2017年四六级阅读作文
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2017年12月四级阅读(第一套) Passage One

Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.

That people often experience trouble sleeping in a different bed in unfamiliar surrounding is a phenomenon known as the ―first-night‖ effext. If a person stays in the same room the following night they tend to sleep more soundly. Yuka Sasaki and her colleagues at Brown University set out to investigate the origins of this effect. Dr. Sasaki knew the first-night effect probably has something to do with how humans evolved. The puzzle was that benefit would be gained from it when performance might be affected the following day. She also knew from previous work conducted on birds and dolphins that these animals put half of their brains to sleep at a time so that they can rest while remaining alert enough to avoid predators(捕食者). This led her to wonder if people might be doing the same thing. To take a closer look, her team studied 35 healthy people as they slept in the unfamiliar environment of the

university‘s Department of Psychological Sciences. The participants each slept in the department for two nights and were carefully monitored with techniques that looked at the activity pf their brains. Dr. Sasaki found, as expected, the participants slept less well on their first night than they did on their second, taking more than twice as long to fall asleep and sleeping less overall. During deep sleep, the participants‘ brains behaved in a similar manner seen in birds and dolphins. On the first night only, the left hemispheres(半球) of their brains did not sleep nearly as deeply as their right hemispheres did.

Curious id the left hemispheres were indeed remaining awake to process information detected in the surrounding environment, Dr. Sasaki re-ran the experiment while

presenting the sleeping participants with a mix of regularly timed beeps(蜂鸣声) of the same tone and irregular beeps of a different tone during the night. She worked out that, if the left hemisphere was staying alert to keep guard in a strange environment, then it would react to the irregular beeps by stirring people from sleep and would ignore the regularly timed ones. This is precisely what she found.

46. What did researchers find puzzling about the first-night effect?

A) To what extent it can trouble people. C) What circumstances may trigger it.

B) What role it has played in evolution. D) In what way it can be beneficial.

47. What do we learn about Dr. Yuka Sasaki doing her research?

A) She found birds and dolphins remain alert while asleep.

B) She found birds and dolphins sleep in much the same way.

C) She got some idea from previous studies on birds and dolphins.

D) She conducted studies on birds‘ and dolphins‘ sleeping patterns.

48. What did Dr. Sasaki do when she first did her experiment?

A) She monitored the brain activity of participants sleeping in a new environment.

B) She recruited 35 participants from her Department of Psychological Sciences.

C) She studied the differences between the two sides of participants‘ brains.

D) She tested her findings about birds and dolphins on human subjects.

49. What did Dr. Sasaki find about the participants in her experiment?

A) She analyzed the negative effect of irregular tones on brains.

B) She recorded participants‘ adaptation to changed environment.

C) She exposed her participants to two different stimuli.

D) She compared the responses of different participants.

50. What did Dr. Sasaki find about the participants in her experiment?

A) They tended to enjoy certain tones more than others.

B) They tended to perceive irregular beeps as a threat.

C) They felt sleepy when exposed to regular beeps.

D) They differed in their tolerance of irregular tones.

Passage Two

Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.

It‘s time to reevaluate how women handle conflict at work. Being overworked or over-committed at home and on the job will not get you where you want to be in life. It will only slow you down and hinder your career goals.

Did you know women are more likely than men to feel exhausted? Nearly twice as many women than men ages 18-44 reported feeling ―very tired‖ or ―exhausted‖, according to a recent study.

This may not be surprising given that this is the age range when women have children. It‘s also the age range when many women are trying to balance careers and home. One reason women may feel exhausted is that they have a hard time saying ―no.‖ Women want to be able to do it all—volunteer for school parties or cook delicious meals —and so their answer to any request is often ―Yes, I can.‖

Women struggle to say ―no‖ in the workplace for similar reasons, including the desire to be liked by their colleagues. Unfortunately, this inability to say ―no‖ may be hurting women‘s health as well as their career.

At the workplace, men use conflict as a way to position themselves, while women often avoid conflict or strive to be the peacemaker, because they don‘t want to be viewed as aggressive or disruptive at work. For example, there‘s a problem that needs to be addressed immediately, resulting in a dispute over who should be the one to fix

it. Men are more likely to face that dispute from the perspective of what benefits them most, whereas women may approach the same dispute from the perspective of what‘s the easiest and quickest way to resolve the problem—even if that means doing the boring work themselves.

This difference in handling conflict could be the deciding factor on who gets promoted to a leadership position and who does not. Leaders have to be able to delegate and manage resources wisely—including staff expertise. Shouldering more of the workload may not earn you that promotion. Instead, it may highlight you inability to delegate effectively.

51. What does the author say is the problem with women?

A) They are often unclear about the career goals to reach.

B) They are usually more committed at home than on the job.

C) They tend to be over-optimistic about how far they could go.

D) They tend to push themselves beyond the limits of their ability.

52. Why do working women of child-bearing age tend to feel drained of energy?

A) They struggle to satisfy the demands of both work and home.

B) They are too devoted to work and unable to relax as a result.

C) They do their best to cooperate with their workmates.

D) They are obliged to take up too many responsibilities.

53. What may hinder the future prospects of career women?

A) Their unwillingness to say ―no‖.

B) Their desire to be considered powerful.

C) An underestimate of their own ability.

D) A lack of courage to face challenges.

54. Men and women differ in their approach to resolving workplace conflicts in that________

A) women tend to be easily satisfied

B) men are generally more persuasive

C) men tend to put their personal interests first

D) women are much more ready to compromise

55. What is important to a good leader?

A) A dominant personality. C) The courage to admit failure.

B) The ability to delegate. D) A strong sense of responsibility.

2017年12月四级阅读(第二套)

Passage One

Questions 46 and 50 are based on the following passage.

Aging happens to all of us, and is generally thought of as a natural part of life. It would seem silly to call such a thing a ―disease.‖

On the other hand, scientists are increasingly learning that aging and biological age are two different things, and that the former is a key risk factor for conditions such as heart disease, cancer and many more. In that light, aging itself might be seen as something treatable, the way you would treat high blood pressure or a vitamin deficiency.

Biophysicist Alex Zhavoronkov believes that aging should be considered a disease. He said that describing aging as a disease creates incentives to develop treatments. ―It unties the hands of the pharmaceutical (制药的) industry so that they can begin treating the disease and not just the side effects,‖ he said.

―Right now, people think of aging as natural and something you can‘t control,‖ he said. ―IN academic circles, people take aging research as just an interest area where they can try to develop interventions. The medical community also takes aging for

granted, and can do nothing about it except keep people within a certain health range.‖ But if aging were recognized as a disease, he said, ―It would attract funding and

change the way we do health care. What matters is understand that aging is curable.‖ ―It was always known that the body accumulates damage,‖ he added. ―The only way to cure aging is to find ways to repair that damage. I think of it as preventive medicine for age-related conditions.‖

Leonard Hayflick, a professor at the University of California, San Francisco, said the idea that aging can be cured implies the human lifespan can be increased, which some researchers suggest is possible. Hayflick is not among them.

―There‘re many people who recover from cancer, stroke, or heart disease. But they continue to age, because aging is separate from their disease,‖ Hayflick said. ―Even if those causes of death were eliminated, life expectancy would still not go much beyond 92 years.‖

46. What do people generally believe about aging?

A) It should cause not alarm whatsoever.

B) They just cannot do anything about it.

C) It should be regarded as a kind of disease.

D) They can delay it with advances in science.

47. How do many scientists view aging now?

A) It might be prevented and treated. C) It results from a vitamin deficiency.

B) It can be as risky as heart disease. D) It is an irreversible biological process.

48. What does Alex Zhavoronkov think of ―describing aging as a disease‖?

A) It will prompt people to take aging more seriously.

B) It will greatly help reduce the side effects of aging.

C) It will free pharmacists from the conventional beliefs about aging.

D) It will motivate doctors and pharmacists to find ways to treat aging.

49. What do we learn about the medical community?

A) They now have a strong interest in research on aging.

B) They differ from the academic circles in their view on aging.

C) They can contribute to people‘s health only to a limited extent.

D) They have ways to intervene in people‘s aging process.

50. What does Professor Leonard Hayflick believe?

A) The human lifespan cannot be prolonged.

B) Aging is hardly separable from disease.

C) Few people can live up to the age of 92.

D) Heart disease is the major cause of aging.

Passage Two

Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.

Female applicants to postdoctoral positions in geosciences were nearly half as likely to receive excellent letters of recommendation, compared with their male counterparts. Christopher Intagliata reports.

As in many other fields, gender bias is widespread in the sciences. Men score higher starting salaries, have more mentoring (指导), and have better odds of being hired. Studies show they‘re also perceived as more competent than women in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) fields. And new research

reveals that men are more likely to receive excellent letters of recommendation, too. ―Say, you know, this is the best student I‘ve ever had,‖ says Kuheli Dutt, a social scientist and diversity officer at Columbia University‘s Lamont campus. ―Compare those excellent letters with a merely good letter: ‗The candidate was productive, or intelligent, or a solid scientist or something that‘s clearly solid praise,‘ but nothing that singles out the candidate as exceptional or one of a kind.‖

Dutt and her colleagues studied more than 1,200 letters of recommendation for postdoctoral positions in geoscience. They were all edited for gender and other identifying information, so Dutt and her team could assign them a score without knowing the gender of the student. They found that female applicants were only half as likely to get outstanding letters, compared with their male counterparts. That includes letters of recommendation from all over the world, and written by, yes, men and women. The findings are in the journal Nature Geoscience.

Dutt says they were not able to evaluate the actual scientific qualifications of the applicants using the data in the files. But she says the results still suggest women in geoscience are at a potential disadvantage from the very beginning of their careers starting with those less than out-standing letters of recommendation.

―We're not trying to assign blame or criticize anyone or call anyone consciously sexist. Rather, the point is to use the results of this study to open up meaningful dialogues on implicit gender bias, be it at a departmental level or an institutional level or even a discipline level.‖ Which may lead to some recommendations for the letter writers themselves.

51. What do we learn about applicants to postdoctoral positions in geosciences?

A) There are many more men applying than women.

B) Chances for women to get the positions are scarce.

C) More males than females are likely to get outstanding letters of

recommendation.

D) Male applicants have more interest in these positions than their female counterparts.

52. What do studies about men and women in scientific research show?

A) Women engaged in postdoctoral work are quickly catching up.

B) Fewer women are applying for postdoctoral positions due to gender bias.

C) Men are believed to be better able to excel in STEM disciplines. D) Women who are keenly interested in STEM fields are often exceptional.

53. What do the studies find about the recommendation letters for women applicants?

A) They are hardly ever supported by concrete examples.

B) They contain nothing that distinguishes the applicants.

C) They provide objective information without exaggeration.

D) They are often filled with praise for exceptional applicants.

54. What did Dutt and her colleagues do with the more than 1,200 letters of recommendation?

A) They asked unbiased scholars to evaluate them.

B) They invited women professionals to edit them.

C) They assigned them randomly to reviewers.

D) They deleted all information about gender.

55. What does Dutt aim to do with her study?

A) Raise recommendation writers‘ awareness of gender bias in their letters.

B) Open up fresh avenues for women post-doctors to join in reaserach work.

C) Alert women researchers to all types of gender bias in the STEM disciplines.

D) Start a public discussion on how to raise women‘s status in academic circles.

2017年12月英语四级阅读(第三套)

46-50 BBACD

46. What do we learn from the passage about cities in sub-Saharan Africa?

B )They are growing fast without becoming richer

定位:第一段第二句及第四句。第二句What‘s indisputable is that it‘s growing very quickly 对应growing fast, 第四句sub-Saharan Africa are not getting richer the way cities in the rest of the world have.

47. What does the author imply about urbanisation in other parts of the world?

B) It started when people‘s income was relatively high.

定位:第二段第二句:Most of Africa is urbanizing at a lower level of income than other regions of the world did.下文又提到因为收入低,所以缺少投资的钱。

48. Why is sub-Saharan Africa unappealing to investors?

A) It lacks adequate transport facilities.

定位:第二段最后一句:… the only light rail metro system…keep investors away.

49. In what way does author say African cities are different?

C) They have developed at the expense of nature.

定位:第三段第一句和第四句

50. What might be a solution to the problems facing African cities?

D) A more responsible government

定位:末段第五句。

51-55 BCADD

51. It used to be commonly acknowledged that to succeed in America, one had to have___.

B) an ambition to get ahead

第一段中:

For the past several decades, it seems there‘s been a general consensus on how to get ahead in America: Get a college education, find a reliable job, and buy your own home.

52. What is the finding of the latest National Journal poll concerning the American dream?

C) Americans‘ idea of it has changed over the past few decades.

第二段中:

Overwhelmingly , the results show that today, the idea of the American dream—and what it takes to achieve it—looks quite different than it did in the late 20th century.

53. What do Americans now think of the role of college education in achieving success?

A) It still remains open to debate.

第四段中:

In the past seven years, Americans have grown more pessimistic about the power of education to lead to success…they see going to college as a fairly achievable goal…do not need a four-year college education in order to be successful.

54. How do some people view college education these days?

D) It helps broaden their minds.

第六段:

While some…see college as a way to gain new perspective and life experiences.

55. What is one factor essential to success in America, according to Will Fendley?

D) A clear aim and high motivation.

第七段中:

Sixty-year-old Will Fendley…thinks ―personal drive‖ is far more important than just going to college. To Fendley, a sense of drive and purpose, as well as an effective high-school education…

2017年12月丨四级写作

写作第一套:亲子关系

Directions :For this part,you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay on how to best handle the relationship between parents and children. You should write at least 120 words but no more than 180 words.

参考范文:

How to best handle the relationship between parents and children?

Nowadays, a wide-spread phenomenon occur frequently that parents make a lot of decisions for their children, even for most critical issues of their life, such as

education, work or even marriage. Though many parents regard their children as the apple of their eye, they have no enough knowledge how to best handle the relationship with their children.

We may find several reasons to explain this phenomenon above. First of all, parents, with their former life experience, always think that they are able to make a better

decision than teenagers do. Next, they pay too much attention to their only child in the family without caring for their children‘s feeling. What‘s more, they assert the only way to realize their unfulfilled dreams is letting their children do things that they want them to.

How to solve such serious problems? To begin with, parents should adapt some strategic changes in children education. They should consciously develop their children‘s capabilities to think on their own. In addition, children should cope with the difficulties they encounter independently and may also search for parents‘ necessary guide only at critical moments.

Positive parent-child bonds foster autonomy, curiosity, self-esteem and better decision-making skills. So let‘s take actions to improve parent-child relationship before it‘s too late.

写作第二套:师生关系

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay on how to best handle the relationship between teachers and students. You should write at least 120 words but no more than 180 words.

参考范文:

With both parents having a daily job in most Chinese families in recent years,

teachers and students are even becoming the main parts in teaching activities. Hence it is never so necessary to best handle the relationship between teachers and students. To begin with, teachers need to be aware that they are the basis to make the teaching process function well. As educators, they should undertake the important

responsibility to educate students from different backgrounds and with different academic levels. Only by being patient and thoughtful can they cultivate the future hope of our country and continue the development of human society. Furthermore, students on the other hand are the main part of learning. It is critical for them to

respect their teachers, which is becoming less popular nowadays, as they can learn the core of textbooks and life from someone only if they trust him.

In all, the harmonious relationship between teachers and students will gain good result and it will bring unaccountable function to education career.

写作第三套:医患关系

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay on how to best handle the relationship between doctors and patients. You should write at least 120 words but no more than 180 words.

参考范文:

How to handle the relationship between doctors and patients?

In recent years, the relationship between doctors and patients has become increasingly tense and complicated. The disputes have intensified day by day. There is a lack of necessary understanding and trust between doctors and patients. The normal health

care activities are deeply affected. The relationship between doctors and patients has become an unprecedented common concern of the whole society at this stage. How to best handle the relationship between doctors and patients?Firstly of all,

doctors should have medical ethics and humanities, which require extreme enthusiasm for patients and their technical excellence. Secondly, doctors and patients should

communicate with each other. Furthermore, patients should know more knowledge of medicine. Besides, the government should provide more legal protection to help balance the doctor-patient relationship.

Although we have a long way to go, we have reasons to believe that the doctor-patient relationship in China is gradually improving.

2017年12月六级阅读(第一套)

Passage One

Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.

You may have heard that coca-cola once contained an ingredient capable of sparking particular devors: cocaine. thecoca in the name referred to the extracts of coca leaf that the drink's originator chemist john pemberton, mixed with his sugary syrup( it). at the time coca leaf extract mixed with wine was a common tonic( il jo), and pemberton's sweet brew was a way to get around local laws prohibiting the sale of alcohol. but the other half of the namepresents another ingredient, less infamous(名声不好的, perhaps, but also strangely pottent: the kola nut.

In west africa, people have long chewed kola nuts as stimulants, because they contain that also occurs naturally in tea,coffe ,and chocolate .They also have heart stimulants .

Historian paul lovejoy relates that the cultivation of kola nuts in west africa is hundreds of years old. the leafy, spreading trees were planted on graas part of traditional rituals. even though the

c) many were shipped to europe in the late 19th century for medicinal us

d) they were strange to the europeans when first imported from west africa

48. how come kola-extract colas became popular?

a)cocaine had become notorious

c) were set up to sell them

b)alcoholic drinks were prohibited

d) rights were sold to bottle the soda

49. what is known about the taste of coca-cola?

a)it was so designed as to create addiction in consumers

b) it still relies on traditional kola nut extract

c) it has become more popular among the old.

d) it has remained virtually unchanged since its creation

50. what is the passage mainly about?

a)the evolution of coca-cola

c)the medicinal value of coca-cola.

b)the success story of coca-cola

d) the business strategy of coca-cola.

Passage two

Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage

Twenty years ago, the urban land institute defined the two types of cities that dominated the us landscape: smaller cities that operated around standard 9-5 business hours and large metropolitan areas that ran all 24 hours of the day. analyzing and comparing cities using the lens of this basic divide gives interesting context to how investment capital flows and housing prices have In recent years, many mid-sized cities have begun to adopt a middle-of-the-road approach incorporating the excitement and opportunity of large cities with small cities' quiet after

midnight.these18-hour cities are beginning to make waves in real estate rankings and attract more reaestate investment. what is underlying this new movement in real estate, and why do these cities have so much appeal

18-hour cities combine the best of 24-hour and 9-5 cities, which contributes to downtown revitalization. for decades, many downtown cores in small to mid-sized cities were abandoned after work hours by workers who lived in the suburbs. movement out of city centers was widespread and downtown tenants were predominantly made up of the working poor. this generated little

ommerce for downtown businesses in the evenings, which made business and generating tax

renenue for municipal upkeep difficult. with the rise of a new concept in urban planning that aims and more conver increasing popularity for urban areas treal estate pushes in major cities like san francisco or new york, has inspired a type of forward thinking urbanity and in smaller cities

Transforming downtown areas so that they incorporate modern housing and improved walkability to local restaurants, retail and entertainment -especially when combined with improved infra structure for cyclists and public transit-makes them appeal to a more affluent demographic. these adjustments encourage employers in the knowledge and talent industries to keep their offices downtown. access to foot traffic and proximity to transit allow the type of entertainment-oriented businesses such as bars and restaurants to stay open later, which attracts both younger, creative workers and baby boomers nearing retirement alike. because of their smaller size, most keep hours that allow people to enjoy themselves, then have some quiet after midnight, as opposed to large ajor cities like new york, where the buzz of activity is ongoing.

These 18-hour cities are rapidly on the rise and offer great opportunities for ho

investment in many of these cities such as denver, a diverse and vigorous economy attracted to the urban core has offered stable employment for residents. the right urban mix has propped up home occupancy increased property values, and attracted significant investment capital.

51. what do we learn about american cities twenty years ago?

a)they were divided into residential and business areas

b)their housing prices were linked with their prosperity.

c)there was a clear divide between large and small cities

d) they were places where large investment capital flowed.

52. what can be inferred from the passage about 18-hour cities? a) they especially appeal to small businesses

b)they have seen a rise in property prices.

c)they have replaced quiet with excitement

d) they have changed america's landscape

53 years ago, many downtown cores in small to mid-sized cities(). a)had hardly any business activity

c) exhibited no signs of prosperity

b)were crowded in business hours

d) looked deserted in the evenings

4. what characterizes the new downtown areas in 18-hour cities? a )a sudden emergence of the knowledge industry.

b)flooding in of large crowds of migrant workers

c) housing and improved infrastructure

d) more comfortable life and greater upward mobility.

55. what have 18-hour cities brought to the local residents? a)more chances for promotion.

c) greater cultural diversity.

b) healthier living environment.

d)Better job opportunities

2017年六级阅读(第二套)

Passage one

Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.

In the beginning of the movie / robot a robot has to decide whom to save after two cars plunge into the water-del spooner or a child. even though spooner screams"save her save her.the robot rescues him because it calculates that he has a 45 percent chance of survival compared to sarah's ll percent. the robots decision and its calculated approach raise an important

question:would humans make the same choice and which choice would we want our robotic counterparts to make?

Isaac asimov evaded the whole notion of morality in devising his three laws of robotics, which hoId that I. robots cannot harm humans or allow humans to come to harm; 2. robots must obey preservation, unless doing so conflicts with laws i or 2. these laws are programmed into Asimov's robots--they don't have to think, judge, or value. they don t have to like humans or believe that hurting them is wrong or bad. they simply don't do it.

The robot who rescues Spooner's life in i, robot follows Asimov's zero law: robots cannot harm humanity (as opposed to individual humans or allow humanity to come to harm--an

expan-sion of the first law that allows robots to determine what's in the greater good. under the first law.a robot could not harm a dangerous gunman, but under the zero" law, a robot could kill the gunman to save others.

Whether it‘s possible to program a robot with safeguards such as asimov's laws is debatable

A word such as"harm"is vague (what about emotional harm? is replacing a human employee harm?)and abstract concepts present coding problems. the robots in asime complications and loopholes in the three laws, and even when the laws work, robots still have to asscss situations. Assessing situations can be complicated. a robot has to identify the players, conditions, and possible outcomes for warious scennrios. It‘s doubtful that a computer program can do that-at least, not without some undesirable results. A robotocost at the bristol robotics laboratory pro grammed a robot to save human proxies(替身)called―H‘bots‖from danger. when one H-bot of headed for danger,the robot sucecssfully pushed it out the way. but when two h-bots became imperiled, the robot choked 42 percent of the time, unable to decide which to save and letting

them both die .The robot choked 42 percent of the time, unable to decide which to save and letting them headed for danger, the robot successfully pushed it.how can a robot decide whom to save or what‘s best for humanity, especially if it can't calculate survival odds?

46. what question does the example in the movie raise?

a whether robots can reach better decisions

b)whether robots follow Asimov‘s zero‘law

c)how robots may make bad judgments

d) how robots should be programmed

47. what does the author think of asimov's three laws of robotics?

a) they are apparently divorced from reality

b) they did not follow the coding system of robotics

c) they laid a solid foundation for robotics.

d) they did not take moral issues into consideration.

48. what does the author say about asimov s robots?

a they know what is good or bad for human beings

b)they are programmed not to hurt human beings

c) they perform duties in their owners'best interest.

d) they stop working when a moral issue is involved.

49. what does the author want to say by mentioning the word"harm"in asimovs laws? a abstract concepts are hard to program.

b) it is hard for robots to make decisions.

c) robots may do harm in certain situations.

d) laws use too many vague terms.

50. what has the roboticist at the bristol robotics laboratory found in his experiment? a)robots can be made as intelingent as human beiegs some day.

b)robots can have moral issues encoded into their programs.

c)robots can have trouble making decisions in complex scenarios.

d)robots can be programmed to perceive potential perils.

Passage Two

Questions 5i to 55 are based on the following passage.

Our world now moves so fast that we seldom stop to see just how far we have come in just a few years.The lasest iPhone6s,for example,has a dual-core processor and fits nicely into your pocket.by comparison, you would expect to find a technological specification like this on your standard laptop in an office anywhere in the world.

It‘s no wonder that device we buy has a plug on the end of it or a wireless connection to internet soon.our current smartphone lifestyle will expand to create our own smart home lifestyle too.

All researches agree that close to 25 billion devices.things and sensors will be connnected by 2020 which incidentally is also the moment that Millennias(千禧一代)are expected to make up 75 percent of our overall workforce, and the fully connected home become a reality for large numbers of people worldwide.

However,this is just the tip of the provebial iceberg as smart buildings and even cities incrasimgly become the norm as leaders and business owners begin to wake up to the massive savings that technology can deliver through connected sensors and new forms of automation coupled with intelligent energy and facilities managemen.

Online security cameras, intelligent lighting and a wealth of sensors that control both tempera ture and air quality are offering an unprecedented level of control, efficiency, and improvements to what were once classed necessary costs when running a business or managing a large building. We can expect that the ever-growing list of devices, systems and environments remain

connected,always online and talking to each other. the big benefit will not only be in the housing of this enormous and rapidly growing amount of data, but will also be in the ability to run real time data analytics to extract actionable and ongoing knowledge.

The biggest and most exciting challenge of this technology is how to creatively leverage this ever-growing amount of data to deliver cost savings, improvements and tangible benefits to both businesses and citizens of these smart cities.

The good news is that most of this technology is already invented. let's face it, it wasn't too long ago that the idea of working from anywhere and at anytime was some form of a distant

wtopim(乌托邦式的) dream, and yet now we can perform almost any office-based task from any location in the world as long as we have access to the internet.

It's time to wake up to the fact that making smart buildings, cities and homes will dramatically improve our quality of life in the years ahead.

51. what does the example of iphone 6s serve to show?

A)The buge capacity of the smartphones people now use.

B) the widespread use of smartphones all over the world

c)the huge impact of new technology on people, everyday life

d) the rapid technological progress in a very short period of time

52. what can we expect to see by the year 2020?

A)apps for the internet of things

B)The popularization of smart homes

c)the emergence of millennials

D)total globalization of the word

53. what will business owners do when they become aware of the benefits of the internet of things?

A)employ fewer workers in their operation

B)gain automatic control of their businesses

C)invest in more smart buildings and cities

D)embrace whatever new technology there is

54.What is the most exciting challenge when we possess more and more data?

A)How to turn it to profitable use

B)how to do real time data analysis

C) how to link the actionable systems.

D) how to devise new ways to store it

55. what does the author think about working from anywhere and at anytime?

A)it is feasible with a connection to the internet

B) it will thrive in smart buildings, cities and homes

C)it is still a distant utopian dream for ordinary workers

D) it will deliver tangible benefits to both boss and worker

2017年12月六级阅读(第三套)

Section C

Passage One

Question 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.

At the base of a mountain in Tanzania‘s Gregory Rift, Lake Natron burns bright red, surrounded by the remains of animals that were unfortunate enough to fall into the salty water. Bats, swallows and more are chemically preserved in the pose in which they perished, sealed in the deposits of sodium carbonate in the water. The

lake‘s landscape is bizarre and deadly- and made even more so by the fact that it‘s the place where nearly 75percent of the world‘s flamingos(火烈鸟) are born.

The water is so corrosive that it can burn the skin and eyes of unadapted animals. Flamingos, however, are the only species that actually makes life in the midst of all that death. Once every three or four years, when conditions are right, the lake is

covered with the pink birds as they stop flight to breed. Three –quarters of the world‘s flamingos fly over from other salt lakes in the Rift Valley and nest on salt- crystal islands that appear when the water is at specific level- too high and the birds can’t build their nests, too low and predators can more briskly across the lake bed and attack. When the water hits the right level. The baby birds are kept safe form predators by a corrosive ditch.

“Flamingos have evolved very leathery skin on their legs so they can tolerate the salt water,” says David Harper, a professor at the University of Leicester.

― Humans cannot, and would die if their legs were exposed for any length of time.‖ So far this year, water levels have been too high for the flamingos to nest.

Some fish, too, have had limited success vacationing at the lake as less salty lagoons (泻湖) form on the outer edges from hot springs flowing into Lake Natron. Three species of tilapia (罗非鱼) thrive there part-time. “Fish have a refuge in the streams and can expand into the lagoons when the lake is low and the lagoons are separate,” Harper said. “All the lagoons join when the lake is high and fish must retreat to their stream refuges or die.” Otherwise, no fish are able to survive in the naturally toxic lake.

This unique ecosystem may soon be under pressure. The Tanzanian

government has once again started mining the lake for soda ash, used for making chemicals, glass and detergents. Although the planned operation will be located more than 40 miles away, drawing the soda ash in through pipelines, conservationists worry it could still upset the natural water cycle and breeding grounds. For now, though, life prevails – even in a lake that kills almost everything it touches.

46. What can we learn about Lake Natron?

A) It is simply uninhabitable for most animals.

B) It remains little known to the outside world.

C) It is a breeding ground for a variety of birds.

D) It makes an ideal habitat for lots of predators.

A. 原文第一段,在坦桑尼亚GF 山脚,Lake Natron有着亮红色的光,它被不幸落入盐湖的动物的尸体包围着。蝙蝠,燕子和更多其他动物,被化学地以他们生还最后一个的姿势保存,封印在水中的碳酸钠沉淀中。这个湖的地貌是奇特

并且致命的,以及被一个事实——这个地方是世界上几乎75%的火烈鸟的出生地,变得更加如此。因此可以得出,这个湖水对于大部分动物是致命的,不适宜生存,选A 。 B 选项,外界不了解这个地点,未提及。C 选项,它是各种鸟的生殖区域未提及。D 选项对于很多捕食者是理想的居住地,未提及。

47. Flamingos nest only when the lake water is at a specific level so that their babies can ______.

A) find safe shelter more easily C) stay away from predators

B) grow thick feathers on their feet D) get accustomed to the salty water

C. 原文第二段第四句开始,清晰定位water is at a specific level,世界上3/4的火烈鸟从其他盐湖地区飞到Rift Valley并在盐结晶岛上筑巢,这些盐结晶岛只有在特定水位时才会出现——水位太高时鸟无法筑巢,水位太低捕食者能吃迅速越过湖床并且攻击他们。当水位处于正确高度时,婴儿火烈鸟是安全的由于一个腐蚀性的沟壑阻止了捕食者。C 选项为正解。

48. Flamingos in the Rift Valley are unique in that _______.

A) they can move swiftly across lagoons C) they breed naturally in corrosive ditches

B) they can survive well in salty water D) they know where and when to nest

B. 此题并不能清晰定位,根据顺序原则,找到第三段第一句,火烈鸟已经进化出了非常厚的的皮肤因此他们能够忍耐高盐的水。直接选B ,ACD 未提及。

49. Why can certain species of tilapia sometimes survive around Lake Natron?

A) They can take refuge in the less salty waters.

B) They can flee quick enough from predators.

C) They can move freely from lagoon to lagoon.

D) They can stand the heat of the spring water.

A. Tilapia 定位至全文第四段第二句,3/4的罗非鱼能够幸存在那里一些时候。鱼类有着庇护所在小溪中并且他们能够去到泻湖里当湖水低并且泻湖是分离的时候,H 说。当水位高时,所有泻湖联合在一起,鱼类必须撤回到他们的小溪避难所中,否则他们就会死亡。

“Fish have a refuge in the streams and can expand into the lagoons when the lake is low and the lagoons are separate,” Harper said. “All the lagoons join when the lake is high and fish must retreat to their stream refuges or die.”

50. What may be the consequence of Tanzanian government‘s planned

operation?

A) The accelerated extinction of flamingos.

B) The change of flamingos‘ migration route.

C) The overmining of Lake Natron‘s soda ash.

D) The disruption of Lake Natron’s ecosystem.

D. 全文最后一段第一句,这种独特的生态系统面临压力。原因就是紧接第二句,政府计划。同时末段第三句,虽然计划位置为40英里外,但环保主义者们依然担心它会影响生态系统和繁殖区域。所以正选为D 项。

Passage Two

Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.

It is the season for some frantic last-minute math across the country,employees of all stripe are counting backward in an attempt to figure out just how much paid time-off they have left it their reserves. More of them, though, will skip those calculations altogether and just power through the holidays into 2017: More than half of American workers don‘t use up all of their allotted vacation days each year. Not so long ago, people would have turned up their noses at that kind of

dedication to the job. As marketing professors Silvia Bellezza, Neeru Paharia, and Anat Keinan recently explained in Harvard Business Review (HBR), leisure time was once seen as an indicator of high social status, something attainable only for those at the top. Since the middle of the 20th century, though, things have turned the opposite way – these days, punishing hours at your desk, rather than days off, are seen as the mark of someone important.

In a series of several experiments, the researchers illustrated just how much we’ve come to admire busyness, or at least the appearance of it. Volunteers read two passages, on about a man who led a life of leisure and another about a man who was over-worked and over –scheduled; when asked to determine which of the two had a higher social status, the majority of the participants said the latter. The same held true for people who used products that implied they were short on time: In one experiment, for example, customers of the grocery-delivery service Peapod were seen as of higher status than people who shopped at grocery stores that were equally expensive; in

another, people wearing wireless headphones were considered further up on the social ladder than those wearing regular headphones, even when both were just used to listen to music.

51. What do most employees plan to do towards the end of the year?

A) Go for a vacation. C) Set an objective for next year.

B) Keep on working. D) Review the year‘s achievements.

A. 第一段末句,尽管许多假期没休,但他们不再算计这件事情,直接将假期推到下一年。

52.How would people view dedication to work in the past?

A) They would regard it as a matter of course.

B) They would consider it a must for success.

C) They would look upon it with contempt.

D) They would deem it a trick of businessmen.

C 。第二段第一句话说,不久之前,人们会轻视那些沉迷工作的的情况。

53. What did the researchers find through a series of experiments?

A) The busier one appears, the more respect one earns.

B) The more one works, the more one feels exploited.

C) The more knowledge one has, the more competent one will be.

D) The higher one‘s status, the more vacation time one will enjoy.

A 。清晰定位第三段,研究者展示出,我们多么的钦佩忙碌这个事情。

54. What may account for the change of people‘s attitude towards being busy?

A) The fast pace of life in modern society.

B) The fierce competition in the job market.

C) The widespread use of computer technology.

D) The role of knowledge in modern economy.

55. What does the author advise us to do at the end of the passage ?

A) Schedule our time properly for efficiency.

B) Plan our weekends in a meaningful way.

C) Plan time to relax however busy we are.

D) Avoid appearing busy when we are not.

2017年12月六级写作真题及范文(互敬)

A saying goes that ― Respect others , and you will be respected‖. Simple as the saying is, its meaning is profound and thought-provoking. Evidently, it is meant to tell us that being respected by others is derived from respecting others.

Actually, all men are born to be equal and respect or esteem is the basic need of men. In other words, people cannot live freely and comfortably without others‘ respect or esteem. Taking a look around we can also find examples too many to enumerate. Don‘t make a joke with others, like appearance, social status, health

conditions, since everyone has the right to be respected as a member of the society. It is also a respectable behavior that there is no interruption when others are talking or doing work. Without respect, it is hard for one to gain friendship , confidence, trust and even happiness.

Bring what has been discussed into consideration, respect matters in people‘s mutual relationship. Respecting others shows one‘s good upbringing and parenting. The more you respect others, the more you will be respected.