鹦鹉作文s
四年级 说明文 32767字 1371人浏览 notllll

The Positive and Negative Aspects of Sports

1. 体育运动的好处.

2. 体育运动可能带来的副作用.

3. 我参加体育运动的体会.

范文:

To a Chinese, the task of learning English well is not easy. So I, like many other English learners, have met with difficulties in learning English durin g the past seven years. But I managed to overcome t hem and made much progress.

The spelling and meaning of words can be said to be the first difficulty I met as a beginner. But I found our my own way to deal with them. As to spelling, I never copied a new work again and again to remember it, but tried to find its relevance to the sound. In fact, as long as I can read the word out, I can write it out. As to the meaning, I rarely recite its Chinese translation but often put the word into the sentence to learn its meaning. Moreover, if you use a word quite often, its spelling and meaning wi ll be no problem. After all, we are learning English in order to use it.

Grammar and idioms may be another difficulty. But I have also got over it. I have not read lots o f grammar books. But I spent much time reading the articles written by native speakers or specialists in English. By doing so, I came to gain “a sense of En glish language”. I began to gain a feel for which s entences are “good English” and which are not.

Finally, I want to say that overcoming all these difficulties requires perseverance. In the past seven years I spent at least an hour on English each day. I believe this is an important reason why I am abl e to make progress in learning English.

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic My Most Favo rite Programme. You should write no less than 100 words and you should base your composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below:

1.我最喜爱的电视(或无线电)节目是……

2.这类节目的内容和特点

3.我喜欢它的原因

My Most Favorite Programme

范文:

The News Report has always been my favorite TV program. Almost everyday I turn on the TV at 6:30 p.m. and wait for the news program. This has become a part of my life.

The News Report contains a large amount of information C from the international political situation to the latest foot-ball game. And the most important character is its fast pace. Because of this fast pace, news programs can contain much information in a short time.

In my opinion, the News Report is more than a TV program. It is a way of communication. From this program, people can know and understand world affairs. The world thus becomes smaller and small er. I especially appreciate this benefit of watching the news.

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic The World Is Getting Smaller and Smaller. You should write at least 100 words and you should base your composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below:

1. 现代的交通工具越来越发达

2. 人与人之间的交往越来越频繁

3. 结论

The World Is Getting Smaller and Smaller

范文:

Most of us have had an experience which reminds us the world is getting smaller. Perhaps when y ou went to some place far away from the city you live in and thought you knew nobody there, you wer e surprised to find that you ran into one of your old classmates on the street! Then both of you cried o ut, “What a small world!”

Why is the world getting smaller and smaller? For one thing, modern technology has created variou s means of transportation. And they are more and more available. Buses, trains, planes and taxis are fou nd in most cities of the world. They carry goods and passengers to and from every corner of the world.

For another thing, with the development of modern society, people are in contact with one another mor e frequently. Everyday we must deal with a lot of people unknown to us before. The more advanced a s ociety, the more contacts we make with others.

So we can draw the conclusion that as long as technology makes progress, the world will grow sm aller and smaller.

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic Can Money B uy Happiness?

You should write no less than 100 words and you should base your composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below:

1. 有人认为金钱是幸福之本(source of happiness )

2. 也有人认为金钱是万恶之源(root of all evil )

3. 我的看法

Can Money Buy Happiness?

范文:

Can money buy happiness? Various people have various answers. Some people think that money is the source of happiness. With money, one can buy whatever he enjoys. With money, one can do whate ver he likes. So, in their minds, money can bring comfort, security, and so on. Money, as they think, is the source of happiness.

But there are still a lot of others who think that money is the root of all evil. Money drives peopl e to steal, to rob, and to break the law. A lot of people became criminals just because they were in sea rch of money. And in the Western countries, there is nothing that can 't be bought by money. Many pe ople lose their own lives when hunting it.

I think that money is essential to life and we cannot do without money. But even though money is necessary to life, it can 't buy happiness. Happiness is not something that can be measured by money. It is a state of mind. One can have plenty of money, with which he can buy whatever he wants, and at the same time he is not happy because he is never satisfied or he is troubled by various kinds of probl ems. Therefore, although money is necessary for a happy life, it can 't buy happiness.

私家车

Nowadays more and more families own private cars. Private cars, as the product of modem civilization, have been playing a vital role in people's daily activities. First, private cars are a convenient means of t ransportation. You can go wherever you like. Secondly, there is no doubt that private cars will have a gr eat impact on the economic growth. The rapid car industry growth will contribute much to keeping the c ountry's economy growing at a higher rate in the near futrue.

But every coin has two sides. The development of the private cars will bring about a series of proble ms. For example, the polluted air given off by cars will do great harm to our health, too many private c ars will lead to traffic jams and a great deal of energy will be wasted and so on.

So I think we should take advantages of private cars and make them serve us better. Meantime we h ope that satisfactory solutions to these negative problems will be found soon.

现在,越来越多的家庭拥有私家车。私家车作为现代文明的产物,在人们日常生活中扮演了重要的角色。首先,私家车是很方便的交通工具,你可以开车到处跑;其次,毫无疑问私家车对经,济的增长起到很大的作用。在不远的将来,快速发展的汽车工业在保持国家以较高速度的增长方面将做出很大的贡献。 当然,任何事物都有其两面性。快速发展的私家车会导致一系列问题。例如,汽车排出的废气对人体有很大的伤害,太多的私家车会导致交通阻塞,很多能源被浪费等。

所以我认为我们.应当充分利用私家车的优势,更好地为我们服务。同时,我们也希望不久这些消极的问题将会得到圆满的解决。

Nowadays more and more private cars have entered thousands of ordinary families. Privatecars are us ed every day to carry i people to and from work. At weekends, private cars take families on joyful outi ngs. Most of people living in the city like private cars very much. What is more, the development of th e car industry will stimulate other industries, such as iron and steel production. So the private car benefit s the growth of economy.

Private cars, like everything else, have more than one face. Private cars have also given rise to a ser ies of problems. For example, the street are crowded with cars. They not only cause traffic accidents wh ich injure or kill a large number of people each year, but also make great noise and give off many pois onous gases. But I believe we can solve all of the problems in the near futrue.

现在越来越多的私家车进入了普通家庭。人们每天开着私家车上下班。周末,私家车可以载着家人出门愉快地郊游。城市的人们大多数都非常喜欢私家车。更重要的是汽车工业的发展会刺激钢铁等其它行业的发展。因此,私家车有利于经济增长。

像任何事物一样,私家车也有多面性。私家车也带来一系列严重的问题,例如,街道因车辆多而拥挤不堪,不仅引起交通事故,每年造成大量的人员伤亡,而且私家车还制造噪音,排放废气。但是我相信我们会很快解决这些问题。

Spring is tht best season of the year. The weather gets warmer and warmer. My clas i'amates and I took a one-day sightseeing around our city.The scene was pretty. But when we saw the rivers along our city, I felt very sorry, and thoughit a lot.

With the development of modern agriculture and industry, more and more waste water is being poure d into rivers. It has caused serious pollution. The river is becoming so dirty that no living things can liv e in it. The river is giving off a terrible smell.

We make an urgent appeal that measures should be taken to cope with the situation. Our government should start building various facilities such as sewage treatment!plant and encourage scientists to work o ut more and better ways to reduce the pollution of water.

Water is tho source of our lives. It is very important to protect water.

春天是一年中最好的季节,天气变得越来越暖和。我和我的同学们进行了一次环城一日游,所到之处景色宜人。但当我看到沿着城区流过的河流时,我感到很惋惜,想了很多。

随着现代工农业的发展,越来越多的污水排进河里,河水被严重污染。河水变得如此的肮脏以致于生物不能在里面生活。河水发出难闻的气味。

我们急切呼吁采取措施改变这种状况。政府应当建立各种设备,例如污水处理厂,并且鼓励科学家们想出更多更好的办法以减少水污染。

水是生命之源,保护水资源十分重要。

My classmates and I had an outing this spring. We had a good time. But meanwhile I noticed that water pollution in our city was becoming more and more serious.

On our way, we could see women washing clothes in the river. Litter was floating on the river. Wa ste water produced by a chemical factory was being discharged into the river. We did not see any fish i

n the river. The fiver was not so clear as before. Water quality was very bad. I am worried

about it because water is important to all living things. Man can not live without water. I hope people p ay more attention to this problem, especially the government. Try to control the pollution of water as ear ly as possible.

At last I would like to say, "To protect water is to protect life."

今年春天,我和我的同学去春游,我们玩得都很高兴。但同时,我也注意到我们城市的水污染变得越来越严重了。

沿途我们看到许多妇女在河边洗衣,河面上漂着垃圾,一家化工厂正将废水排入河中。河中看不到一条鱼,河水也不像从前那样清澈了,水质很差。对此我深感担忧,因为水对于所有生物都非常重要。没有水人类将无法生存。我希望人们能多关注这个问题,特别是政府部门,争取及早解决水污染问题。 最后,我想说“保护水就是保护生命。”

Nowadays, more and more advertisements appear on newspapers,broadcasts, magazines as well as streets. People have different views on advertisements.

Some people think advertisements can help people to have a wide choice of goods and they help con sumers know the goods and businessmen better. The consumers can gain not only knowledge of goods b ut also artistic enjoyment.

Contrary to those people, many others think advertisements are very unpleasant. Consumers are often cheated by the false advertisement on which consumers always waste a great deal of time. What is more, consumers feel annoyed to be interrupted when they are watching TV play. So advertisements should be limited.

But whether you like it or not, advertisements have become a part of our life.

现在越来越多的广告出现在报纸、广播、杂志甚至街头,人们对此有不同的看法。

一些人认为广告能拓宽人们对货物的选择,使消费者更好地了解货物和商家。消费者不仅能够获得商品知识,也能得到艺术享受。

相反,另外一些人认为广告很令人讨厌。消费者经常被虚假广告欺骗,而且人们在这些广告上浪费了大

量的时间。更有甚者,消费者觉得看电视剧时插播广告特让人心烦。因此,广告应当受到限制。 不管你喜不喜欢广告,它已经成为我们生活的一部分。

Nowadays, more and more advertisements appear on newspapers,broadcasting, magazines as well as st reets. Advertisement is a popular way to communicate with consumers. People have different views on a dvertisements.

Some people think advertisement guides choices of goods. Meanwhile,advertisements also offer us som e new information about the product. And they help consumers to know the goods and the businessmen better. Consumers can gain not only knowledge of goods but also artistic enjoyment.

Contrary to those people, many others think advertisements are very unpleasant. Consumers are often cheated by the false advertisement on which consumers always waste a great deal of ti me. What is more, consumers feel annoyed to be interrupted when they are watching TV play. So I suggest that there shou ld not be too many TV advertisments. The advertisments which will be issued must be approved by the Industrial and Commercial Bureau.

现在,越来越多的广告出现在报纸、广播、杂志甚至街头,广告已成为与消费者进行交流的一种流行方式。人们对此有不同的看法。

一些人认为,广告指导人们对货物的消费,向我们提供有关产品的新信息,使消费者更好的了解货物和商家。消费者不仅能够获得商品知识,也能得到艺术享受。

相反,另外一些人认为,广告很惹人讨厌。消费者经常被虚假广告欺骗,而且人们在这些广告上浪费了大量的时间。更有甚者,消费者觉得插播广告特让人心烦。因此我建议不应当有过多的广告,发布广告必须经过工商局的批准。

It has been estimated that smokers have made up half of the population in China. And the smokers are becoming younger and younger, even ineluding some middle school students.

Nowadays more and more people have realized smoking can do harm to people'shealth. However, so me people still enjoy smoking. Why? Because some of them think it is a kind of fashion, some think it is of great fun and others, think that smoking can refresh themselves.

In fact, smoking is a bad habit. It can cause a lot of diseases. Meanwhile smoking is a waste of m oney. Besides, careless smokers may cause dangerous fires.

Smoking is harmful and it is not only bad for smokers themselves, but also bad for non-smokers. Therefore, I hope all the smokers can give up smoking for themselves and also for the people aroun d them.

据估计,在中国吸烟者约占总人口的一半,而且烟民的年龄越来越年轻,甚至一些中学生也在抽烟。 如今越来越多的人们已经认识到吸烟有害人体健康,但他们仍然乐此不疲。为什么? 一些人认为抽烟是一种时髦,另外一些人认为抽烟很有趣,还有一些人认为吸烟可以提神。

事实上,吸烟是一种不好的习惯,它能导致很多疾病。同时,吸烟很浪费金钱。除此而外,粗心的烟民还可能引起火灾。

吸烟对人们的身体百害而无一利。它不仅有害吸烟者本人,而且对不吸烟者也会造成损害。 因此,我希望吸烟者为自己和身边的人们而戒烟。

It is said that there are about half of people in China are smoking.Many young boys and girls have t he habit of smoking, though they are middle school students.

As we all know, smoking does great harm to human beings. More and more people have come to re alize how serious this problem is. But they are never bored with it. Some people think it is a kind of f ashion, some think it is of great fun and others think that smoking can refresh themselves.

Smoking causes many illnesses. A lot of people always cough because of smoking. The most serious illness caused by smoking is lung cancer. Meanwhile smoking is a waste of money. Besides, careless sm okers may cause dangerous fires.

In order to keep healthy, we should get rid of the bad habit of smoking. Please stop smoking at onc e.

据说,中国有一半人在吸烟。许多男孩和女孩都有吸烟的习惯,尽管他们还是中学生。

众所周知,吸烟对人身体是有害的。越来越多的人们认识到这个问题的严重性,但他们仍然乐此不疲。一些人认为抽烟是一种时髦,一些人认为抽烟很有趣,还有一些人认为吸烟可以提神。

吸烟能导致很多疾病。由于吸烟,一些人一直在咳嗽。肺癌是吸烟导致的最严重的疾病。同时,吸烟很浪费金钱。除此而外,粗心的烟民还可能引起火灾。

为了保证人们的身体健康,我们应当改掉吸烟的坏习惯。请立即停止吸烟吧。

There are many people who think that wealth is better than health. I used to think so until one day I re ad a story about Howard Hughes. He was an American billionaire who got anything he wanted. However, in the last twenty years of his life, his health began to deteriorate and he was miserable. He had the b est doctors and nurses. However, he could still find no relief. I realized that health is worth all the mon ey in the world. If you have millions of dollars but your health is poor, you will not be able to do wha t you want to do. So I would like to say don't hurt yourself trying to make money. Instead take care of your body and be happy with what you do have. Health is more important.

很多人都认为财富宫比健康更重要。在读到Howard Hughes 的故事之前,我也是这么认为的。Howard Hughes 是美国的一个亿万富翁,能得到他想得到的任何东西。但是在他生命最后的二十年中,他的身体变得很糟糕,他很悲惨。他有最好的医生和护士,但仍得不到解脱。我意识到在这个世界上,好的身体抵得上所有的金钱。因为即使你有百万美元但身体糟糕,也不能做你想做的事情。因此我想说的是关心你的身体,对你所拥有的一切感到高兴,不要为挣钱损害你的身体。健康更重要。

Which is more important, health or wealth? It is a hot topic among people. I can hardly answer this question. I didn't realize that health is more imporant until I saw a businessman's real life.

A successful businessman, one of my father's friends, devoted himseff to his business. He works from morning to night every day. There is no weekends in his mind. He often says, "I must earn much mon ey so that I can get what I want. "Lately, he is ill. Though he has a lot of money, he can do nothing but lie in the hospital's bed.

So I think health is more important than wealth. People can do nothing if they are always in poor h ealth, let alone happiness. No matter we are rich or not, we can not ignore the importance of health. 健康和财富哪个更重要? 这是人们常爱谈论的一个话题。我以前回答不出这个问题,但是现在从一个商人的真实生活中我意识到健康更重要。

我父亲的一位朋友,一个成功的商人,全身心投入到他的工作中。每天从早工作到晚,在他心目中根本没有周末的概念。他经常说:“我必须多挣钱,这样就可以想干什么就干什么。”近来,他病倒了,除了躺在医院病床上,什么也不能做。

所以,我认为健康比财富更重要。如果一个人身体总是不好,他什么也做不成,更不用谈幸福了。不管我们贫穷还是富有,都不能忽视健康的重要性。

With the development of the Intemet, the net bar plays an important role in people's life. More and mor e people, especially students, like to go to net bars. They are absorbed in playing video games, making bad friends and having a chat with "Meimei" on the net in the bar. Some students often go on playing l ate into the night in the net bar. As a result, not only does it do harm to their health but also produces a bad effect on their studies. Now a lot of net bars have been shut down in Beijing. But some student s go by bus to the net bars at suburbs to play.

Fortunately, more and more parents and schools have realized it. Recently, more than six thousand st udents ensured that they would be far away from net bars in Jinzhou city, Liaoning Province. It is quite necessary for the students to get rid of the bad habit.

随着因特网的发展,网吧在人们生活中扮演了重要的角色。越来越多的人,特别是学生,愿意到网吧去,他们沉迷于在网吧玩电子游戏、结交坏朋友以及和荚眉聊天。一些学生常常在网吧玩到深夜,这些会导致学生的健康和学习问题。现在北京市已关闭了一些网吧,但是,一些学生乘车到郊区的网吧去玩。

庆幸的是,越来越多的家长和学校已经意识到这点。最近,辽宁省锦州市六千多名学生保证远离网吧。学生摆脱掉这种坏习惯是非常必要的。

Recently, more and more students would like to go to net bars, especially students. It has become q uite commom to go there. They waste too much precious time on playing video games in the net bar. A s a result, not only does it do harm to their health but also produces a bad effect on their studies. Their health becomes worse and worse and their studies are neglected. Now a lot of net bars have been shut down in Beijing. But some students go to the net bars at suburbs to play.

Fortunately, more and more parents and schools have realized it. Recently, more than six thousand st udents ensured that they would be far away from net bars in Jinzhou city, Liaoning Province. Most stud ents are making full use of their time and devoting themselves to their studies. It is a good thing.

最近,越采越多的人,特别是学生,愿意到网吧去,这已经成为一种普遍的现象。他们花费了大量的宝贵时间泡在网吧里玩电予游戏,结果不仅损害了他们的身体,也对他们的学习产生了不良影响。他们的身体变坏了,学习被忽视了。现在北京市已关闭了一些网吧,但是一些学生乘车到郊区的网吧去玩。

庆幸的是,越来越多的家长和学校已经意识到了这一点。最近,辽宁省锦州市六千多名学生保证远离网吧。大多数的学生充分利用时间,全身心投入到学习中去。这是一件大好事。

Shopping on the Internet(网上购物)

1.网上购物已很普遍;

2.网上购物的好处;

3.网上购物的缺点。

[写作导航) 第一段宜开门见山,写因特网的发展和计算机的普及使网上购物日渐普遍;第二段谈网上购物的便利,如节约时间和精力,尤其对老人、病人和忙碌的人更是如此;第三段谈网上购物的缺点,其一是有时网上所见与实际所得不一致;其二是网上欺诈造成投诉困难。

[范文]

With the development of the Internet and the popularization of computers, shopping on the Internet ha s become a commonplace in our life. Here consumers can buy almost everything they need.

Shopping on the Internet has a lot of advantages, of which the most important is perhaps its convenie nce. People don't have to waste a lot of their energy and precious time to go from one shop to another to choose the commodities they like. This is especially desirable to the old, the sick and the busy people who cannot go to the shops in person. The goods come in all shapes, sizes and colors on the Internet. All they need to do is to sit in front of their computers and click the mouses. The commodities they or der will be delivered to them promptly.

However, shopping on the Internet also has its disadvantages. The first disadvantage is that the consu mers can't see the goods or try them on personally. Sometimes, the real goods may not be the same as what they have seen on the computer. The second disadvantage is that some shops on the Internet are n ot registered. They will never deliver anything to you after they get the money from you. Once cheated, you will find that you have nowhere to go to complain.

on the Internet(论因特网)

1.因特网的好处;

2.因特网的缺点;

3.结论。

[写作导航]第一段应先分析为什么因特网会成为我们生活必不可少的一部分的原因可用列举法罗列,如通过因特网人们可快速大量获取信息,使人们之间的通信快捷便利,从而出现了电子商务、网络教育等;第二段指出因特网的负面影响,如网上犯罪、病毒侵袭、垃圾邮件、黄色网站等;最后指出只有合理利用现代科技才是明智的做法。

[范文]

The Internet seems to have become an indispensable part in modern lire. This is because the Internet has a lor of advantages. To begin with, the Internet provides people with enormous amounts of information in a fraction of a second. With this easy access to the Internet, searching for information has become easier than ever before. Besides, the Internet changes the way people communicate with each other. E mail allows us to write to our friends and receive letters from our friends cheaply and instantly. Furthermore, the Internet has revolutionized business. E-commerce enables people to do business and go shopping at home easily and conveniently. Finally, the Internet plays an important role in mass education.

However, the Internet also has some unfavorable aspects. Cyber crime causes a great loss in people's property. Computer viruses bring us lots of trouble. Trash mail is always a nuisance to everyone. Worst of all, pornography may corrupt people, especially young people.

In a word, the Internet has both merits and demerits. But on the whole, it brings peop[e more benefits than harm. It is suggested that a clever use be made of this modern technique for the benefit of all people.

What’s your favourite sport?

你最喜欢的体育运动是什么?

A What’s your favourite sport, Neil?

A 你最喜欢的运动是什么,尼尔?

B I like lots of different sports. I like football, cycling and running the most.

B 我喜欢各种不同的运动。我想我最喜欢的是足球、骑自行车和跑步。

A Do you do all of them?

A 这些运动你都做吗?

B Well, I never have enough time. I cycle a lot. It’s easy, and it’s good exercise.

B 哦,我的时间总是不够。我常骑自行车。这很容易,而且是很好的锻炼。

A Well, Beijing is a good place for cycling.

A 哦,北京是骑自行车的好地方。

B Yes, but there’s too much traffic for me.

B 是的,但是对我来说车辆太多了。

注释 Notes

You can ask someone about his or her favourite things by saying: What’s your favourite sport; What’s your favourite food?

你可以这样问某人最喜欢的是什么:What’s your favourite sport? (你最喜欢的运动是什么?); What’s your favourite food? (你最喜欢吃什么?) 。

You can answer by using I like.... e.g.I like lots of different sports;I like Cantonese food.

你可以用I like.... (我喜欢……)来回答。例如:I like lots of different sports(我喜欢很多种不同的运动);I like Cantonese food(我喜欢广东菜) 。

If you are very busy and usually don’t have enough time, you can say:I never have enough time.

如果你非常忙,而且通常没有很多时间,你可以说:I never have enough time(我的时间总是不够) 。

重要的短语和句子 Key phrases & sentences

What’s your favourite sport?

你最喜欢的运动是什么?

I like lots of different sports.

我喜欢各种不同的运动。

I like football, cycling and running the most. 我想我最喜欢的是足球、骑自行车和跑步。 Do you do all of them?

这些运动你都做吗?

I never have enough time.

我的时间总是不够。

I cycle a lot.

我常骑自行车。

It’s easy and it’s good exercise.

这很容易,而且是很好的锻炼。

Beijing is a good place for cycling.

北京是骑自行车的好地方。

Th ere’s too much traffic for me.

但是对我来说车辆太多了。

私家车的利弊

First let us see the dark side, the disadvantages:

It is obviously that a private can load only from 5 to 8 person, to be more precise, the private car we talk about limited to five passengers, the eight passenger type is what we called MPV (multi-purpose vehicle). To travel limited quantity of people we consumed significant high amount of resources in contrast to the Mass Transist system such as bus, train or underground railway. The frequently use of private car also occupy lot of space on the road and result in traffics. Accidents are proportional related to number of vehicles on the road and obviously

private car owns a relatively high percentage of them.

过去我的家乡很小。那里的人们过着贫穷的生活。它们住在破旧的房子里。到处可以看到垃圾。很少有游人到这里来。

现在家乡发生了巨变,生活条件大大改善。他们的房子又大又亮,许多人有了自驾车。山绿了,水净了,天蓝了。成千上万的游客从世界各地来到这里。

我希望将来故乡会变得更美。

In the past, my hometown was very small. People there lived a poor life. They lived in old houses. Rubbish was seen here and there. Few visitors came here.

Now great changes have taken place in my hometown. The living conditions have been greatly improved. Their houses are big and bright. Many people have their own cars. The mountains are green, the rivers are clean, and the sky is blue. Thousands of visitors come here from all over the world.

The Positive and Negative Aspects of Sports

1. 体育运动的好处.

2. 体育运动可能带来的副作用.

3. 我参加体育运动的体会.

范文:

To a Chinese, the task of learning English well is not easy. So I, like many other English learners, have met with difficulties in learning English durin g the past seven years. But I managed to overcome t

hem and made much progress.

The spelling and meaning of words can be said to be the first difficulty I met as a beginner. But I found our my own way to deal with them. As to spelling, I never copied a new work again and again to remember it, but tried to find its relevance to the sound. In fact, as long as I can read the word out, I can write it out. As to the meaning, I rarely recite its Chinese translation but often put the word into the sentence to learn its meaning. Moreover, if you use a word quite often, its spelling and meaning wi ll be no problem. After all, we are learning English in order to use it.

Grammar and idioms may be another difficulty. But I have also got over it. I have not read lots o f grammar books. But I spent much time reading the articles written by native speakers or specialists in English. By doing so, I came to gain “a sense of English language”. I began to gain a feel for which s entences are “good English” and which are not .

Finally, I want to say that overcoming all these difficulties requires perseverance. In the past seven years I spent at least an hour on English each day. I believe this is an important reason why I am abl e to make progress in learning English.

Should the pirate Software and Movies be Banned?

The pirated software means a great loss to the developers of the original software as the former erodes market shares of their original counterpart. Similarly, when the pirated movies attract more viewers, mov ie companies find their audience decreasing and accordingly their income down.

The other side of the coin is that the pirated software and movies promise their consumers a number o f benefits. For one thing, they are much cheaper than the original. For another allow their customers che aper access to more tools and entertainment. They are poplar because they seem to cater better for the i nterest of their customers.

Despite these seeming benefits, the pirated software and movies should be banned, because by nature th ey represent unfair competition in our economic life. encouraged or left out of control, they would upset normal competition and eventually lead to the breakdown of economic order. Software developers would

cease to offer products of quality and movie companies would refuse to produce good movies. If all thi s happened, ultimately customers would have to suffer. Therefore, we’d better stop the pirated software a nd movies

The Bad Effects of Fake Diplomas

There has been a serious epidemic of fake diplomas in some big cities recently. Obviously, its appeara nce and development involve two parts: the demander and the supplier. People who do not have the nec essary diploma to get a desire job naturally thin of this short cut, especially when so many profit-driven people make fake diplomas so easily available. Usually a certificate of Bachelor’s Degree costs about 200 yuan, which is really cheap compared with the 4 years of hard work and the pretty big sum of fees in volved in normal ways of getting the diploma.

The victims of fake diplomas are first of all employers, who pay high salaries but do not get real tale nts. By and by, his business will suffer, and it takes time and money to fine another one who may or may not hold a real degree. People who have genuine diplomas are also hurt greatly. They have honestly spent 4 or even more years and great energy working hard in schools, but cannot get any advantage in job hunting. Thus, actually this phenomenon may encourage people to cheat instead of acquiring a degre e honestly.

To combat the epidemic, we should stop putting ever more emphasis on the academic achievement of jo b or promotion candidates. Instead, practical ability and individual personality should be recognized as im portant factors of excellent job performance. Besides, effective measures supported by advanced IT techno logy should be introduced and taken to help employers distinguish genuine diplomas from fake ones. Onc e the demand disappears, the supply will be gone too.

写作的重要性 6分最低限,只要结构不出错,得分应该为9分。

评判作文

四级考试作文主要看内容、结构、语言三个方面。

内容不跑题即可,注意:1. 不要妄图以情动人;2. 不要妄图在构思上出奇制胜。

结构上牢记总分总:先写主题句(Topic Sentence),再写分论点,最后写总结句(Conclusion)。 语言最重要,往往使评分产生重大差异,语言要模仿和包装。

基本表达

人们认为:it is generally/ widely believed/ held/ agreed that

越来越:be increasingly + adj., be on the rise, the growing number of

万能理由(Omnipotence )

1. 方便:convenient/ convenience

2. 效率:efficient/ efficiently/ efficiency

3. 节省和浪费:save time/ money/ space; economical, thrift

waste time/ money/ space; costly, lavish

4. 人的心理健康:independent, cooperative, competitive,

considerate, confident, creative, sociable,

perseverance; selfish, isolated, conserative

5. 人的身体健康:health, disease, strong, strength, energetic

6. 娱乐:colorful, pleasure,joy, recreation, entertainmentm, relax

tired, boring, lonely

7. 环境:environment, pollute, poisonous, dirty

8. 安全和危险:safe, danger, risk

9. 经验:experience, social experience, enter the society

10. 人际:humane, fair, unfair, help, assist, freedom, freely

写完之后修改注意:(内容方面尽量不要修改)

1、字母大小写

2、怪符号

3、单词拼写

4、主谓一致

5、动词时态

6、名词单复数

实例一

题目:Bicycles――An Important Means of Transport in China提纲:(1)为什么自行车在中国这样普及(2)和汽车的比较(3)自行车在中国的前途

Score: 8

Bicycle is an important means of transport in China. The important reason of it is the economy of Chinese. The use of bicycle in China is widely because people in China have not high wage. They can only afford a bicycle, and they have no money to buy a car which is too expensive. So Chinese usually buy a bicycle, and use it to go to work, or go to travel and so on. The other reason is the large population of China. All these made the bicycle become the important means of transport.

The bicycle, compared to the car, is not too expensive and it is easy to learn and to use and it can save the surface of putting it. I t doesn’t ask to build the garage like car. This point is very important to China, because of the lack of land. It isn’t too expensive, so Chinese can afford it. It doesn’t need any oil, and it can’t cause the polusion. All of these are the good needs compared to the car.

In the future, bicycle will be widely used. And it will be in good demand. People will produce much more modern bicycles.

Score: 14

Bicycles are very popular in China. Almost every family in the city has two or three bicycles.

During the rush hour, you can see that thousands of people -- man and woman, old and young -- ride their bicycles to work and study. That is why China is called “the kingdom of bicycles”. 注:1. 第一句总写,第二句和第三句分写,最后总写。

2. During the rush hour 分词结构开头。

3. 破折号内容为同位语, 句式多变化。

Compared with cars, bicycles are superior in many ways. First, they are cheap, convenient and easy to ride. Second, riding bicycle is good for health. Third, they bring no noise nor air pollution. Though cars are faster and more comfortable, they are too expensive. They consume plenty of oil and they pollute the air. Sometimes, it is difficult for a driver to park his car. Moreover they often cause traffic jams and accidents.

注:1. Compared with cars 分词结构开头。

2. be superior to/ be inferior to 优于/ 低于

3. thirst, second, third 英语语言有层次感,信号词

4. cheap 便宜,最好用inexpensive

5. be good for health 对健康有好处(万能理由)

6. Moreover 表示递进

In my opinion, the future of bicycle is very promising. Since China is a developing country and has a large population, I think, riding bicycle is appropriate to Chinese present conditions. It will be an important means of transportation for quite a long time.

注:promising 有前途的 a promising young man

Score: 11

There millions of bicycles in today’s China. Bicycles are very important means of transport in people’s daily lives. Because to ride a bicycle is very simple, to buy a bicycle will not cost so much money, to park a bicycle needs just a small room and to ride a bicycle does not need oil but the rider’s strength, bicycles are popular all over the world, especially in China.

注:第一句应该用there be结构

Compared with a car, a bicycle is much cheaper. It is more suitable for China as a developing country. And a bicycle has almost caused no pollution but a car has. On the contrary, a bicycle is too slow, it costs more times than a car.

I think the population of China’s bicycle will be kept for the long run. Because it will be replaced by a car, a bus and so on in some developed areas in China, and it will be made a wide use in the developing areas in China, the number of bicycles in China will be the same as today but I believe that it’s quality will be improved.

I 、对比观点选择题:1. 有人认为……; 2. 另外一些人认为……; 3. 谈谈你的观点和看法。(最好写成4段)

实例二 99年6月真题

Reading Selectively or Extensively?

Outline: 1. 有人认为读书要有选择2. 有人认为应当博览群书 3. 我的想法

How should we read? Should we read selectively or extensively? Everyone has his own view.

Some people think we should read selectively. They argue that with the development of modern science and technology, more and more books are published. It is impossible for us to read all the books. What’s more, there are many bad books that are poisonous to our mind, and we shouldn’t read them. Since we can’t read all the books and we shouldn’t read bad books, we must read selectively.

But others may not agree, they emphasize that today's society is not what it was. If one man has many kinds of knowledge, he will have more chances to succeed. If a man knows much in one field but knows nothing in other fields, he may be useless. Since we must have many kinds of knowledge, we must read extensively.

Who’s right? I think both of them have something right. But I think we should read extensively first. We should read books in many fields, and read selectively in one field.

典型的对比观点选择题的文章逻辑结构:

(启)Paragraph I :(1)引出将要评论的事物或者是观点; (2)简明扼要的提出人们在这个问题上的两种不同看法。

Score: 14分

How should we read? Should we read selectively or extensively? Everyone has his own view.(启) 注:第一句提出问题,第二句提出两种见解

典型的对比观点选择题的文章逻辑结构:

(承)Paragraph II :(1)提出一种观点或优点;(2)本段的支持性分论点;(3)本段总结(可以省略)。

Some people think we should read selectively. They argue that with the development of modern science and technology, more and more books are published. It is impossible for us to read all the books. What’s more, there are many bad books that are poisonous to our mind, and we shouldn’t read them. Since we can’t read all the books and we shouldn’t read bad books, we must read selectively.(承)

注:1. 本段总分总结构

2. they argue that = they think that

3. with the development of... 随着……的发展

4. what's more 递进关系,moreover

5. bad = pornographic 色情的 & violent 暴力的

典型的对比观点选择题的文章逻辑结构:(转)Paragraph III:(1)承上启下的过渡句; (2)提出另一种观点或缺点;(3)本段的支持性分论点(4)本段总(可以省略)。

But others may not agree, they emphasize that today's society is not what it was. If one man has many kinds of knowledge, he will have more chances to succeed. If a man knows much in one field but knows nothing in other fields, he may be useless. Since we must have many kinds of

knowledge, we must read extensively.(转)

注:1. But 转折词(信号词)

2. they emphasize that = they think that

3. today's society is not what it was 现代社会今昔非比

4. 许多知识 a wide range of knowledge/ a large scope of knowledge/ much knowledge; 获取知识 acquire/ get knowledge

5. knows nothing→little;he may be useless→he may not be of great use to the society 后者比前者更委婉

典型的对比观点选择题的文章逻辑结构:(合)Paragraph IV :(1)平衡两种看法;(2)给出自己的观点。

Who’s right? I think both of them have something right. But I think we should read extensively first. We should read books in many fields, and read selectively in one field.(合) Score: 11分

When it comes to reading, some people think that reading selectively is a good way, but some other people do not agree with them, they think that reading extensively is better.

注:结构非常好,可以套用。

Those people, who think that reading selectively is better, believe that good books are as many as bad books. Those good books can give us pleasure and knowledge, while those bad books can only lead us to the wrong way. So, they suggest that we should only choose the good books to read and never touch the bad books.

注:1.“people, who...,”应去掉逗号,改为限制性定语从句。

2. as many as bad books 改为 as many as bad ones

3. lead us to the wrong way 改为 lead sb. astray

4. they suggest that = they think that

5. touch 碰(闪光点词汇:如教材P7:shouldering the responsibility of doing sth. 肩负起责任)

But, the other people, who hold that reading extensively is better, think that one kind of books can only give us one aspect of knowledge. Even the best book only contains one field of information. So, they can easily come to the conclusion that “to know more, to read more”. So they believe that reading extensively is better.

注:1. hold 认为 同样表示“think”的词还有argue, emphasize, believe, suggest, claim, insist, maintain, agree, hold

2. the best book 在西方国家是“圣经”的意思

3. to know more, to read more 错误,中式英语

To my point, we should choose good books to read and read good books as many as possible. By this way, we can increase the quality and quantity of reading.

范文22. Is Television a Blessing or a Curse?

Now, it is generally accepted that television plays an important part in people’s lives. But, there is an ongoing heated discussion as to whether television is a blessing or a curse.

注:it is generally accepted that 人们通常认为

As is often pointed out by some people, television keeps one better informed about current events, allows one to follow the latest developments in politics and science, and offers an endless series of programs which are both instructive and stimulating. The most distant countries, the strangest customs and the most attractive scenes of nature are brought right into one’s room. 注:1. As is often pointed out by some people = Some people think that

2. “使……”不用make ,而用keep, allow, offer

However, other people insist that television is a curse rather than a blessing. They argue that it has brought about many serious problems. The major one is its effects on young people. They

are now so used to getting their information, education and entertainment from television that their literacy as well as physical ability has been greatly weakened. Even worse than that, vulgar commercials and indecent programs may cultivate their bad tastes, distort their viewpoints towards human life to such a degree that their minds might be corrupted.

In summary, television has both advantages and disadvantages. Whatever effects it has, one thing is certain, television in itself is neither good nor bad. It is the uses to which it is put that determines its value to society.

范文5. Travelling

People who like travelling have their reasons. They maintain that travelling can help them expand their scope of knowledge, especially geographical and historical learning. They go on to point out that touring will provide more chance for them to enjoy food and try on clothes that they otherwise cannot possible have.

注:geographical and historical 押尾韵,如:押头韵 clear & clean

Those who dislike travelling have their reasons. They would argue that travelling means a considerable amount of money and energy. For example, traffic and accommodation require money and walking while seeing sights often tires you.

In practice, travelling does more good than harm. If your finance and health permit, you might as well do some travelling from time to time. It will at least enable you to get familiar with people and things that you will probably grow to like and love.

注:1. in practice = I think 2. does more good than harm 好处比坏处多,其他表达方法:be superior to/ inferior to 比如:the advantages are superior to the disadvantages 3. enable 使 范文1. Is a Test of Spoken English Necessary?

A test of spoken English will be included as an optional component of the College English Test (CET). Some people argue that it is absolutely necessary to hold a test of spoken English in China because we have been informed frequently that a Chinese student who has been learning English

for over ten years cannot even communicate with a native speaker. Sometimes even those top students who excel in grammar and writing skills find their English inadequate to express their thoughts freely. A test of English will bring the college students an awareness of the importance of oral English, and will thus help them with their communicating skills.

使句子具有表现力的手段:1、用形容词修饰名词;2、副词修饰动词、副词修饰形容词 On the other hand, some others still maintain that a good command of reading and writing skills will be enough for the English learners. To some extent their opinion derives from the fact that students are already under considerable pressure from their opinion derives from the fact that students are already under considerable pressure from their coursework. Another required test will only add to their burden. Moreover, some students may take the shortcut by focusing on several guessed questions according to the fixed format of the test, hoping for a coincidence to bring them good luck.

In my opinion, a test of spoken English will do more good than harm. Since China will continue its policy of opening and reform, the ability to speak English fluently is a must for anyone who wants to surpass others in a highly competitive society. Whether I take the test or not, I shall spare no efforts to practice oral English in the remaining years of my college study.

范文21. Should smoking be banned?

Should smoking be banned? Answers to this question vary greatly. Some people are in favor of the idea of smoking. They always say that it can get rid of the tiredness and make them refreshed. And they also say that giving and being given cigarettes is a sign of friendship. Therefore, they carry cigarettes with them wherever they go.

注:1. vary greatly 许多种2. be in favor of = agree/ be of the opinion that

3. get rid of the tiredness and make them refreshed 使人神清气爽

4. Giving and being given 给与被给。主、被动关系在英文中用现在、过去分词表达。

But other people consider it very harmful to people’s health. They have heard the official reports

that one person in the world dies from smoking every second. And they have heard the doctor’s warning that smokers are more likely to have lung cancer and to increase their chances of having heart attack. In addition, smoking pollutes the air and may cause fire accidents. Thus it has become a major threat to people’s life and property.

注:1.They have heard the official reports that ... 官方报告表明.. 2. be more likely to 更有可能,更容易3. chance 可能

There is some truth in both arguments, but human’s life and property outweighs anything else. If smoking brings us illness and death, why not have it banned by the government? Without cigaret tes, can’t we come up with better ways to express our friendship and to make us refreshed?注:1. outweigh 比……重要,同样的表达:be superior to/ be inferior to。overweight 超重2. 最后用两句反问句结尾,非常精妙。

课后作业 Private Cars

写成4段的首段写法:

In recent years, with fast economic growth, private cars have appeared in many families in China. People's attitude toward private cars varies widely.

② With the increase in the general standard of living, some ordinary Chinese families begin to afford a private car. Yet, people's opinions of private cars vary from person to person/ public attitude toward it varies greatly/ widely./ is quite of the contrary./ differs sharply.

③ In recent few years, the phenomenon/ issue/ problem of owning a private car has been brought to public attention/ in the limelight. People's views on/ opinions of owing a private car vary widely. 写成3段的首段写法:

With the development of modern society/ science and technology, / With the improvement of people's living standard,

more and more people can own private cars.

cars are entering ordinary families.

the growing number of people/ people in ever increasing numbers can have access to private cars.(此句是引言)

支持段的主题句:

Some people claim that/ As is pointed out that/ It is generally believed that/ It is widely accepted that, there are some advantages of owning a private car.

There is no doubt that private cars benefit people hugely.

支持段的分论点:

① 方便 First, private cars provide people with the most convenient form of transportation.

② 舒适 Second, it is comfortable for people to travel in, especially in changeable weather/ raining days/ sand storm.

③ 炫耀 Third, only a private car can show a person's social status/ achievement/ success/ prosperity in his or her career.

否定段的主题句:① However (Nonetheless/ Nevertheless/ But), there are some disadvantages of owing a private car/ Every coin has two sides.

② While enjoying the convenience that private cars bring us, we should not ignore the problem they create/ produce/ introduce/ make.

③ Despite/ In spite of/ For all the advantages, they brings their own disadvantages/ problems/ negative effects

④ Like anything else, private cars also have their own weakness/ limits.

⑤ However, private cars are not without shortcomings/ faults.

⑥ Yet other speak of the problems private cars have brought. They complain that......

⑦ However, private cars may also bring with it problems our society had not previously faced. ⑧ Despite the increase in efficiency and convenience generated by private cars, the changes they bring could very well lead to potentially adverse consequences.

否定段的分论点:

① 占有空间 On the one hand, private cars take up/ occupy too much space.

② 交通事故 On the other hand, a driver should be careful/ cautious while driving, otherwise, car accidents are more likely to happen.

③ 污染环境 What's more/In addition, private cars give off/ discharge/ release CO which pollute the environment/ air.

注意:所谓上义词是指抽象、概括和笼统的,就是比较superordinate 的词;而下义词就是具体的东西,即subordinate 的东西。

第四段(总结段)的写法:

① Despite all the disadvantages mentioned above, I still think that the advantages outweigh/ are greater than the disadvantages. As for the above problem, I'm sure they will be settled by the scientists in the future/ It is only a matter of time for the problems to be solved.

② Unquestionably, the challenge of private cars means we all should consider how we can control them, so that they will not control us.

③ Whether the private cars are a blessing or a curse is a difficult question to answer, yet the desire for the comfort and independence a private car can bring will not be elminated.

④ Anyway/ Anyhow/ In any case, whether the effect is good or bad, one thing is certain: private cars have changed and will continue to change the way of our transportation, our leisure and our life.

选择题型变体逻辑结构(My View on Sth.)

选择性观点的变体的文章写作逻辑结构:

Paragraph I:(1)引出将要评论的事物或者是观点; (2)简明扼要的提出人们在这个问题上的两种不同看法。

Paragraph II:(1)提出作者观点(本文主题句);

(2)举例加以论证。

Paragraph III:(1)总结全文(再次强调作者观点)

范文17. My View on Fate

There is no consensus of opinions among people as to the view of fate. Some people believe that everyone is born to a certain that he can not change, while some other people think that every man is the master of his own life.

注:1. consensus 相同意见

2. 第一句话可以套用,如范文18:There is no consensus of opinions among people as to the view of wealth.

3. while 轻微转折和对比,强转折用词but, however 4. master 主人

As far as I am concerned, I agree with the latter opinion. There is a saying, “Everyone is the architect of his own future.” Which means one’s fate is decided in his own hands. In fact, no one is destined to a certain fate in his or her life. Those who claim that they were born to fail or be unlucky just can’t realize how much inner strength and ability they have. We must depend on ourselves to changes our lives and make us successful and happy.

注:1. 第一句as far as与I agree重复,把后半句改为the latter opinion seems more reasonable。

2. architect 建筑师,archor 弓箭手

3. In fact 前后是转折关系,之前从正面阐述,之后从反面阐述

范文17. My View on Fate (续)

Let’s take Helen Keller, an extraordinary American woman, for example. When she was only 19 months old, she became blind and deaf. Instead of accepting her misfortune helplessly, she showed great courage and unconquerable spirit in fighting against her destined fate and was awarded the President’s Medal of Freedom in 1964 because of the achievements she had made for helping the blind, the deaf and the speechless. This story tells us that a wise man is always creating his own fate rather than waiting for good luck.

注:1. 本段开始举例

2. Let's take……for example 中间是插入语,表示强调,举例不宜太长。

In conclusion, I believe that everyone is born equal and is the builder of his own fate We can have good fortune only if we take pains and work hard. We should bear the following saying in mind, “Every man is the master of his own fate.”

注:bear sth. in mind:把……牢记在心

范文13. The Way to Success

第二段:Strong will, perseverance and diligence are the three essentials of success. A man of strong will and perseverance always has an inflexible spirit. He sticks to his cause no matter how tough it might be. Dr. Sun Yat-sen was such a man. Many of his attempts failed, but he held to his purpose with firmness and finally succeeded in overthrowing the Qing Dynasty. Diligence means steadiness in one’s work and study. Su Qin stabbed himself in order to keep attentive to studies. Marx often worked 15 hours a day. Life is short and we have many things to do. Without diligence no one can achieve anything.

II 、社会热点话题写作逻辑结构

Paragraph 1: (1) 概括性的引出要评论的事物或观点(general );

(2) 具体描述这个事物或者观点(或者是我对这个现象/ 事物的基本看法specific )。 Paragraph 2: (1) 作者对该现象货问题的基本看法,即文章的论点句;

(2) 支持性的细节分论点(至少两点);

(3) 本段总结(可以省略)。

Paragraph 3: (1) 总结全文,定下结论(通常为我的对策或看法)。

四级作文试题2000年1月

Directions:

For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic How I Finance my College Education. You should write at least 100 words, and base your composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below:

1. 上大学的费用(tuition and fees)可以通过多多种途径解决。

2. 哪种途径适合我(说明理由)。

How I Finance My College Education

How I Finance My College Education

第一段:首先,应该是用一种描述性的语言引出讨论的重点:

Nowadays/ At present/ Currently/ These days/ Today, tuitions and fees for college students are

【more expensive 】 much higher than ever before. How to finance my college education has become a matter of concern.

第二段:有多种的方法,例如:1. 向父母; 2. 银行贷款 3. 打工挣钱

第二段主题句:There are many ways to support my college education financially./ Ways to support my university study financially vary greatly/ are various.

第二段分写:

In the first place, I can get/ gain/ obtain all the money from my parents.

In the second place, I can apply for/ ask for a bank loan, especially set up/ established for college students/ undergraduates.

What’s more, I can find a part time job to earn enough money.

第三段:我所赞同的方法(阐述原因,为何不选其他的方法)。

Personally/ As far as I’m concerned/ In my opinion/ From my point of view/ To my way of thinking/ As I see it, I prefer the bank loan for the following reasons.

For one thing, my parents are not rich enough to afford me.

For another, I will not have enough time and energy to study after finishing my part-time/ temporary/ odd jobs.

In addition, I believe I can hunt a rewarding/ dream job after graduation, and then I will be able to pay off/ pay back/ return/ give back.

Therefore /So /Hence,.....

使文章富有表现力的手段:

1、使用有难度的词汇;

2、使用形容词修饰名词,用副词修饰动词或整个句子;

3、使用被动语态;

4、使用倒装句;(not only... but also...;only...)

5、尽可能地使用名词,而不是习惯中的动词和形容词。

绿化我们的城市

第一段:

近年来,随着工商业的迅猛发展,许多大城市中树木的数量大幅度降低。人们作出各种努力防止树木被砍伐,但是,认识到绿化城市也同样重要。

普通版

Recently, with the development of businesses and industries, more and more trees have disappeared in big cities. We have tried our best to prevent people from cutting trees. But, it is important to realize to make our cities green.

润色版

In contemporary society, while our industries and businesses have experienced a(n) rapid/ fast/ amazing/ marked/ fantastic development, the number of trees in many large cities has declined/ decreased/ reduced sharply/ dramatically. Although remarkable efforts have been exerted to prevent more trees from being cut, the realization of making cities greener is still of great importance.

注:区分industry 和 industrial

绿化我们的城市(续)

第二段:

绿化城市会带来很多好处。其一,绿化城市能够净化空气。科学研究已经证明树木通过吸收作用可以降低大气中碳化合物的含量。其二,它能够美化城市。到处是花草树木,我们会欣

然地感到自己置身于美丽的花园中。最后,绿化城市能够带来大量木材,这是解决自然资源短缺的有效办法。

普通版

There are many advantages in making cities greener. First, it makes our air clean. Scientific research has proved that trees can reduce a great amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere through absorption. Second, it adds to the beauty of our cities. With trees and flowers everywhere, there is a pleasant feeling that we live in a beautiful garden and are closer to nature. Finally, it will bring us a lot of timber. And this is an effective way to solve the problem of lack of natural resources.

润色版

What benefits can the program of making cities greener bring to us? First, the air will be cleaner. Scientific experiments have already proved that trees can reduce air pollution by producing a lot of oxygen. This will improve the quality of the urban environment. Second, our cities will look more beautiful. Just imagine the city which is full of trees and flowers. What an attractive garden it is! What’s more, by making cities greener, we can provide our industry with timber the precious natural resources.

绿化我们的城市(续)

第三段:

绿化城市需要全国人民共同努力,人们不仅要广泛认识到城市绿化对城市环境的贡献,还应该同心协力栽植更多的树木并保护它们不受商业使用的侵犯。

普通版

Making cities greener requires people’s efforts all over the country. And people should not only realize that it is important to make cities greener for its contribution to urban environment, but also plant trees and protect them from being used in business.

润色版

Making cities greener requires more than widespread awareness; it calls for an immediate commitment to planting more trees and growing more flowers.

(Making cities greener requires the whole nation’s efforts. And not only should most people gain the awareness of the significant contribution of making cities greener to urban environment, but also make a commitment to the protection of more trees against business.)

句型变化

A. (1) We can imagine the beautiful surroundings. (2) There are many trees along the streets. (3) There is a clean river in the city. (4) There are many fishes in the river. (5) There are willow trees on the one side. (6) There are some pieces of grassland on the other side. (7) There are many flowers on them.

B. (1) Just imagine the beautiful surroundings if we have made our cities greener. (2) Green trees line the streets. (3) A clean river winds through the city, in which a lot of fishes abound. (4) On the one side stand rows of willow trees. (5) On the other side lies a stretch of grassland sprinkled with many yellow and red flowers.

1. There be...

1) a. There are fewer and fewer citizens who like to see films.

b. Films are now losing their appeal for many citizens.

2) a. There are many people who complain of severe housing shortages.

b. Housing shortages become the source of great complaint.

2. If

1) a. If you compare the two methods carefully, you will find the difference.

b. Careful comparison of the two methods will show you the difference.

2) a. If we only apply book knowledge, we will not get good result.

b. The application of book knowledge alone will not bring you good result.

3) a. If there is no pollution, man can certainly survive.

b. Man can certainly survive in the world where there is no pollution.

3. In order to

1) a. In order to prevent the problem becoming too serious to solve, we must take an immediate step.

b. An immediate step must be taken before the problem becomes too serious to solve.

2) a. In order to build a stable and prosperous nation, people should make new efforts.

b. New efforts will bring ...

4. More and more

1) a. More and more people now prefer to stay at home and watch TV.

b. People in ever increasing numbers prefer to stay at home and watch TV.

2) a. More and more people who become more and more rich can afford a motorcycle.

b. The growing number of people who become increasingly rich can now afford a motorcycle.

3) a. More and more teenagers smoke cigarettes in recent years.

b. Teenage smoking is on the rise/ increase/ decrease/ decline in recent years.

4) a. More and more teachers are needed with the development of economy.

b. There is an increasing demand for teachers with the development of economy.

5) a. More and more trees have disappeared in the city.

b. There is a sharp decline in the number of trees in the city.

社会热点话题

写作练习:Jobs for Graduates

1) 大学生难找工作

2) 原因很多

3) 解决的办法

With the fantastic development of modern society, people in ever increasing numbers have access to tertiary education (高等教育). As a result, job-hunting is now becoming headache for

most graduates.

范文23:Nowadays, college graduates come to realize that it is not easy to get a rewarding job. Most/ Many of them can not get a job right after graduation.

The job market for college students/ graduates is getting tighter and tighter. According to a survey, only 80% of college graduates of the class of 2002 found jobs the year they graduated, compared with 95% in 2000. Why do college graduates find it increasingly difficult to get jobs?

第二段细节论证

分析原因:

1、Among the most convincing/ important reasons given/ cited/ offered/ identified by people for this problem/ phenomenon, one should be stressed/ emphasized/ mentioned...

2、One may regard/ see/ view/ think of the trend/ increase/ phenomenon as a sign of/ result of/ response to/ reaction to ...

3、The increase/ change/ failure/ success in ... mainly/ largely/ partly results from/ arises from is due to/ owing to/ attributable to the fact that/ several factors ...

Several years ago, many students were enrolled in/ admitted to/ taken in/ matriculated popular major, so that the supply is superior to/ outweigh/ exceeds the demand. Many graduates are reluctant to work in the remote areas/ western provinces/ developing areas/ less developed country. Graduates without working experiences are now losing their appeal for many international cooperations, such as ...

国家制定法律法规

个人接受教育

III 、图表题(table, bar graph, pie chart, line graph)

图表题的写作逻辑结构:

Paragraph I:(1)概括描述图表:趋势描写;

(2)具体描述图表:必要数据支持(细节性)。

Paragraph II:(1)提出自己理由和观点(本段主题句);

(2)细节性分论点(主要是原因,用于支持自己的观点,至少两点)。 Paragraph III:(1)预测未来和提出解决方法;

(2)总结全文和表达作者自己观点

【标题】Changes in People’s Diet

Directions: Write a three-paragraph composition to:

1. State the changes in people’s diet in the past five years.

2. Give possible reasons for the changes.

3. Draw your own conclusion.

You should quote as few figures as possible.

【短文】Changes in People’s Diet

In the past five years there have been many changes in people’s diet. Grain, as the main food of most Chinese, is now playing a less important role, while the proportion of some high-energy foods, such as milk and meat, has increased.

What has caused these changes? I think there are two reasons. First, people now have more money. The price of meat and milk is much higher than that of grain, so in the old days people couldn’t afford them. Now they have enough money to buy both meat and milk. Second, people nowadays pay more attention to the elements of their diet. They look for a well-balanced diet that will be good for their health.

In short, there have been changes in people’s diet in the past five years because of financial and health reasons, and there will be further changes in the future

【修改版】

As can be seen from the table, the past five years has witnessed dramatic changes in people’s diet. Grain, as the staple food of most Chinese, is now playing a less important role in their diet,

while the consumption of high quality food such as meat, milk and fruit has greatly increased. There are two factors leading to the change. For one thing, people now enjoy a higher standard of living. In the old days few families could afford meat and milk every day, which often meant a big chunk of the family income. But now people have enough money to taste a rich verity of foods. For another, people of today attach more attention to nutrition. They are not merely content to fill the stomach. They are seeking the most reasonable diet which will do good to their health.

In a word, with people’s standard of living getting higher and higher, changes in their diet will be more obvious and greater.

图表题的适用句型:

1. As we can see from the chart/ graph/ table/ diagram, ...

2. The chart/ graph shows/ displays that ...

3. As can be shown in the table ...,

4. The figures/ statistics in the chart reflect/ show/ reveal that ...,

5. It is clear/ apparent from the chart/ table that ...

V 、谚语格言题逻辑结构

Paragraph I:(1)点明要阐释的谚语或名言( general );

(2)用自己的话解释这一谚语或名言的意思,有时有正反两面的逻(specific )。 Paragraph II:(1)作者对该谚语或名言的观点态度,即文章的论点句;

(2)支持性的细节分论点,举例子论证(至少两点,有时有正反两面的逻辑); Paragraph III:总结全文,定下结论(通常为阐明其现实或更深远意义)。

Practice Makes Perfect

Practice is the key to success in all fields of activity. It is practice alone which enables us to build up speed and efficiency. When we accomplish something perfectly without wasting effort, this is the result of long practice.

【改写为】An English proverb says/ One of the greatest men once remarked/ Nearly every civilization has its own equivalent to the proverb: "Practice makes perfect". It means that/ In other words, it is practice alone which enables us to build up speed and efficiency. When we accomplish something without wasting effort, this is the result of long practice.

Practice Makes Perfect(续)

Take the study of English for example. Only practice can enable us to spell words correctly and master the rules of grammar. And it is only through practice that we can become fluent in speaking and writing, there is no other way. Another good example is sports. Practice is the only way to become stronger and run faster. Besides, in team games practice is what improves our sense of cooperation and helps the team to win.

【改写为】History/ Our society abounds with the examples of "Practice makes perfect". ......(正反两方面都举例子) On the other hand/ On the contrary, no practice will only lead us to failure. There is hardly/ scarcely a man who can achieve success without practice. All evidence points to/ justifies/ lends supports to the fact that practice is the key to success in all fields of activity. 举例一般为:英语学习;体育锻炼

To sum up, there can be no achievement which is not based on a solid foundation of practice.

【改写为】For us college students, the saying/ proverb has a profound and realistic significance: there can be no achievement which is not based on a solid foundation of practice

课后复习(self-study Program)

1、课堂讲解内容:体会用词艺术和丰富的句式

2、写作练习:2002年6月真题(Student Use of Computers)

3、记忆写作万能理由和基本表达

4、完型填空练习:完成Passage 1--Passage 3

做题步骤:

(1)通读全文,了解文章大意;

(2)初选答案(排除法、优选法);

(3)寻找线索;

(4)回头补缺;

(5)核实答案。

图表题:2002年6月考题

Topic: Student Use of Computers (at least 150 words)

1、 上图所示为1990、1995、2000年某校大学生使用计算机的情况,请描述其变化;

2、请说明发生这些变化的原因(可从计算机的用途、价格或社会发展等方面加以说明);

3、你认为目前大学生在计算机使用中有什么困难或问题。

2002年6月的图表题作文:

As is shown by the bar graph, the average number of hours a student in a certain university spends on the computer per week increased dramatically over the period from 1990 to 2000. In 1990, it was less than two hours. And in 1995, it hit/ reach four hours. And in 2000, the number soared to(飞速上升) nearly twenty hours, which is over ten times than that of 1990. 注:soared to/ boom/ shoot up/ rocket/ jump 飞速上升

climb 上升很慢

shrink 下降,缩水

第一段还有一种写法:……In 1990, the number was less than 2 hours, while the figure hit 4 hours (或者这样写:while in 1995,)as compared with that of 1990, it had almost doubled. And what impress us most is that the figure soared to..., which…

Obviously computers are becoming increasingly popular for males and for females. A multitude of factors could account for the rise. In the first place, computers facilitate us in more aspects of life. Also, the rapid development of the internet enlarges our demands for using computers. We can easily contact friends in remote places through the internet. In the second

place, the prices of computers are getting lower and lower, which enable more students to purchase them.

However, there still exist some problems, such as, poor quality, out-of-date designs and so on. And how to balance the time between using computers an studying is also a serious problem. Anyhow, we will benefit a lot from computers as long as we use them properly. IV 、书信题的写作方法:

(一)信封格式:

名字、信箱、地域范围由小到大,写在右下角(与我们相反)。

(二)信纸格式:

日期:背月份的缩写

称呼(后面的标点是逗号):Dear Sir or Madam, To whom it may concern,

正文:空4个字节或者顶格写,段与段之间空行)

签名:sincerely yours

书信写作的五点要求:

1、开门见山说意图

2、咨询/ 建议1、2、3、

3、不同内容可分段

4、感谢客气不可少

5、期待回信成老套

(三)开头段:

1、 告知对方你的身份(假如对方不认识你)

Dear Sir/ Mr. Prometheus,

I was a student at your college, enrolled in Philosophy Department.

/ I am a… at your…

/ I am a … at your college, enrolled in the… course.

/ My name is…, I am…

2、 问候收信人(假如他/她是你的朋友)

Dear Prometheus,

Hello / Hi. How are you? / I hope everything is fine. / How are things going with you? / How are you getting on in / getting along with…..?

3、 解释写信的原因

(1) 致谢:

I deeply appreciate your courtesy and I hope to reciprocate your favor when the opportunity arises. / I am greatly indebted to you for (the double) you have gone to on my behalf.

/ Thank you for your letter about studying in Canada.

/ I am writing to tell you how grateful I am for…

/ I would like to thank you most sincerely for…

(2) 抱怨:

I am writing to complain about the poor service at your dining-room.

/ I am writing to express my dissatisfaction with / at…

/ I wish to make a complaint about…

/ I am writing to draw your attention to….

/ I am afraid I have got a complaint about….

(3) 致歉:

I would be grateful if you would be so kind as to provide me with certain essential information regarding the following aspects.

/ I am writing to you because I am unable to….

/ I an terribly sorry that….

/ I would like to express my apologies for not being able to….

(4) 询问:

I would like to obtain /request/seek/inquire about some information about…

/ I am writing to ask if you can do me a favor.

/ I would like some detailed information on/about….

(四)结尾段:

1、发出请求

(1)Please give this matter your immediate attention.

(2)I would very much appreciate it if……as soon as possible.

(3)Please render me some valuable advice which is conductive to my final decision.

2、提供帮助

(1)I hope these……will be helpful, and please feel free to contact me for more information.

(2)……will be taking responsibility for you and if you should need any assistance, she/he will be pleased to help you

3、 再次表示歉意或感激

(1)Thank you for your kind assistance.

(2)Please accept my heartfelt thanks and deepest gratitude, now and always.

(3)I am sorry that I cannot……, and trust that you will understand.

(4)In addition, let me apologize for any inconvenience I may have caused.

(5)I shall feel obliged by a reply at your earliest convenience.

(6)Once again, I am sorry for any inconvenience caused.

4、 期盼回信:R.S.V.P.

(1)I look forward to your prompt response.

(2)Looking forward to a prompt reply,

(3)I expect to hear from you very soon.

(4)I hope to receive your reply shortly.

(5)I am already eagerly awaiting your reply to this first letter.

书信题范文:2001.6

Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a letter.

Suppose you are Zhang Ying. Write a letter to Xiao Wang, a schoolmate of yours who is going to visit you during the week-long holiday. You should write at least 100 words according to the suggestions given below in Chinese.

1. 表示欢迎

2. 提出度假安排的建议

3.提醒应注意的事项

A Letter to a Schoolmate

June 23, 2001

Dear Xiao Wang

Example I:

Dear Xiao Wang,

I am very happy to learn that you are going to visit me during the week-long holiday. My parents will also be happy to see you again. I am sure you will enjoy every minute here.

I know you like swimming. A river lies not far away from my home. We can go swimming there. I think it would be very pleasant and refreshing to swim in such hot summer days. In every big room of my home there is an air-conditioner. We can watch TV, play VCDs or read books very comfortably at home.

A mountain about two miles away from here is beautiful and it is worth touring. We can go there on foot. When we climb to the top of the mountain, we can have a wonderful birds eye view of the whole village.

Just phone me before you set off. There is no need for you to take anything. I’ll prepare everything for you.

I am looking forward to seeing you soon.

Yours,

Zhang Yin

公文信函: 2002.1

Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic:

A Letter to the University President about the Canteen Service on Campus You should write at least 100 words, and base your composition on the outline given in Chinese below:

假设你是李明,请你就本校食堂的状况给校长写一封信,内容应涉及食堂的饭菜质量、价格、环境、服务等,可以是表扬,可以是批评建议,也可以兼而有之。

January 12th, 2002

Dear Mr. President,

Li Ming

freshman 大一

sophomore 大二

junior 大三

senior 大四

Example II:

Dear Mr. Prometheus,

I am a student at your TOEFL class and I am writing to explain my absence from classes since March 11, 2001.

On March 10, 2001, I was involved in a serious motor vehicle accident. I was transported to the hospital in an ambulance, where I was treated for a broken ankle, fractured collarbone, and 3 bruised ribs. My doctor advised complete bed rest for 6 weeks, and as a result, I have been unable to attend classes since March 11, 2001.

I am concerned about keeping up with my studies, and have been doing the required readings, as assigned by you. My biggest concern is whether I will be able to participate the final class. Would you please advise me regarding my courses, specifically if there will be any special consideration given to me in light of my current situation? Thank you for your kind assistance. I look forward to hearing from you soon.

Sincerely,

Janet,

Student No…

题型总结:

对比观点选择题:4段

社会热点话题:3段

图表题:

书信题:

格言题:

描写叙述题:

完型填空

做题技巧

(一)Prep Tips for Cloze

I .做题步骤:

1、通读全文,了解文章大意;文章两种模式:总分、对比;

2、初选答案(排除法、优选法);

3、寻找线索;

4、回头补缺;

5、核实答案。

II .出题重点:

1.词语的辨析:

1)同义词; 2)反义词; 3)形近词;

形近词举例:Test 2

... or down frightening hillsides to towns __87__ in deep valleys.

87. A) lying B) laying C) laid D) lied

注:说谎:lie lied lied lying

躺:lie lay lain lying

放置,下蛋:lay laid laid laying

2.逻辑关系:

1)列举/种属关系:

such…as; especially; in particular; specifically; for example; for instance; likely;

2)因果关系:

because (for); due to; owing to; thanks to; since; for; as; for the reason that; seeing that;

3)并列/递进:

besides; likewise; moreover; also; too; what’s more; apart from; except; furthermore; not noly…but also….; in addition;

4)转折/让步关系:

however; but; never the less; nonetheless; whereas; still; though; although; anyhow; anyway; in any case; yet;

5)对比关系:

by contrast; in contrast; by comparison; like; as…as; on the contrary; conversely; oppositely; ….than….;

逻辑关系举例1:Test 4

Sometimes homework is returned 76 brief written comments but without a grade.

76. A) by B) in C) for D) with

逻辑关系举例2:Test 2

The United States is well-known for its network of major highways designed to help a driver get from one place to another in the shortest possible time. __71__ these wide modern roads are generally __72__ and well maintained, with __73__ sharp curves and many straight __74__, a direct route is not always the most _ 75__ one.

71. A) Although B) Since C) Because D) Therefore

72. A) stable B) splendid C) smooth D) complicated

73. A) little B) few C) much D) many

74. A) selections B) separations C) series D) sections

75. A) terrible B) possible C) enjoyable D) profitable

3.固定结构的识别:提高阅读的速度、对于内容有合理的预期、有利于总体把握文章: either…or…; neither…nor…; too…to…; so…that…; not…until…; hardly…when…; no sooner…than…; not only…but also…

固定结构举例:Test 3

76 geography books focus on a small area 77 a town or city. Others deal with a state, a region, a nation. or an 78 continent. Many geography books deal with the whole earth. Another 79 to divide the study of 80 is to distinguish between physical geography and cultural geography. The former focuses on the natural world; the 81 starts with human beings and 82 how human beings and their environment act 83 each other. but when geography is considered as a single subject, 84 branch can neglect the other.

76. A) Some B) Many C) Most D) Few

77. A) outside B) except C) as D) like

81. A) second B) later C) next D) latter

2. 搭配:

例如:a. + n.; ad. + v. ; take advantage of….; make use of….等;

3. 动词用法:

1)主谓一致; 2)时态; 3)语态; 4)非谓语动词;

4. 介词用法:

1)介词与名词; 2)介词与动词; 3)介词与形容词;

1、(be) about to 刚要,即将

2、(be) absorbed to 专心于

3、account for 说明(原因等)

4、(be) accused of 控告,谴责

5、acquaint with 熟悉,熟知

6、adapt to (使) 适应,适合; 改编,改写

7、add to 增添,增加; 补充说

8、add up to 合计达,总计

9、adhere to 附着,粘着

10、adjust to (使) 适应于,把... 调节到

11、agree to (+物) 同意,赞成

12、agree with (+人) 同意,赞成

13、aim at 瞄准,对准; 旨在