孙远笔记 GRE作文
初二 记叙文 20922字 456人浏览 MAIIIKO

第一天 6.17

两篇作文:

一、Analysis of an Issue (perspective 观点) 分析要 evidence reasoning , objective

二、二者择其一

Take a position and supported 立论,确定立场并支持

Analysis of an argument => critique your argument 批判、批驳

要求:

1.articulately express your idea clearly and complicatedly

2.examine claims and company evidence

3.support idea with relevant examples

4.sustain a well focus coherent discussions

5.control the element of standard of English

题库:共249题

安排: 1-3讲 argument

4-6讲 Issue

侧重 analytical thinking, 语言次之

4分够用,5分有竞争优势

[Argument]

----策略:

1. 掌握分析技巧

2. 掌握开头和结尾的module

3. 准备每道题的提纲 (chance favors only the prepared minds)

4. 学用一些闪光句型

5. 熟读argument 题目

----审题:

论述包括: 论点claim (信号词: therefore,so,thus,consequently) 支持support ---- evidence: examples,facts,statistics,authorities

-----reasons: assumptions, values,beliefs

----验证逻辑 critique logic

survey ----quantity , quality(random) 包括 1.分组group 分为几个sub group

2.pecentage of each sub

3.select sample 取样

procedure 有没有sample 或人被排除在外

how large was the sample ?

Are the statistics complete ?

Different: Do the statistics make a difference ? 数据重要么?

闪光句型:

1. the assumption that … is open to doubt/ unreliable /unfounded / groundless / unwarranted

2. the arguer commits a fallacy of …

3. the arguer fails to establish a causal relationship between A and B

4. the result of the survey lacks credibility and therefore does not lend strong support to the arguer’s assumption.

5. the arguer fails to convince us that … contribute to / lead to / result in …

6. the comparison between A and B is incomplete

7. it is possible / likely that …

第二天 6.19

一、写作步骤:

1. skim the question and write the introduction

2. input the topic sentence. 找出问题所在,一个问题一句话

3. develop the body paragraphs one by one. 逐一展开问题段落,按重要性递 减的规律展开

4. conclusion(略)

5. checking

二、开头段的写作:

找出原论证的结论或主张,指出原论证的论据和假设,指出原论证的逻辑错误。 忠实的保留原始信息。 用自己的词保留原始信息。

In this argument / analysis, the arguer concludes / claims that…..To

support / justify the conclusion , the arguer points out / provides the evidence that …and that… In addition , the arguer reasons (推理) that ….. This

argument suffers from several critical fallacies / flaws.

三、SURVEY 问题:

1. vague => misleading (majority, percent, base number, few, many)

2. question: what questions will ask in the survey?

Loaded questions 有误导性的问题

3. Who

4. Average 平均数不适合于每个成员

5. Confusing causal relationship with correlation 混淆因果关系与相关性

Every causal relationship implies a correlation, but the statistical correlation does not necessarily implies a causal relation.

6. When was the survey conducted?

7. Are respondents (授调查者) being forthright (直率,说真话) ?

Image men / essence men

闪光句型:

1. the arguer over simplifies the issue of…

2. the arguer unfairly assumes that…

3. the arguer fails take into account other factors that …

4. the procedure of the survey might be problematic.

第三天 6.21

正文写作

一、 段数量:2~4段之间,一段含4~8个句子

二、 TOPIC SENTENCE 内参4页

三、 过渡句,承上启下

.. first… second…. Third….

.. In the first place… in the second place… last but not least… .. The major problem with this argument is that…

Another problem that weakens/ undermines (削弱) the logic of this argument is that…

Before I come to my conclusion, it is necessary to point out another flaw (several other flaws) that undermines the argument.

四、 攻击的方法:

例证法: for example / instance

假设法: if, even if , given that (考虑到) ,granted that (姑且承认) only when (只有当) ,unless , in this / that case , even so Unless the arguer provides substantial evidence regarding / concerning / as to …, the assumption that … is unfounded / problematic / unconvincing …

推测法: it is possible that … , it is equally possible that … , another

possibility is that … , it is also likely that …

possibly , perhaps

五、 运用闪光句型增加文采: P 88

六、 数据的问题:

1. Begging the question 把有待证实的关键性假设当作已经成立 Circular reasoning 循环论证 P35 2 , P44 37, P53 73

2. Fallacy of missing evidence

Hasty generalization 急于概括

Neglect a relevant evidence 忽略相关证据

P51 66 , P48 56

3. False analogy 只看到表层差异,而忽略深层差异

P63 112 , P42 29

4. False dilemma / either or fallacy 非此即彼的错误

P59 96 , P43 34

5. Non sequitor => non causal relationship

P50 62 , P52 70

闪光句型:

In the absence of all this information, it is impossible for us to evaluate … that…

However, the arguer fails to provide any information regarding … It is very likely that …

第四天 6.24

6. post hoc , ergo prepter hoc = after this , therefore because of this

P46 47 , P55 81

7. concurrence P36 5 , P50 61

8. incomplete comparison or selective comparison P54 78

9. composition and division

composition: 把个体特征不恰当的移植到整体上

division: 把群体特征简单的移植到个体上

P48 55

最后段的写作:

两项任务:

1. 指出原论者未能有效的支持自己的结论

2. 指出原论者可以从正文分析的几个方面加强原论证。

针对正文几个topic sentence 作者应在这几个方面加强

Module: p75-p79

Issue (是非问题)

Strategy: P67

选题:

构思:brainstorm

开头:陈述问题背景,指出自己论点

正文:2~3 段,分别支持自己立场

1. 每段要有一个主题

2. 展开论述

3. 复杂性,让步,修正

4. 使用信号词

结尾:

语言问题: check P68

Brainstorm 快速构思

1. 从大脑里调出尽可能多的相关信息

2. 充分relax

3. 快速记忆

Issue 的典型立场

Agree P104 3

Disagree P108 47

闪光句型:----结论

1. to sum up, the conclusion lacks credibility cause the evidence cited in the

analysis does not lend strong support to what the arguer maintains. To

strengthen the argument, the arguer would have to provide more evidence

concerning …

2. moreover, it would be necessary for the arguer to rule out all the

above-mentioned possibilities before we can better evaluate the argument.

3. As it stands, the argument is not well reasoned. To make it logically

acceptable, the arguer would have to demonstrate that …

4. additionally, the arguer must provide evidence to rule out other possible

causes …

5. To conclude, this argument is not persuasive as it stands. Before we accept

the conclusion, the arguer must present more facts to demonstrate that …

6. To solidify the argument, the arguer would have to produce more evidence

concerning …

7. In summary, the conclusion reached in this argument is invalid and

misleading. To make the argument more convincing, the arguer would have

to prove that …

8. Moreover, I would suspend (推迟) my judgment about the credibility of the

recommendation until the arguer can provide concrete evidence that … 第五天 6.28

一、Issue 的典型立场

1. Agree P104 3

2. Disagree P108 47

3. Agree with concession P105 16

4. Disagree with concession P107 34

5. Refuse to take sides 拒绝站在任何一边 case by case attitude P111 73

二、典型结构 typical organizations

1. I. Introducion P293

II. support1

III. support2

IV. support3

V. conclusion

句型: In the first place / to begin with

In the second place / in addition

Last but not least / Moreover / furthermore / what’s more

2. I. support1 正 P217

II. support2 正

III. concession 反

句型: In the first place …

in the second place …

Admittedly / however , it should be admitted (confessed) that / however, there is no denying that…

3. I. Introducion P283

II. Side A

III. Side B

IV. Conclusion

4. 反驳式: 逐一反驳对方理由

Refute 1

Refute 2

Refute 3

Conclusion

I. Many people may sincerely believe that… , However, one does not have to go very far to see that …

II. Some people may also take for granted that (理所当然地认 为) … Yet careful examination would review that …

III. Another misconception that many people may hold is that … But what they feel notice is that …

三、开头的策略:

.. 应能抓住读者的注意力和好奇心

.. 注意开头明确提出主张

1. 描述背景并提出立场 P68

2. 首先陈述相冲突的观点,然后提出自己的主张 P71

3. 先用问句提出问题,然后提出在这个问题上的典型主张(可提可不提),最后 说自己的观点 P72

4. 讲述一段轶文(anecdote )趣事 P70

5. 先提出典型反对派立场,然后简要驳斥,最后提自己主张 P260

6. 先提出自己主张,然后简要陈述自己的基本理由 P255

闪光句型:

According to the title statement, … while I agree that … I insist that …/ it is natural that…

It is natural that people may disagree over such a controversial issue due to their different experiences and values. On balance , I an inclined to support (<-> oppose ) the idea that ..

There is a growing public concern over the issue of … The speaker in the title statement advocates that …. In the last analysis, I argue that…

四、how to support your claim 正文论证

1. inductive reasoning 逻辑推理 具体 .. 一般

1) facts and examples: P282 P 219

句型:For example / instance, To illustrate , As an illustration. There

is evidence that …

2) statistics : P 98-100

3) authorities or quotations :

句型:

Professor / or … , a well-known / influential scholar of …

In china said , “… ”

第六天 7.1

四、how to support your claim 正文论证

4)anecdotes, cases, stories P256

句型: a case in point is … ABC serves as a typical example.

5) Personal experience P192

6) Scenarios 假设

可能发生的事情,可作为一种依据 P70

Imagine / Suppose that …

7) Analogy P269

句型:similarly , likewise , in the same way / manner

2. Deductive Reasoning 演绎推理 P30 P6 内参

五、结尾段的写作:

1. restate your position P71

句型: P101

2. restate your position and summarize your reasons P285

3. restate your position and extand your argument

建议,号召,展望 P70. 72. 73

句型:In conclusion, I hold that … not only because that …, but also

because …

.. 语言方面技巧:

1. 使用高分词汇

情态动词: could, would, might, can, may, will

程度副词: 肯定 certainly, naturally, obviously, understandably,

undoubtedly, plainly

可能性 possibly, probably, potentially, likely, presumably.

信号词: P155

分析性词汇:

in the case, given that (考虑到…), granted that (姑且承认), actually, as

a matter of fact, admittedly, to some extent, in a sense, in

the last analysis, on balance.

2. 正规语言与非正规 P161

3. 句式的变化 P170

1) 使用不同的句子结构

2) 变换相邻句子的开头结构

4. 复杂句式 P6 内参

.. 备考建议

1. 熟悉每道题及其提纲

充实论据(讨论、看书、工具箱),补充或重写

2. 背诵——工具箱

3. 模拟训练 issue, argument 各写 20 篇 GRE 出国考试写作指导:网友整理写作素材

来源:考试大 2007/9/11 【考试大:中国教育考试第一门户】 模拟考场 视频课程

被精简之后再精简的issue 材料,都是我考g 时候总结出的最后背诵版,分两个部分:一个是分类的重要词条;另一个是一些短小的例子资料部分来源于孙远,还有其他一些下载的资料的综合,基本上够用了。分类如下:

一. 教育类

1 教育的目的和作用:Transmitting democratic values; create equality of opportunity; preparing new generations of citizens in society. 2 教育之生活技能:

Logical thinking; analysis; creative problem solving; synthesis; oral communication; writing communication; interpersonal; leadership 3 道德教育

Honesty; fairness; self-discipline; fidelity to task, friends and family; personal responsibility; love of a country; belief in the principles of liberty; equality and freedom to practice one’s faith

4 人文教育

an ability to synthesize and relate; to weigh cause and effect; to see events in perspective; how to read, write and think;

speak intelligently; get along with others; conceptualize problems 5 填鸭教育

二. 科技类

1 带来landfill: outdated devices, discarded chemicals, plastic packaging

2 带来out of work: automation contribute to out of work; the development of computers and transistors and the accompanying trend toward miniaturization

3 坏处:automobile exhausts, pesticides such as DDT threaten the food chain, mineral wastes pollute reservoirs of groundwater

4 好处:telecomuniting: because of the side effect relatively inferior, improve productivity, develop quantity management, reduce labor resourcefulness

5 双面性:as medicine both have side effect; however, people could not reject to receive them with more benefits

6 事例:国防军备,基因治疗疾病,机器人的工业用途,全球化;事业,个人隐私,伦理,社会不平等,文化落后,文化殖民,温室效应,饮水质量数量,灌溉用水,工业用水,发电,渔业,化学泄漏,核泄漏导致死亡,疾病

三. 竞争类

1 竞争的好处:in business: 电脑更先进,通讯更发达,价格更低;其他:挑战人类极限,促进学习,使社会民主

2 合作的好处:例子如篮球,建筑,修路;坏处:失去竞争;过度:合作垄断,固定价格失去竞争的spirit ,如美国人就不允许政府operate 以免失去competition

3 合作竞争:co-opetition, a combination of cooperation and competition, is the delicate balance of cooperation and competition.

四. 社会问题

1贫穷:由产于物产见得conflict ,class discrimination and unequal opportunities, the social welfare system and affirmative action. 2 种族歧视:power and wealth 分不均造成的:个人自由,公民自由,权威的滥用;经济机会,社会活动,文盲,失业,无家可归,疾病。种族纯优化,种族隔离,制度不平等

3 反社会问题:犯罪,暴力,drugs, criminal justice system, 家庭不稳定,家庭暴力,学业不好,媒体影响,离婚

4 性别歧视:工作地方,职业,工资,教育

5 医疗健康问题:器官移植,基因治疗,安乐死化学潜在的危害、治病,消除饥饿

6 能源问题:污染—health risks, acid rain ,global warming, renewable

五 政治类

1 目的:产生,保持,扩大wealth, prosperity influence

2 道德与政治的异同:

similarity: regulate or direct human behavior, 程度不同

二者界限模糊,取决于社会矛盾,政治目标,道德可以政治化,政治可以道德化

五. 丑闻

Franklin Roosevelt, Dwight Eisenhower, Lyndon Thomson and John Kennedy had extramarital affairs. Thomas Jefferson, many

believe, fathered children, by one of his slaves. And Grover Cleveland confessed to having an illigitionate child.

六. 企业文化的重要性:

1 Leader 作道德榜样,让员工更忠心,以企业为荣

2 是吸引和留住人才的因素,建设文化组织让员工自我实现

3 对CEO 要求:建设文化,鼓励负责的行为,解除劳动潜力

4 好的企业文化:保证稳定以致,更让人尊敬,信任,不建立信任将被所有人拒绝

七. 历史类

1 Lesson of courage, diligence, 积极抗争

2 预测未来:像过去学习,不要觉得好笑或有优越感,而要理解人们想象和梦想明天的动机。这有个很好的名人名言:Machiavelli, an Italian

philosop her, wrote: “whoever wishes to foresee the future must consult the past, for human events ever resemble those of preceding times.” 3 预测模式:根据过去发生的事与将来相似的过去因素对未来的影响,延续历史

八. 艺术类

可能这类事很多人最惧怕的,但是我看了下面这篇文章之后就很想考到的是艺术类,文章来自于《新东方英语》(不好意思,那本书暂时找不到了,等找到不上来。)

以上的字眼有完整的小段,建议可以参照下面的写法,不要背诵,毕竟那不是自己的东西。

The purpose of education is to transmit democratic values, create equality of opportunity, and prepare new generation of citizens in society.

Everyone should be taught life skills as analysis, logical thinking, synthesis, and creative problem solving rather than

just knowledge which are more important for people to survive freely in the complex and rapid change.

We should want all students to know and to make their own: honesty, fairness, fidelity to task, friends, and family, personal

responsibility, love their country, and belief in the principles of liberty, equality and the freedom to practice one’s faith.

To study history and classics is to teach students the ability to synthesize and relate, to weigh cause and effect, to see events in perspective

Liberal art teaches you how to think, write, and speak intelligently, get along with others, and conceptualize problems.

Students are being so stuffed indigestible mass of material that they have no time to draw on his own resources,"

to use their own minds for analyzing and synthesizing and evaluating this material

Art is a kind of release of individual lust, converting the human libido into plentiful creativity. It is through the "

work of art that artists can express their passions, emotions, and desires. Art is concerning with the inner

world rather than with the outside one as a whole.

Beethoven, one of the greatest composers and musicians, was renowned by creating many symphonies.

Astonishingly, he produced his most famous symphony, chorus with complete deafness. How could he manage

it? It not only has to be the prominent imagination that stimulate him to struggle and thrive, thus can even

listen in spite of no hearings, but more important, determines his keen interest in music.

Monet, throughout his lifetime, always obtained no acclaim and reward and suffered in poverty however,

he, finally, gain the respect of everyone. Nowadays, people understand his impressive painting sunrise and affirm its value.

Art also can reflect problems and phenomenon of a society. Take van Gogh as an example. The painting,

one of his most famous works called potato eaters reflect the misery and poverty of humanity as he saw it among the miners in Belgium

Automation trade-off technological advancement has both positive effects which enhance production efficiency

and quality control, reduce the need to have workers perform potentially dangerous tasks and negative effects

such as landfills with outdated devices, discarded chemicals, and plastic packaging, make many jobs unnecessary

so that put employees out of work or force them to retrain.

The complex and rapidly developed society encourage competition so that in many aspects, people can gain several

benefits. In business, for the sake of survival in competition, companies must continue to improve the quality of

services and products, and as a result, the entire society prospers, at least economically.

By the development of technology, during the past decades, all of good things happen because of only competition,

including a computer shrinking in size, increasing in power, reducing in price, and a rapid expansion of telecommunications networking in a declining price.

The Olympic Game is a form of competition break up records to challenge human limits, gotten along with each

other country to improve friendship and peace

Competition can not make everyone win challenges as a win-win situation. On the other word, cooperation is

the only driving force that will make every participant a winner. In this super-modern world, tasks are more complex

and there are more specialists. In an orchestra, in the office, in the school, in the lab to study, in the creation of a film,

and on many jobs, we know that we have to work in teams.

Poverty is an outcome of longstanding conflict between haves and have-nots and a structural arrangement of inequality,

thus, the poverty is perpetuated through class discrimination and unequal opportunities for upward mobility. Indeed,

the modern society has strived to improve people’s lives by establishing the social welfare system and performing some other affirmative actions.

Imbalances in the distribution of power-the loss of personal freedoms and civil liberties, and abuses of authority lead people to dissatisfy.

Imbalance in the distribution of wealth —the loss of economic opportunity and social mobility, the creation of a

permanent underclass, and conditions of illiteracy, unemployment, homelessness, hunger, and disease contribute people to crime.

Racial discrimination such as racial purity or superiority, stereotyping and labeling, physical and social segregation,

institutionalized inequality need to be eliminated through global education which gathers students who come from

different countries together to learn the same courses in which teachers instruct students fairness, honesty, love the

world and every committees, fidelity to tasks, friends and „.

Family problems: family instability, divorce and child custody, spouse and child abuse, gender issues, gay and lesbian

families, reproductive technology, adoption, and abortion.

Gene problems: the bioethics of transplants, genetic screening, gene therapies. Genetic engineering can be used to

many aspects of human life better such as reduce the amount of potentially dangerous chemical substances, cure

diseases at the DNA level, and improve the possibility of ending worldwide poverty and starvation.

Pollution not only affects human beings’ lives but also destroy the environment in which many other specials live.

Chemical leak kill several people. Pose health risks and contribute to acid rain and global warming.

A politician’s job is to build, maintain, and expand the wealth,

prosperity and political influence of his nation; district, county, state or what have you.

Both morality and politics (law) serve to regulate or direct human behavior. They differ, however, in the

strength of their regulation and demand different, though related, personal qualities.

The boundaries between morality and politics are very flexible. In some periods particular relations can be

regulated by moral mechanisms, which in some other periods are ruled by political ones. the interaction

between morality and politics depends on the particular social contradictions and objective possibilities

of achieving class, state and national goals by acting in accordance with, or neglecting, respective moral values and norms.

When the political theory, ideology and practice come into sharp contradiction with the morality of the people,

they lose efficacy and in the end are doomed to failure. Therefore, every political theory, ideology and practice

seeks moral justification and arguments in order to be accepted by the masses.

Leaders need to establish an organization culture and are responsible for reputation management of their

companies, governments and groups. As role models of values-based leadership, they can win loyalty and

superior performance of their employees. The organization culture as the distinctive competitive factor will

be the ability to attract and retain the most talented people and obtain personal fulfillment.

History as a mirror is used to represent a study of the past —a study not only of great heroes of history who

successfully worked through moral dilemmas, but also of many ordinary people who provided lessons in courage, diligence, or constructive protest.

Machiavelli, an Italian philosopher wrote: “whoever wishes to foresee the future must consult the past; for

human events ever resemble those of preceding times.”

以下就是一些例子:

1 交叉学科的例子(一个网友写了给我的):

In 1994, John Nash, the renowned mathematician in 20th century, shared the Nobel Prize with two co-winners

who were also mathematicians. However, they were awarded in Economic

Sciences rather than their own academic

field-mathematics. Nash’s work on game theory, including the Nash equilibrium and the Nash arbitration scheme has

allowed researchers to better understand problems of competition and cooperation among agents or players. His and

his co-winners’ finding had a phenomenal impact on economic analysis and appreciations in many other fields including

in political science, biology, ecology, etc.

2 学术丑闻:

Hwang woo-suk, the former professor of Seoul National University in Korea, made headlines last year when he unveiled

the first cloned human embryo. The work marked the start of what many scientists believed would be a revolution. However,

not very sooner, Hwang was forced to admit that he had lied. Not only did he use eggs donated by his female staff, but also

fabricated cell lines and concocted DNA tests. This incident has sent shock waves around the scientific world, and the ethics

of scientists was also raised upon the table.