textbooks. She intended to read all of them during the winter vacation.

4 Which skill: _____________________________________________________ Summary:

_____________________________________________________________ Ⅲ.Task2: find out how to summarize the whole passage

① 段意合并法 (说明文、应用文)

第一步, 通读全文, 领略大意;

第二步, 小结每一段的大意;

第三步, 根据每一段的大意以及作者的侧重点, 综合归纳全文的大意.

对于说明性或描述性短文,可以用概括性文字说明某一现象。比如,可以概括如下 “This article points out the common phenomenon…”

② 要素串联法(记叙文)

记叙文主要是记叙所发生的事情和经历。常见的形式有:故事、日记、新闻报道、游记等。记叙文通常要交待清楚五要素的内容,即where, when, what, who, how, 给读者一个内容完整、细节清晰的故事。事情的叙述通常按时间的顺序叙述,让读者易于把握所叙述内容之间的内在关联,我们必须抓住记叙文的写作特点或思路,从而更好地理解文章主题,概括出比较中肯的短文中心大意。

③ 主题概括法(议论文)

第一、找出关键词和全文或段落的主题句。任何一篇文章都是围绕某个主题展开的,因此,许多文章中最明显的特点之一是有一个反复出现的中心词,即高频词,也叫做主题词。抓住了它,便容易抓住文章的中心。一般地说,主题词通常是名词、动词或形容词。

第二、根据原文的词句(一般指关键词和全文或段落的主题句), 进行改写: 或用相应的同义词,或进行句型转换(如主动句改为被动句等等). 千万不要原封不动地抄写原文的词句.

第三、用连词连接各部分,使它连贯;

第四、整合中心要点,使用形容词、介词短语、非谓语动词短语合并、简化句子,使之符合概括短文内容要点的词数(30个词左右) 。

议论文通常用来讲明道理、议论是非、提出观点和看法。作者先正面或反面提出论点,然后用事实论证论点,最后以重申论点或提出建议的方式得出结论。议论文的主题句通常在首段或尾段,或者在各段的首句或尾句。

尽可能客观简要地转述阅读材料的观点。可以采用如下方法概括:The writer of this article thinks that… 或者你认为本材料的观点代表了一些人的思想,就可以说Some people think… 还可以从中立的角度或用“无人称”的方式来说The article gives the view that…

Exercise: Match the main idea with the proper skill.

5. It must have been about two in the morning when I returned home. I tried to wake up my wife by ringing the doorbell, but she was fast asleep, so I got a ladder from

5 the shed in the garden, put it against the wall, and began climbing towards the be droom window. I was almost there when a sarcastic voice below said, “I don’t think the windows need cleaning at this time of the night.” I looked down and nearly fell off the ladder when I saw a policeman. I immediately regretted answering in the way I did, but I said, “ I enjoy cleaning windows at night.”

“So do I,” answered the policeman in the same tone. “Excuse my interrupting you. I hate to interrupt a man when he’s busy working, but would you mind coming with me to the station?”

“Well, I’d prefer to stay here,” I said. “ You see, I’ve forgotten my key.” “Your what?” he called.

“My key,” I shouted.

Fortunately, the shouting woke up my wife who opened the window just as the policeman had started to climb towards me

Which skill: ____________________________

点拨:

1)这是一篇记叙文,请从原文中划出时间、地点、人物、事情的经过和结果。

2)填充下面所给的summary, 注意如何借用词法,语法简化句子。 Summary:

On arriving home __________ in the morning, the writer failed to wake up __________ by ringing the doorbell. He tried to _______________, but was found by _____________. Soon his shouting woke his wife.

6. Advertising can be a service to customers. This is true when advertisements give reliable information about the goods advertised. Such information is needed if the customer is to make a sensible choice when he buys something. It is useful in that it lets him know of the kinds of goods in the shops. Printed advertisements do this job best. Customers can collect them and compare them. They can be taken along to the shops and their statements can be checked against and actual goods in the shops.

Some advertisements are not very useful to the customers. Instead of helping the customer to satisfy his real needs, they set out to make him want things. They set out to make us believe that what they advertise will make us cleverer, prettier, more handsome, if only we use it. The voice on TV says, “ Getaway people use XYZ petrol.” The screen shows a picture of petrol pump for a fast expensive car owned by a boy with a pretty girlfriend. They drive off to the wonderful country or a lovely beach. Some people may feel that clever, successful people use XYZ petrol. Some might choose that petrol every time they fill up their cars.

Skill: _______________________

Summary:

6 7..Students should think now about what extracurricular (课外的) activities they'd like to participate in. Participating in extracurricular activities may help you deepen your physical, creative, social, political, and career interests by bringing you into communication with other like-minded people you didn’t previously know.

You can join groups as a way to get support from other students. A club or group can also be a great way to meet people who are different from you. Lots of youth programs bring people together with those who are different as a way to break down the barriers between people.

Participating in extracurricular activities helps you in other ways, too. It looks good on college and job applications and shows admissions officers and employers you're well-rounded and responsible. Specific activities help with specific goals.

The most basic reason for joining a club or team is that it gives you something better to do than staring at the wall, wandering the hall, or sleeping all afternoon. People who are participating are less likely to pick up bad habits, like smoking or drinking. Skill: ______________________________________

Summary:

Ⅳ. 积累模板Some Summary Models for You

要注意归纳和积累summary 中常用的句式或模板。

A. 如议论文的概要通常可以如此开头:

The essay/passage/author highlights the importance of encouragement for students. The essay/passage/author argues in support of …, stating that …

The essay/passage/author argues that we must not only value those who come first or are the best in any field but the others whose effort push them to success. The essay/passage/author discusses the impact of email.

The essay/passage/author compares friendship with the comfort of home. The essay/passage/author outlines the harmful effects of smoking.

B. 而记叙文的概要则可以从以下模板中选择:

The passage/story is about a misunderstanding between a student and a teacher. The author tells us a story about a ________.

The passage is a story about ________.

According to the passage, the hero in the story ________.

C. 通用型模板:

This article is mainly about…

The writer states that…

As can be learn this passage, - - -

T he passage says that…

In this passage, the writer mainly tells us his experience of

7 另外,更具体一点:

(1) 记叙文概要模板

a. 点明写作目的类:

The writer tells us…(主题)by showing us an example of…, who/which…(故事情节).

b. 作者经历类:

In the passage, the writer mainly tells us his

experience of doing sth, which……

c. 他人经历类:

This passage is mainly about sb’s experience of doing sth…..

(2) 议论文概要模板

The article gives the view that…

should/shouldn’t…(主题).

…..(补充论据).

The passage highlights(强调) the importance of sth…..

The author argues that…

(3) 说明文概要模板

a. 现象揭示类:

This article …(主题), which…..(补充解释).

b. 利弊对比类:

The article compares the disadvantages/ benefits of A and B. A…while B… The passage discusses the impact(影响)of sth. On the positive s ide…, but it may also….

c. 研究显示类:

The study reveals(揭露) that…

The purpose of the report is tothat…

Part III. 概括大意时应注意的几个事项

1. 不可忽略, 忘记写. 概括要点占5分.

2. 不可一字不漏地完全照抄原文.( 但可以灵活地抄,特别对基础差的同学)

3. 不可加入自己的观点. 必须忠于原文、忠于作者.

4. 不要概括太广,缺乏针对性,也不要只针对原文某个细节太狭窄.

5. 不要用列举、描绘性语言当成概括性语言.

6. 不要只用一个简单句来概括. 或写得太多句子(单词)。

7. 要注意文体特征. 文体不同, 概括的方式也不同.

8.

9.,注意概括和下文构成一个不可分隔、完整的文章。

8 附:练习参考答案:

I. “定技巧:结合相关技巧,重新组句。”练习

1) because 2) not succeed 4) be given; which 5) instead of

II. 练习篇---- 学以致用。

1.Skill1: Omit the details

There are some tips for children to follow so that they can get on well with their parents.

2. Skill2: Omit the examples.

It is quite natural that we children look at the same problem differently from our parents.

3. Skill4: Put the main points of a dialogue in indirect speech.

Kate suggested that Paul should eat less salt. But Paul disagreed. He said that food without salt would be tasteless.

4. Skill3: Use general(概括性) words instead of specific (具体的) words. She brought home a lot of books and magazines to read during the vacation.

5. Summary: On arriving home at in the morning, the writer failed to wake upby the doorbell. He tried to , but was found by . Soon his shouting woke his wife.(40 words)

6. Skill: ①段意合并法 (topic sentences or key words,if no topic sentences)

Summary: Advertising can be useful when it provides customers with reliable information ,while some advertisements are not the case as they are produced only to persuade customers to buy what they don’t need.(31 words)

7. 主题概括法(适合于议论文)

Summary: The author (The passage) discussed the benefit of extracurricular activities including being a way to improve students’ health, widen their social circle and introduce them to new ideas and people. (30 words)

教师寄语:

对于成绩较差的同学来说,可能对概括感到无从下手,下面我就介绍一个秘诀:主题预测材料写好概括

读写任务的写作内容一般分为两个部分,即写作内容1为概括短文要点,还有写作内容2 则是就某个主题发表看法。然而,绝大部分的考生会忽略了写作内容2对写作内容1的导航作用,而一头扎进了阅读材料直接去阅读文章得出要点。事实上, 所谓“读写任务”其实是“读”和“写”的有机结合,“读”的材料是为了后面的“写”提供情景,同样, “写”也是对“读”的材料的思考和延伸。故希望大家在概括文章时,可考虑命题人提供的写作内容2的导航作用,因为它能够帮助大家更快地提高捕捉文章要点的速度与准确性。