四级考试作文
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四级考试作文

一、概述

在四级考试中,最难拿分的也许就是作文了。其原因大致有三:一是作文是一项综合考察的项目,既考察学生对词汇、语法的掌握情况,也考察句型、篇章的能力;二是有的考生过分自信,认为只要写足字数,大体写一写,就能得个八、九分;三是有的考生过于缺乏自信,觉得这个部分太综合了,平时也懒得写,考试时能写到哪儿就写到哪儿,结果造成了―活马当作死马医‖,自然是―医死‖了。

诚然,在四级作文中想得高分是很难的,但无论如何也应当拿到6分。这是一个底线,否则就要被倒扣分了,那是大大划不来的。(请见作文最低分的规定)。

但是笔者认为,要想拿到6分(或者更高一点)也并非难事,关键在于掌握正确的方法、多写多练,再加上考试时的细心。

我们先来了解一下四六级考试作文的一些常识。

二、作文最低分的规定:

自1997年6月起,全国大学英语考试委员会正式实施了在计算成绩时设―作文最低分‖的规定,其目的是为了鼓励各个院校扎扎实实地搞好课堂教学,提高学生的实际应用能力。

[计算方法]

(1)根据学生目前的作文分均值,将作文的最低分定为6分;

(2)作文分为0分,总分若高于60分,最后报导一律按59分不及格处理;若低于60分则报导时一律再减6分;

(3)作文分大于0分,小于6分,则按下面的公式计算成绩:

最后报导分=原计算总分-6分+实得作文分

例1:原计算总分为63分,实得作文分为2分,最后报导分=63-6+2=59分。

例2:原计算总分为80分,实得作文分为4分,最后报导分=80-6+4=78分。

例3:原计算总分为58分,实得作文分为2分,最后报导分=58-6+2=54分。

三、试卷要求

CET试卷短文写作部分,一般用英语给出题目,然后用以下三种形式之一说明内容要求:

1. 用英文列出写作提纲;

2. 用英文段首句给定每段的大意;

3. 用英文说明图表, 给出信息范畴和要求。

考试时间为30分钟, 要求学生写出一篇不少于100词的短文。要求切题, 能正确表达思想,意义连贯,文理基本通顺,无重大语言错误。写作内容为科技、社会、文化等方面的一般常识。

四、评分原则

1. 大学英语考试的目的是检查考生是否达到大学英语教学大纲规定的四级和六级教学要求,对作文的评分应以此要求为准则。

2. 大学英语考试作文题采用总体评分(Global Scoring)方法。阅卷人员就总的印象给出奖励分(Reward Scores),而不是按语言点的错误数目扣分。

3. 从内容和语言两个方面对作文进行综合评判。内容和语言是一个统一体。作文应表达题目所规定的内容, 而内容要通过语言来表达。要考虑作文是否切题, 是否充分表达思想, 也要考虑是否用英语清楚而适切地表达思想, 也就是要考虑语言上的错误是否造成理解上的障碍。

4. 避免趋中倾向。该给高分的给高分, 包括满分; 该给低分的给低分, 包括零分。一名阅卷人员在所评阅的全部作文卷中不应只给中间的几种分数。

五、评分标准

1. 短文写作部分满分为15分。

2. 阅卷标准共分五等:14分、11分、8分、5分、及2分。各有参照卷一至二份。

3. 阅卷人员根据阅卷标准, 对照参照卷评分, 若认为与某一分数(如8分) 相似, 即定为该分数(即8分) ;若认为稍优或稍劣于该分数, 则可加一分(即9分) 或减一分(即7分) ,但不得加或减半分。

l 给分档

14分—— 切题。表达思想清楚, 文字通顺, 连贯性较好。基本上无语言错误, 仅有个别小错。 11分—— 切题。表达思想清楚, 文字连贯, 但有少量语言错误。

8分 —— 基本切题。有些地方表达思想不够清楚, 文字勉强连贯;语言错误相当多, 其中有一些是严重错误。

5分 —— 基本切题。表达思想不清楚, 连贯性差。有较多的严重语言错误。

2分 —— 条理不清, 思路紊乱, 语言支离破碎或大部分句子均有错误, 且多数为严重错误。

六、作文评分标准示例

请对照评分标准,研究一下2002年12月四级考试作文的评分标准示例,找出失分的原因,以避免在自己的作文中出现。括号中为作者的点评。

Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic: It pays to Be Honest. You should write at least 120 words according to the outline given below in Chinese.

1. 当前社会上存在许多不诚实的现象。

2. 诚实利人利己,做人应该诚实。

It Pays to Be Honest

14 points

Although honesty is believed to be a virtue, there are still dishonest people in our society. For example, some businessmen sell fake product to their consumers; some students cheat in the exams.(第一句点明话题,同时用although 引导的从句指出诚实是美德,为后文作了铺垫,再用例子阐释第一句提纲。)

Dishonest people are short-sighted. Those who sell fake products may make money at first, but consumers won’t buy their products any more. As a result, they will lose their fortune or even be sent to prison. By contrast, honest people gain a lot. (从反面论述不诚实的坏处,得出结论) Those who always tell truth or keep to their promise not only let others trust them but gain respect from other people as well. Such persons are sure to have a lot of good friends. Because they are trustable and respectable, everyone is eager to make friends with them, Besides, it is easier for a person with a good record to get a

good job. Generally speaking, every employer wants his employees to be honest. So we can say that anyone who is honest will be paid back later. (从其它方面认述诚实的好处) In a word, honesty wins trust, respect and honor. So it is important that we should be honest. (这两句分别进行了总结和点题)

11 points

Nowadays, many people choose not be honest in our modern society. We almost can find such things every day of our life: some students cheat in the exam for higher marks; some corporations tell wrong data to the public in order to get more investment; and some doctors treat their patients with unnecessary and expensive medicines in order to make money, sometimes damaged the patient’s health, even their life.

Seeing this situation, I think it must be changed. Being honest will benefit not only others, but also ourselves. First, your honesty will make others willing to trust you. Second, being honest can lead you to face your problem bravely, which helps to solve it. And the last, honesty surely helps to make the society more harmony.

So, I think everyone should start to be honest and everyone should have the idea that our society can not do without honesty.

这篇文章全部采取正面论述的方法,略显苍白和单调,但文章尚连贯。

8 points

In our modern social life, there are many examples around us show many people are cheated. Advertisements cheat people, salesmen cheat people, even one’s closest friends cheat him or her. So many heartbreaks are heard everyday that we cannot help asking: where is our honest exist?

Everybody is taught honest in the primary school or even in the kindergarten. Honesty does good not only to ourseives, but to others as well. If we are honest to others, we will be happier and be in a better mood. Otherwise, we’ll feel guilt at last. To a company and its advertisement, honesty will bring it more consumer and more profit. If we cheat others, friends will not believe you and they will leave you alone. To a company, no consumer will buy your product again!

So, as the above is said, it pays to be honest. Let’s create a morally outstanding social. 仅在第一段就有那么多的错误和不规范的表达,其余的就不用说了。好在还能扣题,连贯性也过得去。 5 points

With the development of modern economic and industry, competitive is becoming more and more obvious. At the same time, the performance of dishonest is becoming more and more clearly.

Nowadays, there are many dishonest performance in our society. For example, some people found that he saled goods had past the preservation date. Not throw them away, the revised the preservation date, and saled them again after several day. Another case in the point, a pair of shoes was made from goat. However, in order to sale at a high price, the salers would say they were made from cow which has good quality.

From the foregoing, we can see that dishonest does not only harm to yourselves but also harm to others. And it is no use only realize the harmness of dishonest. We should be honest from now on and be honest on our daily life. It is only that people all over the world are honest then our country will be beautiful and wealthy.

2 points

Now in our society, many people are not honest in doing soming. we often can meet with soming happened cause by people who are not honest. For example, Now we take the bus need carry cents own, and when you upstairs the bus, you should put the cent into the money box. Every people do that, but some of the people put the other things instead the cents. For another example, it is more normal that in the exams we can always find some students see others.

I consider that every people should be honest. As a people, honest should be first,

because it can make us to be increase and make our society develop. In doing everything we should be honest all, study, work, life and so on. If you re honest, every people will be frie nd to you, and who will regard you good people. But if you don’t be honest, people must unwilling to trath with you. So if you are want to be a good people, remember honest first.

四级考试作文——作文题型

载自 双博士网站

纵览历年的作文试题,我们可以发现论说文占绝大多数,但近年应用文有上升的势头(01.6、02.1是书信体,91.6、02.6是图表作文)。就话题而言,主要有三大类:社会热闹话题、校园话题和日常生活话题。以下是历年作文题的汇总与统计,建议大家研究一下它的出题规律并写写看。

一、 历年四级考试作文题统计

社会热门话题

(87.9) Women in Modern World

(90.6) Make Our Cities Greener

(91.1) Bicycle – An Important Means of Transport in China

(91.6) Changes in People’s Diet

(94.1) The world Is Getting Smaller and Smaller.

(96.1) The Two-day Weekend

(96.6) Global Shortage of Fresh Water

(98.1) Harmfulness of Fake Commodities.

校园话题

(88.6) An Early Morning Walk (记叙文)

(92.6) How I overcome My Difficulties in Learning English

(94.6) My Ideal Job

(95.6) Advantage of Job Interview.

(97.6) Getting to Know the World Outside the Campus.

(99.6) Reading Selectively Or Extensively?

(00.1) How I Finance My College Education.

(00.6) Is A Test of Spoken English Necessary?

(01.1) How to Succeed in a Job Interview?

(01.6) A letter to a Schoolmate

(02.1) A Letter to the University President about the Canteen Service on Campus. (02.6) Student Use of Computers.

日常生活话题

(89. 1) The Tape Recorder

(90. 1) What Would Happen If There Were No Power

(92.1) Is Failure a Bad Thing?

(93.1)Positive and Negative Aspects of Sport.

(95.1)Can Money Buy Happiness?

(97.1) Practice Makes Perfect .

(98.6) Do "Lucky Numbers" Really Bring Good Luck?

(99.1)Don ' t Hesitate to Say "NO".

(03.1) It Pays to Be Honest

二、历年考题汇总

(注: 1. 每题前面的数字表示其考试年、月份,如:87.9表示这是87年9月的考题;

2. 点击这个数字可以查看该篇作文的范文;

2. 题目后如有括号,其中的数字为字数要求,如无特别说明,通常为100字)

87.9 Women in the Modern World

1. Women are playing an increasing important part in society today.

______________________________________________

2. With the changes in their social role, women’s position in the family has been improved as well. ________________________________________

3. In spite of these changes, the liberation of women has not been completely realized. _________________________________________________

88. 6 An Early Morning Walk

1. One morning I got up very early, and everything around was very quiet.

_______________________________________________________

2. When I arrived at the park, I found, to my surprise, that there were so many people there. __________________________________________

3.

__________________________________________________________________Taking early morning walks makes a man healthy and wise.

89. 1 The Tape Recorder

1. The tape recorder is one of the most welcome and popular electronic devices ever invented. ________________________________________

2. This device is useful in many ways.

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. However, it can also become a nuisance.

____________________________________________________________________________

90. 1 What Would Happen If There Were No Power

1. Ever since early this century, electricity has become an essential part of our modern life. _______________________________________

2. If there were no electric power,

__________________________________________________________________________________

3. Therefore,

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

90.6 Make Our Cities Greener

1. 城市绿化的现状

2. 绿化的好处(如:清洁空气,美化城市,改善气候……等等)

3. 怎样才能实现绿化

91.1 Bicycle – An Important Means of Transport in China

1. 为什么自行车在中国这样普及

2. 和汽车的比较

3. 自行车在中国的前途

91.6 Changes in People’s Diet

Study the following table carefully and your composition must be based on the information in the table. Write three paragraphs to:

(1) state the changes in people’s diet(饮食)in the past five years;

(2) give possible reasons for the changes;

(3) draw your own conclusions.

You should quote as few figures as possible.

Year

Food

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

Grain

49%

47%

46.5%

45%

45%

Milk

10%

11%

11%

12%

13%

Meat

17%

20%

22.5%

23%

21%

Fruit and Vegetables 24%

22%

20%

20%

21%

Total

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

92.1 Is Failure a Bad Thing

1. 失败是常有的事

2. 人们对失败有各种不同的态度

3. 我对失败的态度

92.6 How I overcome My Difficulties in Learning English

1. 你在英语学习中有哪些困难?

2. 我是如何克服这些困难的?

93.1 Positive and Negative Aspects of Sport.

1. 体育运动的好处;

2. 体育运动可能带来的副作用;

3. 我参加体育运动的体会

93.6 My Most Favorite Programm

1. 我最喜爱的电视(或无线电)节目是......

2. 这类节目的内容和特点

3. 我喜欢它的原因

You can write the composition in one. or more paragraphs. Remember to write it neatly. 94.1 The world Is Getting Smaller and Smaller

1. 现代化的交通工具越来越发达

2. 人与人之间的交往越来越频繁

3. 结论

94.6 My Ideal Job

1. 人们对职业各有不同的理想

2. 我理想的职业是什么

3. 我怎样为我理想的职业作准备

95. 1 Can Money Buy Happiness?

1. 有人认为金钱是幸福之本(source of happiness)

2. 也有人认为金钱是万恶之源(root of all evil)

3. 我的看法

95. 6 Advantage of Job Interview

1. 现在找工作一般都要面试,通过面试,面试者(interviewer )和应试者(interviewee )可以相互了解情况。

2. 面试者可以向应试者介绍情况如工作性质、条件、待遇等。

3. 应试者也有机会给对方留下一个好印象,如可以表现出自信心,可以介绍教育背景,工作能力等。

96. 1 The Two-day Weekend

1. 双休日给大学生带来的好处。

2.双休日可能给大学生带来的问题。

3.我应当怎样过发了双休日

96. 6 Global Shortage of Fresh Water

1人们以为淡水是取之不尽的(提示:雨水、河水、井水……).

2. 实际上淡水是非常紧缺的( 提示:人口增加,工业用水增加, 污染……)

3. 我们应该怎么办。

97.1 Practice Makes Perfect

1.怎样理解―熟能生巧‖?

2.例如:在英语学习中……

3.又如……

97.6 Getting to Know the World Outside the Campus

1.大学生了解社会的必要性

2.了解社会的途径(大众媒介,社会服务等)

3.我打算怎么做

98. 1 Harmfulness of Fake Commodities

1. 目前社会上有不少假冒伪劣商品(fake commodities)。为什么会有这种现象?

2. 举例说明假冒伪劣商品对消费者个人,社会等的危害。

98.6 Do "Lucky Numbers" Really Bring Good Luck?

1. 有些人认为某些数字会带来好运

2. 我认为数字和运气无关......

99. 1 Don ' t Hesitate to Say "NO"

1. 别人请求帮助时,在什么情况下我们说" 不"

2. 为什么有些人在该说" 不" 的时候不说" 不"

3. 该说" 不" 时不说" 不" 的坏处

99. 6 Reading Selectively or Extensively?

1. 有人认为读书要有选择

2. 有人认为应当博览群书

3. 我的看法

2000.1 How I Finance My College Education

1. 上大学的费用(tuition and fees)可以通过多种途径解决

2. 哪种途径适合于我( 说明理由)

2000.6 Is A Test of Spoken English Necessary?

1. 很多人认为有必要举行英语口语考试,理由是......

2. 也有人持不同意见 .....

3. 我的看法和打算

Is a Test of Spoken English Necessary?

A test of spoken English will be included as an optional (component of the College English Test (CET) _____________________________________.

2001.1 How to Succeed in a Job Interview?

1. 面试在求职过程中的作用

2. 取得面试因素:仪表,举止谈吐,能力,专业知识,自信,实事求是......

2001. 6 A letter to a Schoolmate

Suppose you are Zhang Ying. Write a letter to Xiao Wang, a schoolmate of yours who is going to visit you during the week-long holiday.

1. 表示欢迎

2. 提出对度假安排的建议

3. 提醒应注意的事项

2002.1 A Letter to the University President about the Canteen Service on Campus

假设你是李明,请你就本校食堂的状况给校长写一封信,内容应涉及食堂的饭菜质量、价格、环境、服务等,可以是表扬,可以是批评建议,也可以兼而有之。

January 12th, 2002

Dear Mr. President,

________________________________________________________________________________________________………

Liming

2002. 6 Student Use of Computers

1. 上图所求为1990年、1995年、2000年某校大学生使用计算机的情况,请描述其变化;

2. 请说明发生这些变化的原因(可从计算机的用途、价格或社会发展等方面加以说明;)

3. 你认为目前大学生在计算机使用中有什么困难或问题。

2002.12 It pays to Be Honest

You should write at least 120 words according to the outline given below in Chinese.

1. 当前社会上存在许多不诚实的现象。

2. 诚实利人利己,做人应该诚实。

三、参考范文

87.9 Women in the Modern World

Women are playing an increasingly important part in society today. In many countries, more and more women are no longer housekeepers. They have their own jobs as workers, farmers or even leaders. We can say that almost all jobs that men can do are done equally well by women. Women are no longer looked down upon by society.

With the changes in their social role, women’s position in the family has been improved as well. Husbands and wives are now more equal in the family. They cope with problems of daily life together and share happiness with each other. Also, in today’s families, it is more and more rare to find women busy with cooking while the men are sitting comfortably in armchairs, reading newspapers.

In spite of these changes, the liberation of women has not been completely realized. A number of men still jealously guard against their rights and regard women as incapable

creatures. Few women are allowed to attend important international meetings dominated by men. That is really the problem we should solve immediately.

88. 6 An Early Morning Walk

One morning I got up very early, and everything around was very quiet. As I had nothing to do, I decided to take a walk to the park. While I was walking, I found that there were only some young men running in the street. They looked healthy and happy.

When I arrived at the park, I found, to my surprise, that there were so many people there. Some of them were doing morning exercise. Others were practicing kung fu. The rest, especially old people, were taking walks. They seemed to look younger than their real ages.

An early morning walk can help one to keep fit and work efficiently. It can change one’s mood and make one’s life happier. I think that everyone, young or old, female or male, should get up early and take morning walks. Taking early morning walks makes a man healthy and wise.

89. 1 The Tape Recorder

The tape recorder is one of the most welcome and popular electronic devices ever invented. Nowadays, almost every family has a tape recorder. It can record people’s

voices or popular songs or some other things that people would like to listen to more than once. Tape recorders have been warmly welcomed since the day they were invented. This device is useful in many ways. For example, a reporter can use it in interviews instead of the old, less accurate means of writing them in a notebook. Also, in studying foreign languages, students can use it to improve their listening ability. Moreover, they can record their own voice to improve their pronunciation in the foreign language.

However, it can also become a nuisance. Your hearing can be seriously harmed if you listen to a recorder with the volume too high. And, if you can’t control yourself, you can waste a lot of time listening to a recorder. So, if used properly, the recorder will serve you well. If used improperly, it can do harm to you.

90. 1 What Would Happen If There Were No Power

1. Ever since early this century, electricity has become an essential part of our modern life. It plays an important role in many fields such as industry, agriculture and the daily life of men. Electricity is a source of energy that makes it possible for the factories to turn out products and for people to create comfortable living conditions, for example.

2. If there were no electric power, things would be quite different. Machines could not run and people would have to fall back on their hands to produce what is essential for them to keep alive. Traffic would have to stop at night because there would be no lights in the street. A world in darkness would no longer be a pleasant one. In a word, things would be in a mess.

3. Therefore, we should realize the importance of electricity. As electricity is insufficient in our country, we should be frugal in using electricity. We should make great efforts to produce more electricity.

90.6 Make Our Cities Greener

Recent efforts toward the greening of our cities have achieved much, although the results are still far from satisfactory. In recent years many trees have been planted in the cities and much care has been taken of the planted trees. In spite of all this, the greening

process is relatively slow compared with cities in many other countries. For example, the green space available on average to each Shanghai citizen is only 0.4 Mu while every Londoner has more than 20 Mu.

We can benefit much from making our cities greener by planting trees. First, trees absorb carbon dioxide to produce oxygen which is essential to the health of human beings. Second, trees and other greenery make our cities more beautiful. Third, trees can also improve the climate of the cities.

Since we can get so much from making our cities greener, we should spare no effort to do that. We should plant more trees and take better care of them. We also should not cut down the trees. In a word, we should do everything to add to the greening of our cities. 91.1 Bicycle – An Important Means of Transport in China

The bicycle is the most common means of transport in our country. There are several reasons for that. First, most people are not rich enough to buy a car. Since the bicycle is not expensive, it is affordable by the average Chinese families. Second, China has a large population and the traffic is heavy. The bicycle has the advantage of being small in size. A road which can only allow two cars to pass may allow more than ten bicycles to run side by side. Finally, people enjoy riding a bicycle to school, to work and on outing. It is so pleasant and the exercise is good for people’s health.

Compared with a car, a bicycle has its disadvantages and advantages. For instance, a bicycle is not fit for a long distance trip. A person who sits all day long in a car might get fat and unhealthy, while a person on a bicycle may gain good health and pleasure.

The bicycle is popular in China and it will remain so for a long time to come. Many things must change before cars became common in China. Therefore, in the foreseeable future, the bicycle will still be welcome.

91.6 Changes in People’s Diet

From the chart we can see that during the past five years there have been great changes in people’s diet. The greatest change occurs in grain consumption, which has dropped 4% from 49% in 1986 to 45% in 1990 in total food consumption. The second greatest change is in milk consumption, which increased from 10% in 1986 to 13% in 1990. But on the other hand, two trends can be observed in the consumption of meat and fruit and

vegetables. From 1986 to 1989, meat consumption increased from 17% to 23% while that

of fruit and vegetables dropped from 24% to 20%. From 1989 to 1990, meat consumption dropped a little to 21%, while that of fruit and vegetables increased a little to 21%.

What has caused the great changes in people’s diet? The main reason, I think, lies in the improvement in people’s income level. With the development of our society, people are becoming richer and richer, which enables them to purchase more nutritious food such as meat and milk. In the meantime, grain consumption in people’s diet consequently dropped.

So from the analysis, we can draw a conclusion that our society is progressing and people are living a better life than ever before. We are now able to purchase more delicious and nutritious food, resulting in an improvement in our health.

92.1 Is Failure a Bad Thing

Failure is a common thing in our daily life. As students, we sometimes fail to get high scores in our examinations. When we play games, we might be beaten by others. And there are times when we fail to do satisfactory work. All these failures happen naturally and almost every one of us has such experiences.

However, there are different attitudes towards failure. Some people lose heart when they fail; they think the world is at its end. Some people don’t take failure seriously but just let it be, while some others learn much from failure, and therefore see the light of hope through failure.

In my opinion, what really counts is not failure itself, but what we think of failure and what we do after failure. As long as we don’t give up, keeping believing in ourselves, and in the meantime learn something from failure, we’ll certainly make our mark in the end. So I am never afraid of failure, for I believe that failure is not a bad thing. Rather, ―Failure is the mother of success.‖

92.6 How I overcome My Difficulties in Learning English

To a Chinese, the task of learning English well is not easy. So I, like many other English learners, have met with difficulties in learning English during the past seven years. But I managed to overcome them and made much progress.

The spelling and meaning of words can be said to be the first difficulty I met as a beginner. But I found our my own way to deal with them. As to spelling, I never copied a new work again and again to remember it, but tried to find its relevance to the sound. In fact, as long as I can read the word out, I can write it out. As to the meaning, I rarely recite its Chinese translation but often put the word into the sentence to learn its meaning. Moreover, if you use a word quite often, its spelling and meaning will be no problem. After all, we are learning English in order to use it.

Grammar and idioms may be another difficulty. But I have also got over it. I have not read lots of grammar books. But I spent much time reading the articles written by native speakers or specialists in English. By doing so, I came to gain ―a sense of English

language‖. I began to gain a feel for which sentences are ―good English‖ and which are not.

Finally, I want to say that overcoming all these difficulties requires perseverance. In the past seven years I spent at least an hour on English each day. I believe this is an important reason why I am able to make progress in learning English.

93.1 Positive and Negative Aspects of Sport.

Sports benefit us in many respects. When taking part in sports, we get the chance to train almost all parts of our body. There is no doubt that properly balanced physical activities keep us physically fit. Furthermore, sports can enrich our life and maintain our

psychological health. Through participation, everyone can learn that on the playing field he not only competes for himself but also for his team. Sports teach us about

consideration, cooperation and optimism, and how to cope with difficulties.

But sports can do harm to those people who cannot balance their activities properly.

Training too hard may hurt their body, exhaust their energy and even make them disabled. Personally, I love sports. I enjoy participating in sports. I feel that I not only gain a

well-balanced life through sports, but also get more chances to move closer to nature. Sports have really added happiness to my daily life.

93.6 My Most Favorite Programm

The News Report has always been my favorite TV program. Almost everyday I turn on the TV at 6:30 p.m. and wait for the news program. This has become a part of my life.

The News Report contains a large amount of information – from the international political situation to the latest foot-ball game. And the most important character is its fast pace. Because of this fast pace, news programs can contain much information in a short time. In my opinion, the News Report is more than a TV program. It is a way of communication. From this program, people can know and understand world affairs. The world thus

becomes smaller and smaller. I especially appreciate this benefit of watching the news. 94.1 The world Is Getting Smaller and Smaller

Most of us have had an experience which reminds us the world is getting smaller. Perhaps when you went to some place far away from the city you live in and thought you knew nobody there, you were surprised to find that you ran into one of your old classmates on the street! Then both of you cried out, ―What a small world!‖

Why is the world getting smaller and smaller? For one thing, modern technology has created various means of transportation. And they are more and more available. Buses, trains, planes and taxis are found in most cities of the world. They carry goods and passengers to and from every corner of the world. For another thing, with the

development of modern society, people are in contact with one another more frequently. Everyday we must deal with a lot of people unknown to us before. The more advanced a society, the more contacts we make with others.

So we can draw the conclusion that as long as technology makes progress, the world will grow smaller and smaller.

94.6 My Ideal Job

Everyone has his own ideal job. Some want to be doctors, some want to be teachers, and some want to be engineers.

My ideal job is in teaching. Firstly, I like children very much. I would like to sing, to dance, and to play with them. Secondly, a teacher has two vacations each. I can enjoy myself during the summer and winter holidays. Finally, I want to teach the students all that I know and help them to develop their potential so that they can work better for our country in the future.

In order to be a good teacher, I will study hard not only in class, but also in daily life. I will train my patience, improve my handwriting, and enrich my knowledge. In a word, I will study harder than ever to prepare for my future teaching job.

95. 1 Can Money Buy Happiness?

Can money buy happiness? Various people have various answers. Some people think that money is the source of happiness. With money, one can buy whatever he enjoys. With money, one can do whatever he likes. So, in their minds, money can bring comfort, security, and so on. Money, as they think, is the source of happiness.

But there are still a lot of others who think that money is the root of all evil. Money drives people to steal, to rob, and to break the law. A lot of people became criminals just

because they were in search of money. And in the Western countries, there is nothing that can’t be bought by money. Many people lose their own lives when hunting it.

I think that money is essential to life and we cannot do without money. But even though money is necessary to life, it can’t buy happiness. Happiness is not something that can be measured by money. It is a state of mind. One can have plenty of money, with which he can buy whatever he wants, and at the same time he is not happy because he is never satisfied or he is troubled by various kinds of problems. Therefore, although money is necessary for a happy life, it can’t buy happiness.

95. 6 Advantage of Job Interview

When looking for a job, you will most likely have a job interview first. This seems to be in fashion now. Through the interview the interviewer and the interviewee can talk face to face, which provides a way for them to know each other better.

On the one hand, the interviewer can introduce the main aspects of the job opening to the interviewee, such as the specific requirements for the job, the working conditions, and the wages and benefits the interviewee will get.

On the other hand, the interviewee also has a chance to give the employer a good

impression. He can talk with confidence and show the interviewer how well he is educated and how good his working ability is. And it will be better if he emphasizes that this is the

very job he wants and he3 won’t cast an eye on any other jobs. The interviewer will most probably be moved.

Through the job interview, people who look for a job will have a better chance of getting a good one and those who need people to do a job will have a better chance of finding someone that is qualified.

96. 1 The Two-day Weekend

The two-day weekend has brought a lot of benefits to college students. It not only offers us more time to get rid of tiredness and have a good rest, but also gives us more chances to take up some hobbies, such as fishing, reading, or gardening. From these activities we can learn many things outside the classroom, which will add to our knowledge.

Despite the convenience it brings us, the two-day weekend has also given rise to quite a few problems. The most serious one is that the weekdays are filled with more lesson, sometimes too many. Because our classes are limited to Monday through Friday, we have to take more lessons each day than in the past. This leaves us little time to catch our breath during the weekdays.

In order to benefit most from the two-day weekend, I have decided to make a good plan for the two-day weekend. Of course I should take this chance to relax. But during the

weekend, I will still set aside enough time to study. By doing so ii can have a good time as well as make progress in my studies.

96. 6 Global Shortage of Fresh Water

Many people believe that the world’s supply of fresh water will never be used up. They think that fresh water comes from such a variety of sources that it is always sufficient for use. Such an opinion leads to a shocking waste of water.

As a matter of fact, the earth is short of fresh water. Furthermore, with the rapid growth of the world’s population, the rising demand for water by industry, and the serious pollution of our surroundings, the world is facing the danger of running out of fresh water. Actually, in some big cities, fresh water cannot meet the daily needs.

Therefore, to find new ways to save water is an urgent task. First, we should pass strict laws to control any waste of water. Second, scientists must work even harder to purify sea water and polluted water, and try to find substitutes to reduce the use of fresh water. 97.1 Practice Makes Perfect

The famous saying ―Practice makes perfect‖ is widely accepted today. It means if we practice unfamiliar things again and again, we’ll be able to perform it perfectly.

The practice of learning English is a good example. We are not living in an English speaking country. So, in order to learn it well, we need extra practice, such as reading English books, going to English corners, or communicating with foreigners. Only sitting at the desk cannot lead to the mastery of English.

As another example, if we want to be skilled in using the computer, we also need to

practice using it. Some children become little experts in computer, just because they play

with it everyday. On the contrary, if we just stick to books, we will still feel confused when using computers. Judging from the evidence offered, we might safely draw the conclusion that practice makes perfect.

97.6 Getting to Know the World Outside the Campus

With the rapid development of society, it is essential for college students to get to know the world outside the campus. There are a variety of reasons why we should do that. The primary one is that we can expand our horizons. Nowadays, as students, our knowledge is mostly derived from books, which is really limited. Only through contact with society will we learn more practical things. Second, it will enable us to be more sophisticated after graduation. Finally, knowing the world outside the campus may awaken in us a high sense of duty and help us make greater achievements in the future.

As is known to all, there are many ways we can know the society, such as through community service or keeping informed through TV, radio or newspapers.

As a university student, I will read newspapers and magazines to enrich my knowledge and do some volunteer work for the community or take up a part-time job in my spare time so that I can learn from my experience and prepare for my future work.

98. 1 Harmfulness of Fake Commodities

In recent years, a lot of fake commodities have appeared in the market. These fake commodities have done great harm to the consumers and the society.

Since the policy of reform was implemented, China’s economy has improved. A lot of people getting richer, and their living conditions are getting better. But still some of them are not satisfied. They dream of getting rich overnight and living a heavenly life, which, of course, is impossible to achieve by fair means. So they risk breaking the law to produce the market take commodities.

Once these fake commodities enter the market, they will do immeasurable harm to the society. The direct victims are the consumers. As the quality of the fake commodities is always very poor, the consumers may suffer great losses. Certain fake commodities, such as food and medicine, will cause irreparable harm to the health and well-being of the consumers. Fake commodities also cut into the profits of the brand-name-owners. Since the fake ones are cheaper, people tend to be reluctant to buy the genuine ones. 98.6 Do "Lucky Numbers" Really Bring Good Luck?

Some people take it for granted that some lucky numbers can bring them good luck. For instance, the so-called lucky number ―8‖ is widely used now because it is sounded like ―getting rich‖ in Chinese and is believed to bring good fortune.

Yet many others don’t think so. They think that numbers have nothing to do with luck. They regard numbers simply as a mathematic symbols for counting. They are anything but a mystery. They laugh at those who think numbers can bring good luck.

I’m in favor of the latter opinion. I think our society is very modern now. We mustn’t count on the so-called lucky numbers to fulfill our wishes. Whether we can have good luck depends on ourselves. If we work hard, good luck will come to us.

99. 1 Don ' t Hesitate to Say "NO"

In our daily life, there are many occasions on which we should not hesitate to refuse when asked for help. For one thing, when it is beyond our ability, we should give a direct reply ―no‖. For another, we the thing we are asked for is unreasonable or even illegal, we should say ―no‖ without hesitation.

However, it is not the case in our real life. Many people prefer to say ―yes‖ when they should say ―no‖. Some are afraid to lose their face, since they think refusal means their inability. Some people are afraid to offend their acquaintances’ face, such as their friends, relatives and so on.

In fact, doing so is quite harmful. If you agree to do the things beyond your ability, the result will only be worse. The other might as well have asked another person who can help. And if you agree to do the unreasonable or even the illegal favors, such as cheating in the exam, you are in fact not helping the other but hurting him. You yourself will get into trouble too.

99. 6 Reading Selectively or Extensively?

Some people think when we read we should read selectively. That is to say, we should select some books we are interested in and ignore the others. Reading selectively can help us concentrate our limited time and attention on those selected books.

Others think we should read extensively. No matter what kind of book it is, we should look it over. We should read various kinds of books, whether we are interested in them or not. They maintain that reading extensively can help to enlarge our view and grasp the general knowledge in different fields.

In my opinion, the two reading ways have their roles respectively in our reading. However, the disadvantages of each methods are easy to see. If we only read the books we select or prefer, the framework of our knowledge may not be complete. Our knowledge would be rather limited. And if we read without selection, we may not have so much time and energy to be specialized in one particular field. Therefore, the combination of the two methods is more reasonable.

2000.1 How I Finance My College Education

Several years ago new tuition fee policy was put into practice and college students were asked to pay a certain sum of money. And now, all the students, no matter what subjects they are engaged in, must pay for tuition.

There are many ways for a student to finance his college education. Most students ask their parents to pay the tuition fee and pay for their books, accommodation and other cost.

A student can also apply for the scholarship. Most universities set up scholarship to offer money to the poor students who do well in entrance exams and reward those who do well

in entrance exams and reward those who work well at university. A student can also apply for the low-interest loans. In addition to the above, taking part-time jobs is also a common way for a college student to get money to pay part of his tuition and fees.

So far as I’m concerned, I’d prefer earning the scholarship. This means I must study hard and be a top student, which has always been my goal. After all, the task of a student is to study. And in addition to solving my financial problems, getting the scholarship can also prove my ability and is good for my future.

2000.6 Is A Test of Spoken English Necessary?

A test of spoken English will be included as an optional (component of the College English Test (CET). Some people contend that it is absolutely necessary to hold a test of spoken English in China because we have been told many times that a Chinese student who has been learning English for years cannot communicate with a native English speaker. Sometimes even those top students who excel at grammar and writing skills find their English inadequate to express their thoughts freely when speaking. A test of spoken English will bring the importance of speaking English to the awareness of the college students, and thus help them with their communicating skills.

On the other hand, there are also people who maintain that good reading and writing skills would be enough for the average English learners. College students are already under considerable pressure from their coursework. Another required test will only add to their burden. Also, some students may take the shortcut and only practice the questions according to the fixed format of the test, which will not actually improve their spoken English.

I believe that a test of spoken English will do more good than harm. Since China will continue its policy of opening and reform, the ability to speak fluent English is a must for anyone who wants to surpass others in a highly competitive society. Whether I take the test or not, I shall make all efforts to practice my spoken English in the rest years in college.

2001.1 How to Succeed in a Job Interview?

Nowadays, in an ever tighter job market, great importance has been attached to an

interview by both the employer and the applicant. The interview, so to speak, has become indispensable for getting a satisfactory job. On the one hand, the interviewer can take advantage of the occasion to learn about the candidates, such as their work experiences, education and their personalities, so as to pick out the right person for the company. On the other hand, the interviewee can make use of the opportunity to get to know the job he is going to take up, the salary, the working conditions and many other things about the job he is interested in.

Therefore, the job interview is very important to a job-hunter. But how can one succeed in it?

Firstly of all, the interviewee must pay attention to his or her appearance. The first

impression is always where we start. Get dressed properly and neatly. Secondly, good manners are equally important. Don’t be too proud, and neither too timid. Just be

courteous. Thirdly, the interviewee must demonstrate his aptitude and skills for the job and his knowledge about eh job-related areas. Be confident. Last but not the least, the interviewee ought to be honest about his or her personal as well as academic background, for honesty is the best policy.

To sum up, the job interview is indeed important, but there is no need to be nervous. As long as the interviewee has the ability for the job, with careful preparation and a fairly confident and honest performance, his or her success can be ensured.

2001. 6 A letter to a Schoolmate

Dear Xiao Wang,

I’m delighted to learn that you are going to visit me during the week-long vacation. My parents will also be happy to see you again. I’m sure you will enjoy every minute here. I know you are fond of swimming. A river lies not far away from my home. We can go swimming there. I think it would be very pleasant and refreshing to swim in such hot

summer days. In every big room of my home there is an air-conditioner. We can watch TV, play CDs or read books very comfortably at home.

A mountain about two miles away from here is beautiful and it is worth touring. We can go there on foot. When we climb to the top of the mountain, we can have a wonderful bird-eye view of the whole village.

Just phone me before you set off. There is no need for you to take anything. I’ll prepare everything for you.

I am looking forward to seeing you soon.

2002.1 A Letter to the University President about the Canteen Service on Campus January 12th, 2002

Dear Mr. President,

I’m very lucky to attend this world-famous university, but I’m afraid I’m not content with the canteen service on campus.

Firstly, the quality of the dishes should be improved. Undoubtedly, there are a lot of delicious dishes, but all the year round, they are the same. More and more students are complaining about eating the same food each day. So I think the most urgent problem is variety.

Secondly, the price is a bit too high. Many of us hope that the canteen can provide us with not only delicious but also cheaper food.

Finally, the environment is so noisy that we can’t enjoy our meals in good mood. I suggest that there be some soft music to help us relax.

These suggestions are not just of my own, but also of may other students. We hope our respectable president will pay attention to our suggestions.

By the way, the canteen workers are very patient and always smiling. So I think if our university offers them better conditions, they will offer us better service.

Best wishes,

Yours sincerely,

Liming

2002. 6 Student Use of Computers

Students tend to use computers more and more nowadays. Reading this chart, we can find that the average number of hours a student spends on the computer per week has increased sharply. In 1990, it was less than 2 hours; and in 1995, it increased to almost 4 hours; while in 2000, the number soared to 20 hours.

Obviously computers are becoming more and more popular. There are several reasons for this. First, computers facilitate us in more aspects of life. Also, the fast development of the Internet enlarges our demands for using computers. We can easily contact with

friends in remote places through the Internet. Besides, the prices of computers are getting lower and lower, which enables more students to purchase them.

Along with the time spent on computers, there arise some problems. The most serious one is that many students are spending so much time playing PC games so that they ignore their studies. It is urgent to let the students use computers in a proper way. 2002.12 It pays to Be Honest

Although honesty is believed to be a virtue, there are still dishonest people in our society. For example, some businessmen sell fake product to their consumers; some students cheat in the exams.

Dishonest people are short-sighted. Those who sell fake products may make money at first, but consumers won’t buy their products any more. As a result, they will lose their fortune or even be sent to prison. By contrast, honest people gain a lot.

Those who always tell truth or keep to their promise not only let others trust them but gain respect from other people as well. Such persons are sure to have a lot of good friends. Because they are trustable and respectable, everyone is eager to make friends with them, Besides, it is easier for a person with a good record to get a good job. Generally speaking, every employer wants his employees to be honest. So we can say that anyone who is honest will be paid back later.

In a word, honesty wins trust, respect and honor. So it is important that we should be honest.

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四级考试作文写作常识

载自 双博士网站

一、 基本的写作步骤

许多考生在拿到作文题后,就雷厉风行地动手写了起来,结果不是写的一塌糊涂就是改得乱七八糟。在四级考试(包括其它水平考试)的写作中,通常进行以下五个步骤:审题、选材、腹稿(包括提纲和正文)、书写、修改。

1. 审题

审题是写作的第一步, 也是最关键的一步。因为如果跑题了的话,就几乎不得分了。所以在拿到题后,一定要冷静地弄清题目要求;然后确定文章的文体以及主题思想。

通常在四、六级的作文中,有两种形式。一种是给出题目和提纲(中文或英文),另一种是给出题目和每一段的段首句(段首句大多是该段的主题句,其实相当于提纲)。我们应该充分利用这些信息,才不至于跑题。 以2001年1月份的试题为例,它的题目是―How to Succeed in a Job Interview?‖,给出了两个要点(提纲):

(1)面试在求职过程中的作用

(2)取得面试因素:仪表,举止谈吐,能力,专业知识,自信,实事求是......

从这些信息来看,这篇文章应该是一篇议论加说明的文章,要求写的是如何在找工作时顺利(成功)通过面试。两个提纲告诉我们,文章至少要分两个部分,第一个部分是议论,说明面试是重要的;第二个部分要从第二点中给出的几个方面挑几点说明怎样去做。 但是这两个部分在文章中的比重应该如何?是否要平均?

此时应该看到,标题中的关键词是HOW ,因此文章的重点应该在第二点,而第一点只是作为引言。

那么文章要分为几段呢?

在英语文章中,每一段只讨论一个问题。所以第(1)点显然要独立成段,第(2)点因为是文章的重点所在,可以是一个长一点的段或分为几段。但要注意的是,既然第一段是一个引言,那么文章就应该还有一个总结的段落,这是原提纲中没给出来的。

2.选材

确定了文章的主题和轮廓之后,我们就开始考虑要选择哪些要点来阐明主题。选材一定要围绕主题句进行,同时要考虑到全面性。

比如在考虑上面第一点时,我们要想到面试对双方都是重要的。对于interviewer 来说,通过面试他能对applicant 有更好的了解,能通过面试挑到合适的人选等;而对于interviewee 来说,他能通过面试更好地了解所申请的工作、薪水、待遇等信息,还能更好地展示自己,还能增强自己的社会知识,能练习与人打交道等。

但这些是否都要写进文章中去呢?或者比重是否都应该一样呢?

当然不。就面试的作用来说,因为标题是站在求职者的角度来说的,因此面试对于求职者的作用就显得比它对招聘者的作用更为重要。而在后者中增强自己的社会知识、练习与人打交道等方面,并不是面试最重要的方面,就可以舍去。 就第二点来说,提纲中给出了许多方面,但这些方面也不能一一都写进作文中去,否则就不是一篇考试作文,而要写一本求职大全了。应该挑最重要的和最好写的去说,别的可以一带而过甚至不提。

3. 打腹稿

打腹稿是不可省略的一步,但却为许多人所忽视。其实打腹稿就相当于我们平时写作时打草

稿,只是考试时没有时间,也没有纸用来打草稿。 建议平时写作时,要养成良好的习惯,即使在打草稿时也要仔细想一想要怎么写,在脑子中先将文章―读‖一篇。

打腹稿时,首先要考虑文章的开头和结尾,然后是各个段落间的衔接和过渡,然后是各个句子怎样写,要注意用自己熟悉的、有把握的句子,同时也要注意句子之间的衔接与连贯。 4. 抄写

严格地说,第四步仅仅是将前面三步的结果用笔写到试卷上。这部分不应占用太多的时间,真正需要时间的是前面的三步。

5. 修改

修改的主要任务是检查一下有无拼写和语法方面的错误,同时注意是否用词有过多的重复。 总之,在写作时切忌一边想一边写。

二、文章的衔接与连贯

在评分标准中,同是否扣题同样重要的是文章的连贯性。往往有的文章扣题倒也扣题了,但还是得不了几分,这其中的原因恐怕与连贯性有很大的关系。 这里所说的连贯有两两层含义。一是指文章在内容上是连贯、统一的,文章中所有的句子都是为全文的中心服务的。就各段而言,其中的每一句话都要紧紧围绕着该段的主题句进行,不能说与主题句无关的东西。有人也将其称为统一性。请看一例:

The weather has been changeable. On Sunday we had a high wind that blew down some trees. Monday was so cold that we had to turn on the heat and wear out winter coats. On Tuesday we formed a group to go roller skating. By Wednesday the weather cleared and the sun came out. Thursday was as hot and humid as an August day. Friday morning it began to rain, and it looks as if we’ll have a cold, steady wind for a few days.

这一段写―最近天气多变‖,首句为主题句。扩展句叙述了星期日、星期一、星期三、星期四和星期五的天气情况,用以展开关键词changeable 。但星期二没有提天气,而是说当天的活动安排,偏离了主题,打断了段落叙述的连贯性,破坏了段落逻辑意义的统一性,应删去或改为与天气有关的话。

再如:

Sports benefit us in many respects. When taking part in sports, we get the chance to train almost all parts of our body. There is no doubt that properly balanced physical activities keep us physically fit. Furthermore, sports can enrich our life and maintain our

psychological health. Through participation, everyone can learn that on the playing field he not only competes for himself but also for his team. Sports teach us about

consideration, cooperation and optimism, and how to cope with difficulties.

第一句是本段的主题句,接下来作者从体育运动对身体的好处说了两句,第四句讲述体育运动对心理方面的益处,第五句从团队的方面加以论述,最后一句既是论据,同时也是对前面三点的概括。全段没有一句话脱离主题句。

连贯的第二层含义指的是表达上的连贯。文章的段落之间、段落中各句子之间要有一定的衔接。

段落结构和句与句之间的衔接应遵照一定的顺序。段落之间的连接也应符合逻辑。这样使文章连贯紧凑,自然流畅,层次分明,脉络清晰。段落只有在具有含义一致性的同时又具有表达的连贯性才能充分有效地传达信息,真正实现写作目的。

这两层意义的连贯性是相辅相成的。内容的连贯性是表达连贯性的前提,一组互不相干的句子放在一起,无法取得表达的连贯性;一致性有赖于连贯性,只有把一组意义紧密相关的句子有机地组合起来,才能真正充分有效地阐述其主题思想。 就上面的例一来说,虽然它是以时间为线索将这几天串在一起,但仍让人感觉太乱。每个句子都是以星期某一天的名子开头,太单调了。各个句子之间似乎没有什么关系,应该说是一篇连贯性较差的文章。下面让我们对它稍加修改一下:

The weather has been changeable. On Sunday we had a high wind that blew down some trees. Monday was so cold that we had to turn on the heat and wear out winter coats. And it remained gloomy the next day. To our pleasure, by Wednesday the weather cleared and the sun came out. But Thursday tuned out to be as hot and humid as an August day. Worse still, it began to rain this morning, and it looks as if we’ll have a cold, steady wind for a few days.

那么,如何使文章连贯呢?

就议论文而言,获取连贯主要有三种方法:一是内容上的连贯,二是使用代词或有意地重复一些词,三是使用关联词语。

内容上的连贯如前所述。

代词和有意的重复可起到衔接的作用。例如在上面的例子中,在提到星期二时,没有用Tuesday ,而是用了the next day,避免重复,并把这两天连在一起,让人感觉到了前后的承接。再如最后一句中原文用的是Friday morning,改为this morning后,意义并没有改变,但一下子把距离拉近了,既承接起前面的五天,又能与后一分句中的将来时有效的结合。 关联词和插入语的使用是四级考试作文中最明显的连接手段,如上例中的and ,to our pleasure ,but ,worse still。

需要注意的是,关联词的使用是与段落(文章)的展开方法密切相关的,不要为了使用关联词而使用关联词。下面结合段落的展开方法具体加以说明。

1. 列举法

列举的模式通常是

主题句----example 1

----example 2

----example 3

列举时常用for example, for instance, such as, like, as proof, thus, take…as an example, to illustrate 等词语.

Nonverbal communication, or "body language." is communication by facial expressions, head or eye movements, hand signals, and body postures. It can be just as important to understanding as words are. Misunderstandings often amusing but sometimes

serious-can arise between people from different culture if they misinterpret nonverbal signals. Take for example, the differences in meaning of gesture very common in the

United States: a circle made with the thumb and index finger. To an American, it means that everything is ok. To a Japanese, it means that you are talking about money. In France," it means that something is worthless, and in Greece, it is an obscene gesture. Therefore, an American could unknowingly offend a Greek by using that particular hand signal.

2. 分类法

一般是在主题句之后,依次罗列段落指示词所表达的几个部分或几个方面。然后,选用丰富的事例对所罗列的各个部分或各个方面进行具体地说明或解释。

There are three basic kinds of materials that can" be found in any good library. First, there are books on all subjects, both in English and in many other languages. These books are organized according to subject, title, and author in a central file caned the card catalog. Books can generally be checked out of the library and taken home for a period of two to four weeks. Second, there are reference works. which include encyclopedias, dictionaries, bibliography, atlases, etc., and which generally must be used in the library itself. Third, there are periodicals- magazines, newspapers, pamphlets-which are flied alphabetically in racks, or which have been filmed to conserve space. Like reference works, periodicals cannot usually be removed from the library.

分类时常用:most of all, next ,moreover , in addition,besides ,furthermore ,to begin with ,to start with,first of all,first ,second ,third…

3. 因果关系

在段落一开头,就用主题句点明其因果关系,然后选用有关材料,客观的罗列某些原因或结果,以证阐述的中心思想。

Growing numbers of well-to-do Americans are making the decision to move abroad. They find it impossible in America to walk the streets at night without fear of being raped, mugged, or murdered, nor do they see a way to escape the poisonous air of the cities. They maintain that even American food has become increasingly dangerous to eat. Last but not least, they insist that they are sick of the pace of American life, a pace that leaves no time for relaxation or pleasure.

因果关系常用语汇: because of, so, owing to, thanks to, thus, as a result of, hence, for this reason, consequently, is caused by, lead to, result in

4.比较法

主题句必须明确表明所要比较的对象和所要比较的范围,实际上就是罗列两个或两个以上比较对象的相同点。

Learning English is like building a house. Laying a solid foundation is the first and most important step. In other words, you should reads, you should read and speak English every day. Memorizing new words and phrases is also helpful. Like building a house,

learning English takes some time. So don’t be impatient. Remember, Rome wasn’t built in a day.

常用语汇:at the same time, similar to, accordingly, both, show a degree of similarity, similarly, lie and so , the same as, and… too, in the same way, in a like manner

5.举例法

列举事实或举出实例来说明中心思想, 是简单易行、具有说服力的写作方法。

Communicating with other people by telephone is very convenient, especially when you have something urgent. For example, if one of your family members is seriously ill at right, and you don’t know how to deal with it and where to find a doctor, what can you do? A telephone is the answer. Dial 120 and you will get services from the hospital very soon.

简单回答题的要领与实战

载自 双博士网站

一.简答题的解题步骤

特别提示:做简答题切不要画蛇添足。

第一步 通篇略读。

所谓通篇略读是指迅速扫视全文,舍弃无关细节,全力捕捉文章大意的阅读方法。 在略读时以下面几点为目标:

1) 大致了解文章涉及内容,文章是关于哪一方面,什么内容。

2) 发现文章的中心思想和作者的基本观点态度。

3) 对文章结构脉络有基本印象,知道大致观点、例证及具体分析的位置。

略读的目标决定了略读只需将注意力放在文章的主题句、关键词这些部分,其余部分如:具体的论述、细节、数字等,则可以跳过不读。因此,略读速度是一般阅读速度的两倍,也就是说,象简答题部分所选短文用2分半钟左右的时间就应通篇略读一遍。

第二步 照题查阅。

所谓照题查阅是指根据问题去寻找答案。

通常照题查阅是在通篇略读之后,如果时间有限也可直接进行这一步。照题查阅时应注意以下几点:

1. 充分理解问题,一定准确理解所问的内容,确定需要在文章中查找的对象。

2. 根据通篇略读的印象,回到文章相应部分寻找答案。

3. 在文章相关部分,应仔细阅读前后的句子。

4. 对照问题,确定答案的基本内容。

第三步 简练作答。

在基本确定了每道题的回答内容之后,就要用简练、准确的英语表达出来。在归纳、组织答案时要注意以下几点: 1.答案要与提问的方式保持一致。

如用who 提问就要以某种/个人来回答,而不能以陈述型句子来回答。否则,答非所问,会扣分或不得分。

2. 要避免语言错误。

组织答案时,尽量避免语言错误,如:时态、主谓一致、句子结构和拼写等。尽量使用自己有把握的词、短语和句型。

3. 要善于利用原文的关键词句。

在寻找和组织答案时,可以引用表达答案关键内容的原文,但切忌整句照搬,要适当改动,否则会被扣分。

4. 注意字数。

简答题要求用10个以内的词准确表述答案,词数超出,会被扣分。 5. 注意卷面。 答案书写要规范、认真,首字母要大写。标点符号的使用要规范。

第四步 仔细核对。

答案写完之后,时间允许的情况下,应仔细检查核对,避免失误。此时应检查这几方面:

1.再次审题,确认回答符合问题要求,避免答非所问。

2.清除语法、语言错误。语言错误有拼写错误、标点不当、大小写等。常见的语法错误有时态与原文不符、主谓不一致、词汇用法不当等。

3.保证字数没有超出要求。

二、简答题实战 (单击此处打开答案和注解)

在对简答题的作了充分的了解之后,现在让我们来做几套试题,以熟悉这种题的解题方法和答题的要点。

同做阅读理解题一样,我们的第一步还是要通读一下全文,搞清楚文章的体裁、话题、主题和基本结构。然后是针对问题寻找线索。在此基础之上,再来寻找或归纳出答案。 1999年1月考题

Would –be language teachers everywhere have one thing in common: they all want some recognition of their professional status and skills, and a job. The former requirement is obviously important on a personal level, but it is vital if you are to have any chance of finding work.

Ten years ago, the situation was very different. In virtually every developing country, and in many developed countries as well, being a native English speaker was enough to get you employed as an English teacher.

Now employers will only look at teachers who have the knowledge, the skills and attitudes to teach English effectively. The result of this has been to raise non-native English

teachers to the same status as their native counter-parts(相对应的人)--- something they have always deserved but seldom enjoyed. Non-natives are happy--- linguistic

discrimination (语言上的歧视)is a thing of the past.

An ongoing research project, funded by the University of Cambridge, asked a sample of teachers, educators and employers in more than 40 countries whether they regarded the native /non-native speakers distinction as being at all important. ―No‖ was the answer. As long as candidates can teach and had the required level of English, it didn’t matter who they were and where they came from. Thus, a new form of discrimination--- this time justified because it singled out the unqualified--- liberated the linguistically oppressed(受

压迫的). But the Cambridge did more than just that: it confirmed that the needs of native and non-native teachers were extremely similar.

1. The selection of English teachers used to be mainly based on ________.

2.What did non-native English teachers deserve but seldom enjoy?

3. What kind of people can now find a job as an English teacher?

4. What is the result of the ―new form of discrimination‖(Line 5, Para.4)?

5. The phrase ―the linguistically oppressed‖(Line 6, Para. 4) refers to those who were_________.

1999年6月

Directions: In this part, there is a short passage with five questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words. (15 minutes)

For many women choosing whether to work or not to work outside their home is a luxury: they must work to survive. Others face a hard decision.

Perhaps the easiest choice has to do with economics. One husband said, "Marge and I decided after careful consideration that for her to go back to work at this moment was an extravagance(奢侈) we couldn't afford." With two preschool children, it soon became clear in their figuring that with babysitters(临时照看小孩 的),transportation, and increased taxes, rather than having more money, they might actually end up with less.

Economic factors are usually the first to be considered, but they are not the most important. The most important aspects of the decision have to do with the emotional needs of each member of the family. It is in this area that husbands and wives find themselves having to face many confusing and conflicting feelings.

There are many women who find that homemaking is boring or who feel imprisoned(被囚人) if they have to stay home with a young child or several children. On the other hand, there are women who think that homemaking gives them the deepest satisfaction.

From my own experience, I would like to suggest that sometimes the decision to go back to work is made in too much haste. There are few decisions that I now regret more. I wasn't mature enough to see how much I could have gained at home. I regret my

impatience to get on with my career. I wish I had allowed myself the luxury of watching the world through my little girl's eves.

Questions: (注意:答题尽量简短,超过10个词要扣分。每条横线限写一个英语单词,标点符号不占格。)

S1. Which word in the first two paragraphs best explains why many women have to work? S2. Why did Marge and her husband think it an extravagance for Marge to go back to work?

S3. What are the two major considerations in deciding whether women should go out to work?

S4. Some women would rather do housework and take care of their children than pursue a career because they feel______ .

S5. If given a second chance, the writer would probably choose to ______ .

1997年1月

In Britain, the old Road Traffic Act restricted speeds to 2 m. p. h. (miles per hour) in towns and 4 m. p. h. in the country. Later parliament increased the speed limit to 14 m. p. h. But by 1903 the development of the car industry had made it necessary to raise the limit to 20 m. p. h. By 1930, however, the law was so widely ignored that speeding restrictions were done away with altogether. For five years motorists were free to drive at whatever speeds they liked. Then in 1935 the Road Traffic Act imposed a 30 m. p. h. speed limit in built-up areas, along with the introduction of driving tests and pedestrian crossings.

Speeding is now the most common motoring offence in Britain. Offences for speeding fall into three classes: exceeding the limit on restricted road, exceeding on any road the limit for the vehicle you are driving, and exceeding the 70 m. p. h. limit on any road. A restricted mad is one where the street lamps are 200 yards apart, or more.

The main controversy (争论) surrounding speeding laws is the extent of their safety value. The Ministry of Transport maintains that speed limits reduce accidents. It claims that when the 30 m. p. h. limit was introduced in 1935 there was a fall of 15 percent in fatal accidents. Likewise, when the 40 m. p. h. speed limit was imposed on a number of roads in London in the late fifties, there was a 28 percent reduction in serious accidents. There were also fewer casualties (伤亡)in the year after the 70 m. p. h. motorway limit was imposed in 1966.

In America, however, it is thought that the reduced accident figures are due rather to the increase in traffic density. This is why it has even been suggested that the present speed limits should be done away with completely, or that a guide should be given to

inexperienced drivers and the speed limits made advisory, as is done in parts of the USA. Questions:

1. During which period could British motorists drive without speed limits?

2. What measures were adopted in 1935 in addition to the speeding restrictions?

3. Speeding is a motoring offense a driver commits when he __________.

4. What is the opinion of British authorities concerning speeding laws?

5. What reason do Americans give for the reduction in traffic accidents?

四级考试作文写作常识

载自 双博士网站

一、 基本的写作步骤

许多考生在拿到作文题后,就雷厉风行地动手写了起来,结果不是写的一塌糊涂就是改得乱

七八糟。在四级考试(包括其它水平考试)的写作中,通常进行以下五个步骤:审题、选材、腹稿(包括提纲和正文)、书写、修改。

1. 审题

审题是写作的第一步, 也是最关键的一步。因为如果跑题了的话,就几乎不得分了。所以在拿到题后,一定要冷静地弄清题目要求;然后确定文章的文体以及主题思想。

通常在四、六级的作文中,有两种形式。一种是给出题目和提纲(中文或英文),另一种是给出题目和每一段的段首句(段首句大多是该段的主题句,其实相当于提纲)。我们应该充分利用这些信息,才不至于跑题。 以2001年1月份的试题为例,它的题目是―How to Succeed in a Job Interview?‖,给出了两个要点(提纲):

(1)面试在求职过程中的作用

(2)取得面试因素:仪表,举止谈吐,能力,专业知识,自信,实事求是......

从这些信息来看,这篇文章应该是一篇议论加说明的文章,要求写的是如何在找工作时顺利(成功)通过面试。两个提纲告诉我们,文章至少要分两个部分,第一个部分是议论,说明面试是重要的;第二个部分要从第二点中给出的几个方面挑几点说明怎样去做。 但是这两个部分在文章中的比重应该如何?是否要平均?

此时应该看到,标题中的关键词是HOW ,因此文章的重点应该在第二点,而第一点只是作为引言。

那么文章要分为几段呢?

在英语文章中,每一段只讨论一个问题。所以第(1)点显然要独立成段,第(2)点因为是文章的重点所在,可以是一个长一点的段或分为几段。但要注意的是,既然第一段是一个引言,那么文章就应该还有一个总结的段落,这是原提纲中没给出来的。

2.选材

确定了文章的主题和轮廓之后,我们就开始考虑要选择哪些要点来阐明主题。选材一定要围绕主题句进行,同时要考虑到全面性。

比如在考虑上面第一点时,我们要想到面试对双方都是重要的。对于interviewer 来说,通过面试他能对applicant 有更好的了解,能通过面试挑到合适的人选等;而对于interviewee 来说,他能通过面试更好地了解所申请的工作、薪水、待遇等信息,还能更好地展示自己,还能增强自己的社会知识,能练习与人打交道等。

但这些是否都要写进文章中去呢?或者比重是否都应该一样呢?

当然不。就面试的作用来说,因为标题是站在求职者的角度来说的,因此面试对于求职者的作用就显得比它对招聘者的作用更为重要。而在后者中增强自己的社会知识、练习与人打交道等方面,并不是面试最重要的方面,就可以舍去。 就第二点来说,提纲中给出了许多方面,但这些方面也不能一一都写进作文中去,否则就不是一篇考试作文,而要写一本求职大全了。应该挑最重要的和最好写的去说,别的可以一带而过甚至不提。

3. 打腹稿

打腹稿是不可省略的一步,但却为许多人所忽视。其实打腹稿就相当于我们平时写作时打草稿,只是考试时没有时间,也没有纸用来打草稿。 建议平时写作时,要养成良好的习惯,即使在打草稿时也要仔细想一想要怎么写,在脑子中先将文章―读‖一篇。

打腹稿时,首先要考虑文章的开头和结尾,然后是各个段落间的衔接和过渡,然后是各个句子怎样写,要注意用自己熟悉的、有把握的句子,同时也要注意句子之间的衔接与连贯。 4. 抄写

严格地说,第四步仅仅是将前面三步的结果用笔写到试卷上。这部分不应占用太多的时间,真正需要时间的是前面的三步。

5. 修改

修改的主要任务是检查一下有无拼写和语法方面的错误,同时注意是否用词有过多的重复。 总之,在写作时切忌一边想一边写。

二、文章的衔接与连贯

在评分标准中,同是否扣题同样重要的是文章的连贯性。往往有的文章扣题倒也扣题了,但还是得不了几分,这其中的原因恐怕与连贯性有很大的关系。 这里所说的连贯有两两层含义。一是指文章在内容上是连贯、统一的,文章中所有的句子都是为全文的中心服务的。就各段而言,其中的每一句话都要紧紧围绕着该段的主题句进行,不能说与主题句无关的东西。有人也将其称为统一性。请看一例:

The weather has been changeable. On Sunday we had a high wind that blew down some trees. Monday was so cold that we had to turn on the heat and wear out winter coats. On Tuesday we formed a group to go roller skating. By Wednesday the weather cleared and the sun came out. Thursday was as hot and humid as an August day. Friday morning it began to rain, and it looks as if we’ll have a cold, steady wind for a few days.

这一段写―最近天气多变‖,首句为主题句。扩展句叙述了星期日、星期一、星期三、星期四和星期五的天气情况,用以展开关键词changeable 。但星期二没有提天气,而是说当天的活动安排,偏离了主题,打断了段落叙述的连贯性,破坏了段落逻辑意义的统一性,应删去或改为与天气有关的话。

再如:

Sports benefit us in many respects. When taking part in sports, we get the chance to train almost all parts of our body. There is no doubt that properly balanced physical activities keep us physically fit. Furthermore, sports can enrich our life and maintain our

psychological health. Through participation, everyone can learn that on the playing field he not only competes for himself but also for his team. Sports teach us about

consideration, cooperation and optimism, and how to cope with difficulties.

第一句是本段的主题句,接下来作者从体育运动对身体的好处说了两句,第四句讲述体育运动对心理方面的益处,第五句从团队的方面加以论述,最后一句既是论据,同时也是对前面三点的概括。全段没有一句话脱离主题句。

连贯的第二层含义指的是表达上的连贯。文章的段落之间、段落中各句子之间要有一定的衔接。

段落结构和句与句之间的衔接应遵照一定的顺序。段落之间的连接也应符合逻辑。这样使文章连贯紧凑,自然流畅,层次分明,脉络清晰。段落只有在具有含义一致性的同时又具有表达的连贯性才能充分有效地传达信息,真正实现写作目的。

这两层意义的连贯性是相辅相成的。内容的连贯性是表达连贯性的前提,一组互不相干的句子放在一起,无法取得表达的连贯性;一致性有赖于连贯性,只有把一组意义紧密相关的句子有机地组合起来,才能真正充分有效地阐述其主题思想。 就上面的例一来说,虽然它是以时间为线索将这几天串在一起,但仍让人感觉太乱。每个句子都是以星期某一天的名子开头,太单调了。各个句子之间似乎没有什么关系,应该说是一篇连贯性较差的文章。下面让我们对它稍加修改一下:

The weather has been changeable. On Sunday we had a high wind that blew down some trees. Monday was so cold that we had to turn on the heat and wear out winter coats. And it remained gloomy the next day. To our pleasure, by Wednesday the weather cleared and the sun came out. But Thursday tuned out to be as hot and humid as an August day. Worse still, it began to rain this morning, and it looks as if we’ll have a cold, steady wind for a few days.

那么,如何使文章连贯呢?

就议论文而言,获取连贯主要有三种方法:一是内容上的连贯,二是使用代词或有意地重复一些词,三是使用关联词语。

内容上的连贯如前所述。

代词和有意的重复可起到衔接的作用。例如在上面的例子中,在提到星期二时,没有用Tuesday ,而是用了the next day,避免重复,并把这两天连在一起,让人感觉到了前后的承接。再如最后一句中原文用的是Friday morning,改为this morning后,意义并没有改变,但一下子把距离拉近了,既承接起前面的五天,又能与后一分句中的将来时有效的结合。 关联词和插入语的使用是四级考试作文中最明显的连接手段,如上例中的and ,to our pleasure ,but ,worse still。

需要注意的是,关联词的使用是与段落(文章)的展开方法密切相关的,不要为了使用关联词而使用关联词。下面结合段落的展开方法具体加以说明。

1. 列举法

列举的模式通常是

主题句----example 1

----example 2

----example 3

列举时常用for example, for instance, such as, like, as proof, thus, take…as an example, to illustrate 等词语.

Nonverbal communication, or "body language." is communication by facial expressions, head or eye movements, hand signals, and body postures. It can be just as important to understanding as words are. Misunderstandings often amusing but sometimes

serious-can arise between people from different culture if they misinterpret nonverbal signals. Take for example, the differences in meaning of gesture very common in the United States: a circle made with the thumb and index finger. To an American, it means that everything is ok. To a Japanese, it means that you are talking about money. In France," it means that something is worthless, and in Greece, it is an obscene gesture.

Therefore, an American could unknowingly offend a Greek by using that particular hand signal.

2. 分类法

一般是在主题句之后,依次罗列段落指示词所表达的几个部分或几个方面。然后,选用丰富的事例对所罗列的各个部分或各个方面进行具体地说明或解释。

There are three basic kinds of materials that can" be found in any good library. First, there are books on all subjects, both in English and in many other languages. These books are organized according to subject, title, and author in a central file caned the card catalog. Books can generally be checked out of the library and taken home for a period of two to four weeks. Second, there are reference works. which include encyclopedias, dictionaries, bibliography, atlases, etc., and which generally must be used in the library itself. Third, there are periodicals- magazines, newspapers, pamphlets-which are flied alphabetically in racks, or which have been filmed to conserve space. Like reference works, periodicals cannot usually be removed from the library.

分类时常用:most of all, next ,moreover , in addition,besides ,furthermore ,to begin with ,to start with,first of all,first ,second ,third…

3. 因果关系

在段落一开头,就用主题句点明其因果关系,然后选用有关材料,客观的罗列某些原因或结果,以证阐述的中心思想。

Growing numbers of well-to-do Americans are making the decision to move abroad. They find it impossible in America to walk the streets at night without fear of being raped, mugged, or murdered, nor do they see a way to escape the poisonous air of the cities. They maintain that even American food has become increasingly dangerous to eat. Last but not least, they insist that they are sick of the pace of American life, a pace that leaves no time for relaxation or pleasure.

因果关系常用语汇: because of, so, owing to, thanks to, thus, as a result of, hence, for this reason, consequently, is caused by, lead to, result in

4.比较法

主题句必须明确表明所要比较的对象和所要比较的范围,实际上就是罗列两个或两个以上比较对象的相同点。

Learning English is like building a house. Laying a solid foundation is the first and most important step. In other words, you should reads, you should read and speak English every day. Memorizing new words and phrases is also helpful. Like building a house,

learning English takes some time. So don’t be impatient. Remember, Rome wasn’t built in a day.

常用语汇:at the same time, similar to, accordingly, both, show a degree of similarity, similarly, lie and so , the same as, and… too, in the same way, in a like manner

5.举例法

列举事实或举出实例来说明中心思想, 是简单易行、具有说服力的写作方法。

Communicating with other people by telephone is very convenient, especially when you have something urgent. For example, if one of your family members is seriously ill at right, and you don’t know how to deal with it and where to find a doctor, what can you do? A telephone is the answer. Dial 120 and you will get services from the hospital very soon.

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宝剑锋从磨砺出,梅花香自苦寒来。