四级考试作文
初三 记叙文 32767字 47人浏览 济南网络台

写作的重要性 6分最低限,只要结构不出错,得分应该为9分。

评判作文

四级考试作文主要看内容、结构、语言三个方面。

内容不跑题即可,注意:1. 不要妄图以情动人;2. 不要妄图在构思上出奇制胜。 结构上牢记总分总:先写主题句(Topic Sentence) ,再写分论点,最后写总结句(Conclusion)。

语言最重要,往往使评分产生重大差异,语言要模仿和包装。

基本表达

人们认为:it is generally/ widely believed/ held/ agreed that

越来越:be increasingly + adj., be on the rise, the growing number of 万能理由(Omnipotence )

1. 方便:convenient/ convenience

2. 效率:efficient/ efficiently/ efficiency

3. 节省和浪费:save time/ money/ space; economical, thrift

waste time/ money/ space; costly, lavish

4. 人的心理健康:independent, cooperative, competitive,

considerate, confident, creative, sociable, perseverance; selfish, isolated, conserative

5. 人的身体健康:health, disease, strong, strength, energetic

6. 娱乐:colorful, pleasure,joy, recreation, entertainmentm, relax

tired, boring, lonely

7. 环境:environment, pollute, poisonous, dirty

8. 安全和危险:safe, danger, risk

9. 经验:experience, social experience, enter the society

10. 人际:humane, fair, unfair, help, assist, freedom, freely

写完之后修改注意:(内容方面尽量不要修改)

1、字母大小写

2、怪符号

3、单词拼写

4、主谓一致

5、动词时态

6、名词单复数

实例一

题目:Bicycles ――An Important Means of Transport in China提纲:(1)为什么自行车在中国这样普及(2)和汽车的比较(3)自行车在中国的前途 Score: 8

Bicycle is an important means of transport in China. The important reason of it is the economy of Chinese. The use of bicycle in China is widely because people in China have not high wage. They can only afford a bicycle, and they have no money to buy a car which is too expensive. So Chinese usually buy a bicycle, and use it to go to work, or go to travel and so on. The other reason is the large population of China. All these made the bicycle become the important means of transport.

The bicycle, compared to the car, is not too expensive and it is easy to learn and to use and it can save the surface of putting it. It doesn’t ask to build the garage like car. This point is very important to China, because of the lack of land. It isn’t too expensive, so Chinese can afford it. It doesn’t need any oil, and it can’t cause the polusion. All of these are the good needs compared to the car.

In the future, bicycle will be widely used. And it will be in good demand. People will produce much more modern bicycles.

Score: 14

Bicycles are very popular in China. Almost every family in the city has two or three bicycles. During the rush hour, you can see that thousands of people -- man and woman, old and young -- ride their bicycles to work and study. That is why China is called “the kingdom of bicycles”.

注:1. 第一句总写,第二句和第三句分写,最后总写。

2. During the rush hour 分词结构开头。

3. 破折号内容为同位语, 句式多变化。

Compared with cars, bicycles are superior in many ways. First , they are cheap , convenient and easy to ride. Second , riding bicycle is good for health. Third , they bring no noise nor air pollution. Though cars are faster and more comfortable, they are too expensive. They consume plenty of oil and they pollute the air. Sometimes , it is difficult for a driver to park his car. Moreover they often cause traffic jams and accidents.

注:1. Compared with cars 分词结构开头。

2. be superior to/ be inferior to 优于/ 低于

3. thirst, second, third 英语语言有层次感,信号词

4. cheap 便宜,最好用inexpensive

5. be good for health 对健康有好处(万能理由)

6. Moreover 表示递进

In my opinion, the future of bicycle is very promising . Since China is a developing country and has a large population, I think, riding bicycle is appropriate to Chinese present conditions. It will be an important means of transportation for quite a long time.

注:promising 有前途的 a promising young man

Score: 11

There millions of bicycles in today’s China . Bicycles are very important means of transport in people’s daily lives. Because to ride a bicycle is very simple, to buy a bicycle will not cost so much money, to park a bicycle needs just a small room and to ride a bicycle does not need oil but the rider’s strength, bicycles are popular all over the world, especially in China.

注:第一句应该用there be结构

Compared with a car, a bicycle is much cheaper. It is more suitable for China as a developing country. And a bicycle has almost caused no pollution but a car has. On the contrary, a bicycle is too slow, it costs more times than a car. I think the population of China’s bicycle will be kept for the long run. Because it will be replaced by a car, a bus and so on in some developed areas in China, and it will be made a wide use in the developing areas in China, the number of bicycles in China will be the same as today but I believe that it’s quality will be improved.

I 、对比观点选择题:1. 有人认为……; 2.另外一些人认为……; 3. 谈谈你的观点和看法。(最好写成4段)

实例二 99年6月真题

Reading Selectively Or Extensively?

(启)Paragraph I :(1)引出将要评论的事物或者是观点; (2)简明扼要

的提出人们在这个问题上的两种不同看法。

(承)Paragraph II :(1)提出一种观点或优点;(2)本段的支持性分论点;(3)

渡句; (2)提出另一种观点或缺点;(3)本段的支持性分论点(4)本段总(可

典型的对比观点选择题的文章逻辑结构:(合)Paragraph IV:(1)平衡两种看法;

Now, it is generally accepted that television plays an important part in people’s lives. But, there is an ongoing heated discussion as to whether television is a blessing or a curse.

注:it is generally accepted that 人们通常认为

As is often pointed out by some people , television keeps one better informed about current events, allows one to follow the latest developments in politics and science, and offers an endless series of programs which are both instructive and stimulating. The most distant countries, the strangest customs and the most attractive scenes of nature are brought right into one’s room. 注:1. As is often pointed out by some people = Some people think that

2. “使……”不用make ,而用keep, allow, offer

However , other people insist that television is a curse rather than a blessing. They argue that it has brought about many serious problems. The major one is its effects on young people. They are now so used to getting their information, education and entertainment from television that their literacy as well as physical ability has been greatly weakened. Even worse than that, vulgar commercials and indecent programs may cultivate their bad tastes, distort their viewpoints towards human life to such a degree that their minds might be corrupted.

In summary, television has both advantages and disadvantages. Whatever effects it has, one thing is certain, television in itself is neither good nor bad. It is the uses to which it is put that determines its value to society.

范文5. Travelling

People who like travelling have their reasons. They maintain that travelling can help them expand their scope of knowledge , especially geographical and historical learning. They go on to point out that touring will provide more chance for them to enjoy food and try on clothes that they otherwise cannot possible have.

注:geographical and historical 押尾韵,如:押头韵 clear & clean

Those who dislike travelling have their reasons. They would argue that travelling means a considerable amount of money and energy. For example, traffic and accommodation require money and walking while seeing sights often tires you.

In practice, travelling does more good than harm. If your finance and health permit, you might as well do some travelling from time to time. It will at least enable you to get familiar with people and things that you will probably grow to like and love.

注:1. in practice = I think 2. does more good than harm 好处比坏处多,其他表达方法:be superior to/ inferior to 比如:the advantages are superior to the

disadvantages 3. enable 使

范文1. Is a Test of Spoken English Necessary?

A test of spoken English will be included as an optional component of the College English T est (CET). Some people argue that it is absolutely necessary to hold a test of spoken English in China because we have been informed frequently that a Chinese student who has been learning English for over ten years cannot even communicate with a native speaker. Sometimes even those top students who excel in grammar and writing skills find their English inadequate to express their thoughts freely. A test of English will bring the college students an awareness of the importance of oral English, and will thus help them with their communicating skills.

使句子具有表现力的手段:1、用形容词修饰名词;2、副词修饰动词、副词修饰形容词

On the other hand, some others still maintain that a good command of reading and writing skills will be enough for the English learners. To some extent their opinion derives from the fact that students are already under considerable pressure from their opinion derives from the fact that students are already under considerable pressure from their coursework. Another required test will only add to their burden. Moreover, some students may take the shortcut by focusing on several guessed questions according to the fixed format of the test, hoping for a coincidence to bring them good luck.

In my opinion, a test of spoken English will do more good than harm. Since China will continue its policy of opening and reform, the ability to speak English fluently is a must for anyone who wants to surpass others in a highly competitive society. Whether I take the test or not, I shall spare no efforts to practice oral English in the remaining years of my college study.

范文21. Should smoking be banned?

Should smoking be banned ? Answers to this question vary greatly . Some people are in favor of the idea of smoking. They always say that it can get rid of the tiredness and make them refreshed. And they also say that giving and being given cigarettes is a sign of friendship. Therefore , they carry cigarettes with them wherever they go.

注:1. vary greatly 许多种2. be in favor of = agree/ be of the opinion that

3. get rid of the tiredness and make them refreshed 使人神清气爽

4. Giving and being given 给与被给。主、被动关系在英文中用现在、过去分词表达。

But other people consider it very harmful to people’s health. They have heard the official reports that one person in the world dies from smoking every second. And they have heard the doctor’s warning that smokers are

more likely to have lung cancer and to increase their chances of having heart attack. In addition , smoking pollutes the air and may cause fire accidents. Thus it has become a major threat to people’s life and property.

注:1.They have heard the official reports that ... 官方报告表明.. 2. be more likely to 更有可能,更容易3. chance 可能

There is some truth in both arguments, but human’s life and property outweighs anything else. If smoking brings us illness and death, why not have it banned by the government? Without cigarettes, can’t we come up with better ways to express our friendship and to make us refreshed? 注:1. outweigh 比……重要,同样的表达:be superior to/ be inferior to。overweight 超重2. 最后用两句反问句结尾,非常精妙。

课后作业 Private Cars

写成4段的首段写法:

① In recent years, with fast economic growth, private cars have appeared in many families in China. People's attitude toward private cars varies widely. ② With the increase in the general standard of living, some ordinary Chinese ③ In recent few years, the phenomenon/ issue/ problem of owning a private

写成3段的首段写法: improvement of people's living standard,

more and more people can own private cars.

cars are entering ordinary families.

the growing number of people/ people in ever increasing numbers can have access to private cars.(此句是引言)

支持段的主题句: There is no doubt that private cars benefit people hugely.

支持段的分论点:

① 方便 First , private cars provide people with the most convenient form of transportation.

② 舒适 Second , it is comfortable for people to travel in, especially in

③ 炫耀 Third , only a private car can show a person's

否定段的主题句:① However (Nonetheless/ Nevertheless/ But), there are

② While enjoying the convenience that private cars bring us, we should not ③ the advantages, they brings their own ④ Like anything else, private cars also have their own weakness/ limits. ⑤ However, private cars are not without shortcomings/ faults.

⑥ Yet other speak of the problems private cars have brought. They complain

that......

⑦ However, private cars may also bring with it problems our society had not previously faced.

⑧ Despite the increase in efficiency and convenience generated by private cars, the changes they bring could very well lead to potentially adverse consequences.

否定段的分论点:

① 占有空间 On the one hand , private cars take up/ occupy too much space.

② 交通事故 On the other hand, a driver should be careful/ cautious while driving, otherwise, car accidents are more likely to happen.

③ 污染环境 What's more/In addition , private cars 注意:所谓上义词是指抽象、概括和笼统的,就是比较superordinate 的词;而下义词就是具体的东西,即subordinate 的东西。

第四段(总结段)的写法:

① Despite all the disadvantages mentioned above, I still think that the the disadvantages. As for the above problem, I'm sure they will be settled by the scientists in the future/ It is only a matter of time for the problems to be solved.

② Unquestionably, the challenge of private cars means we all should consider how we can control them, so that they will not control us.

③ Whether the private cars are a blessing or a curse is a difficult question to answer, yet the desire for the comfort and independence a private car can bring will not be elminated.

④ Anyway/ Anyhow/ In any case, whether the effect is good or bad, one thing is certain: private cars have changed and will continue to change the way of our transportation, our leisure and our life.

选择题型变体逻辑结构(My View on Sth.)

选择性观点的变体的文章写作逻辑结构:

Paragraph I :(1)引出将要评论的事物或者是观点; (2)简明扼要的提出人们在这个问题上的两种不同看法。

Paragraph II :(1)提出作者观点(本文主题句);

(2)举例加以论证。

Paragraph III:(1)总结全文(再次强调作者观点)

范文17. My View on Fate

There is no consensus of opinions among people as to the view of

fate . Some people believe that everyone is born to a certain that he can not change, while some other people think that every man is the master of his own life.

注:1. consensus 相同意见

2. 第一句话可以套用,如范文18:There is no consensus of opinions among people as to the view of wealth.

3. while 轻微转折和对比,强转折用词but, however 4. master 主人

There is a saying, “Everyone is the architect of his own future.” Which means one’s fate is decided in his own hands. In fact, no one is destined to a certain fate in his or her life. Those who claim that they were born to fail or be unlucky just can’t realize how much inner strength and ability they have. We must depend on ourselves to changes our lives and make us successful and happy.

注:1. 第一句as far as与I agree重复,把后半句改为the latter opinion seems more reasonable。

2. architect 建筑师,archor 弓箭手

3. In fact 前后是转折关系,之前从正面阐述,之后从反面阐述

范文17. My View on Fate (续)

Let’s take Helen Keller, an extraordinary American woman, for example . When she was only 19 months old, she became blind and deaf. Instead of accepting her misfortune helplessly, she showed great courage and unconquerable spirit in fighting against her destined fate and was awarded the President’s Medal of Freedom in 1964 because of the achievements she had made for helping the blind, the deaf and the speechless. This story tells us that a wise man is always creating his own fate rather than waiting for good luck. 注:1. 本段开始举例

2. Let's take……for example 中间是插入语,表示强调,举例不宜太长。 In conclusion, I believe that everyone is born equal and is the builder of his own fate We can have good fortune only if we take pains and work hard. We should bear the following saying in mind, “Every man is the master of his own fate.”

注:bear sth. in mind:把……牢记在心

范文13. The Way to Success

第二段:Strong will, perseverance and diligence are the three essentials of success. A man of strong will and perseverance always has an inflexible spirit. He sticks to his cause no matter how tough it might be. Dr. Sun Yat-sen was such a man. Many of his attempts failed, but he held to his purpose with

firmness and finally succeeded in overthrowing the Qing Dynasty. Diligence means steadiness in one’s work and study. Su Qin stabbed himself in order to keep attentive to studies. Marx often worked 15 hours a day. Life is short and we have many things to do. Without diligence no one can achieve anything.

II 、社会热点话题写作逻辑结构

Paragraph 1: (1) 概括性的引出要评论的事物或观点(general );

(2) 具体描述这个事物或者观点(或者是我对这个现象/ 事物的基本看法specific )。

Paragraph 2: (1) 作者对该现象货问题的基本看法,即文章的论点句;

(2) 支持性的细节分论点(至少两点);

(3) 本段总结(可以省略)。

Paragraph 3: (1) 总结全文,定下结论(通常为我的对策或看法)。

四级作文试题2000年1月

Directions:

For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic How I Finance my College Education. You should write at least 100 words, and base your composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below:

1. 上大学的费用(tuition and fees)可以通过多多种途径解决。

2. 哪种途径适合我(说明理由)。

How I Finance My College Education

How I Finance My College Education

第一段:首先,应该是用一种描述性的语言引出讨论的重点:

, tuitions and fees for college students are 【more expensive】 much higher than ever before. How to finance my college education has become a matter of concern.

第二段:有多种的方法,例如:1. 向父母; 2. 银行贷款 3. 打工挣钱

第二段主题句:There are many ways to support my college education financially./ Ways to support my university study financially .

第二段分写:

In the first place, I can get/ gain/ obtain all the money from my parents.

In the second place, I can a bank loan, especially .

What’s more, I can find a part time job to earn enough money.

第三段:我所赞同的方法(阐述原因,为何不选其他的方法)。

, I prefer the bank loan for the following reasons. For one thing, my parents are not rich enough to afford me.

For another, I will not have enough time and energy to study after finishing my jobs.

In addition, I believe I can hunt a job after graduation, and then I will be able to .

Therefore /So /Hence,.....

使文章富有表现力的手段:

1、使用有难度的词汇;

2、使用形容词修饰名词,用副词修饰动词或整个句子;

3、使用被动语态;

4、使用倒装句;(not only... but also...;only...)

5、尽可能地使用名词,而不是习惯中的动词和形容词。

绿化我们的城市

第一段:

近年来,随着工商业的迅猛发展,许多大城市中树木的数量大幅度降低。人们作出各种努力防止树木被砍伐,但是,认识到绿化城市也同样重要。 普通版

Recently, with the development of businesses and industries, more and more trees have disappeared in big cities. We have tried our best to prevent people from cutting trees. But, it is important to realize to make our cities green.

润色版

In contemporary society, while our industries and businesses have experienced number of trees in many large cities has Although remarkable efforts have been exerted to prevent more trees from being cut, the realization of making cities greener is still of great importance.

注:区分industry 和 industrial

绿化我们的城市(续)

第二段: 绿化城市会带来很多好处。其一,绿化城市能够净化空气。科学研究已经证明树木通过吸收作用可以降低大气中碳化合物的含量。其二,它能够美化城市。到处是花草树木,我们会欣然地感到自己置身于美丽的花园中。最后,绿化城市能够带来大量木材,这是解决自然资源短缺的有效办法。

普通版

There are many advantages in making cities greener. First, it makes our air clean. Scientific research has proved that trees can reduce a great amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere through absorption. Second, it adds to the beauty of our cities. With trees and flowers everywhere, there is a pleasant feeling that we live in a beautiful garden and are closer to nature. Finally, it will bring us a lot of timber. And this is an effective way to solve the problem of lack of natural resources.

润色版

What benefits can the program of making cities greener bring to us? First, the air will be cleaner. Scientific experiments have already proved that trees can reduce air pollution by producing a lot of oxygen. This will improve the quality of the urban environment. Second, our cities will look more beautiful. Just imagine the city which is full of trees and flowers. What an attractive garden it is! What’s more, by making cities greener, we can provide our industry with timber the precious natural resources.

绿化我们的城市(续)

第三段:

绿化城市需要全国人民共同努力,人们不仅要广泛认识到城市绿化对城市环境的贡献,还应该同心协力栽植更多的树木并保护它们不受商业使用的侵犯。 普通版

Making cities greener requires people’s efforts all over the country. And people should not only realize that it is important to make cities greener for its contribution to urban environment, but also plant trees and protect them from being used in business.

润色版

Making cities greener requires more than widespread awareness; it calls for an immediate commitment to planting more trees and growing more flowers.

(Making cities greener requires the whole nation’s efforts. And not only should most people gain the awareness of the significant contribution of making cities greener to urban environment, but also make a commitment to the protection of more trees against business.)

句型变化

A. (1) We can imagine the beautiful surroundings. (2) There are many trees along the streets. (3) There is a clean river in the city. (4) There are many fishes in the river. (5) There are willow trees on the one side. (6) There are some pieces of grassland on the other side. (7) There are many flowers on them.

B. (1) Just imagine the beautiful surroundings if we have made our cities

greener. (2) Green trees line the streets. (3) A clean river winds through the city, in which a lot of fishes abound. (4) On the one side stand rows of willow trees. (5) On the other side lies a stretch of grassland sprinkled with many yellow and red flowers.

1. There be...

1) a. There are fewer and fewer citizens who like to see films.

b. Films are now losing their appeal for many citizens.

2) a. There are many people who complain of severe housing shortages. b. Housing shortages become the source of great complaint.

2. If

1) a. If you compare the two methods carefully, you will find the difference. b. Careful comparison of the two methods will show you the difference.

2) a. If we only apply book knowledge, we will not get good result.

b. The application of book knowledge alone will not bring you good result.

3) a. If there is no pollution, man can certainly survive.

b. Man can certainly survive in the world where there is no pollution.

3. In order to

1) a. In order to prevent the problem becoming too serious to solve, we must take an immediate step.

b. An immediate step must be taken before the problem becomes too serious to solve.

2) a. In order to build a stable and prosperous nation, people should make new efforts.

b. New efforts will bring ...

4. More and more

1) a. More and more people now prefer to stay at home and watch TV.

b. People in ever numbers prefer to stay at home and watch TV.

2) a. More and more people who become more and more rich can afford a motorcycle.

b. The growing number of people who become rich can now afford a motorcycle.

3) a. More and more teenagers smoke cigarettes in recent years.

b. Teenage smoking is in recent years.

4) a. More and more teachers are needed with the development of economy.

b. There is an demand for teachers with the development of economy.

5) a. More and more trees have disappeared in the city.

b. There is a in the number of trees in the city.

社会热点话题

写作练习:Jobs for Graduates

1) 大学生难找工作

2) 原因很多

3) 解决的办法

With the fantastic development of modern society, people in ever increasing numbers have access to tertiary education (高等教育). As a result, job-hunting is now becoming for most graduates.

范文23:Nowadays, college graduates come to realize that it is not easy to get a rewarding job. Most/ Many of them can not get a job right after graduation.

The job market for college students/ graduates is getting tighter and tighter. According to a survey, only 80% of college graduates of the class of 2002 found jobs the year they graduated, compared with 95% in 2000. Why do college graduates find it increasingly difficult to get jobs?

第二段细节论证

分析原因:

1、Among the most reasons by people for this problem/ phenomenon, one should be 2、3、is Several years ago, many students were popular major, so that the supply Graduates without working experiences are now losing their appeal for many international cooperations, such as ...

国家制定法律法规

个人接受教育

III 、图表题(table, bar graph, pie chart, line graph)

图表题的写作逻辑结构:

Paragraph I:(1)概括描述图表:趋势描写;

(2)具体描述图表:必要数据支持(细节性)。

Paragraph II:(1)提出自己理由和观点(本段主题句);

(2)细节性分论点(主要是原因,用于支持自己的观点,至少两点)。

Paragraph III:(1)预测未来和提出解决方法;

(2)总结全文和表达作者自己观点

【标题】Changes in People’s Diet

Directions: Write a three-paragraph composition to:

1. State the changes in people’s diet in the past five years.

2. Give possible reasons for the changes.

3. Draw your own conclusion.

You should quote as few figures as possible.

【短文】Changes in People’s Diet

In the past five years there have been many changes in people’s diet. Grain, as the main food of most Chinese, is now playing a less important role, while the proportion of some high-energy foods, such as milk and meat, has increased.

What has caused these changes? I think there are two reasons. First, people now have more money. The price of meat and milk is much higher than that of grain, so in the old days people couldn’t afford them. Now they have enough money to buy both meat and milk. Second, people nowadays pay more attention to the elements of their diet. They look for a well-balanced diet that will be good for their health.

In short, there have been changes in people’s diet in the past five years because of financial and health reasons, and there will be further changes in the future

【修改版】

As can be seen from the table, the past five years has witnessed dramatic changes in people’s diet. Grain, as the staple food of most Chinese, is now playing a less important role in their diet, while the consumption of high quality food such as meat, milk and fruit has greatly increased.

There are two factors leading to the change. For one thing, people now enjoy a higher standard of living. In the old days few families could afford meat and milk every day, which often meant a big chunk of the family income. But now people have enough money to taste a rich verity of foods. For another, people of today attach more attention to nutrition. They are not

merely content to fill the stomach. They are seeking the most reasonable diet which will do good to their health.

In a word, with people’s standard of living getting higher and higher, changes in their diet will be more obvious and greater.

图表题的适用句型:

1. As we can see from the chart/ graph/ table/ diagram, ...

2. The chart/ graph shows/ displays that ...

3. As can be shown in the table ...,

4. The figures/ statistics in the chart reflect/ show/ reveal that ...,

5. It is clear/ apparent from the chart/ table that ...

V 、谚语格言题逻辑结构

Paragraph I:(1)点明要阐释的谚语或名言( general );

(2)用自己的话解释这一谚语或名言的意思,有时有正反两面的逻(specific )。

Paragraph II:(1)作者对该谚语或名言的观点态度,即文章的论点句;

(2)支持性的细节分论点,举例子论证(至少两点,有时有正反两面的逻辑);

Paragraph III:总结全文,定下结论(通常为阐明其现实或更深远意义)。

Practice Makes Perfect

Practice is the key to success in all fields of activity. It is practice alone which enables us to build up speed and efficiency. When we accomplish something without wasting effort, this is the result of long practice.

【改写为】which enables us to build up speed and efficiency. When we accomplish something without wasting effort, this is the result of long practice.

Practice Makes Perfect(续)

Take the study of English for example. Only practice can enable us to spell words correctly and master the rules of grammar. And it is only through practice that we can become fluent in speaking and writing, there is no other way. Another good example is sports. Practice is the only way to become stronger and run faster. Besides, in team games practice is what improves our sense of cooperation and helps the team to win.

【改写为】abounds with the examples of "Practice makes perfect". ...... (正反两方面都举例子) man who can achieve success without practice. All evidence

fields of activity.

举例一般为:英语学习;体育锻炼

To sum up, there can be no achievement which is not based on a solid foundation of practice.

【改写为】For us college students, the saying/ proverb has a profound and realistic significance: there can be no achievement which is not based on a solid foundation of practice

课后复习(self-study Program)

1、课堂讲解内容:体会用词艺术和丰富的句式

2、写作练习:2002年6月真题(Student Use of Computers)

3、记忆写作万能理由和基本表达

4、完型填空练习:完成Passage 1--Passage 3

做题步骤:

(1)通读全文,了解文章大意;

(2)初选答案(排除法、优选法);

(3)寻找线索;

(4)回头补缺;

(5)核实答案。

图表题:2002年6月考题

Topic: Student Use of Computers (at least 150 words)

1、 上图所示为1990、1995、2000年某校大学生使用计算机的情况,请

描述其变化;

2、请说明发生这些变化的原因(可从计算机的用途、价格或社会发展等方面加以说明);

3、你认为目前大学生在计算机使用中有什么困难或问题。

2002年6月的图表题作文:

As is shown by the bar graph, the average number of hours a student in a certain university spends on the computer per week increased dramatically over the period from 1990 to 2000. In 1990, it was less than two hours. And in 1995, it hit/ reach four hours. And in 2000, the number soared to(飞速上升) nearly twenty hours, which is over ten times than that

of 1990.

注:soared to/ boom/ shoot up/ rocket/ jump 飞速上升

climb 上升很慢

shrink 下降,缩水

第一段还有一种写法:……In 1990, the number was less than 2 hours, while the figure hit 4 hours(或者这样写:while in 1995,)as compared with that of 1990, it had almost doubled. And what impress us most is that the figure soared to..., which…

Obviously computers are becoming increasingly popular for males and for females. A multitude of factors could account for the rise. In the first place, computers facilitate us in more aspects of life. Also, the rapid development of the internet enlarges our demands for using computers. We can easily contact friends in remote places through the internet. In the second place, the prices of computers are getting lower and lower, which enable more students to purchase them.

However, there still exist some problems, such as, poor quality, out-of-date designs and so on. And how to balance the time between using computers an studying is also a serious problem. Anyhow, we will benefit a lot from computers as long as we use them properly.

IV 、书信题的写作方法:

(一)信封格式:

名字、信箱、地域范围由小到大,写在右下角(与我们相反)。

(二)信纸格式:

日期:背月份的缩写

称呼(后面的标点是逗号):Dear Sir or Madam, To whom it may concern, 正文:空4个字节或者顶格写,段与段之间空行)

签名:sincerely yours

书信写作的五点要求:

1、开门见山说意图

2、咨询/ 建议1、2、3、

3、不同内容可分段

4、感谢客气不可少

5、期待回信成老套

(三)开头段:

1、 告知对方你的身份(假如对方不认识你)

Dear Sir/ Mr. Prometheus,

I was a student at your college, enrolled in Philosophy Department. / I am a… at your…

/ I am a … at your college, enrolled in the… course.

/ My name is…, I am…

2、 问候收信人(假如他/她是你的朋友)

Dear Prometheus,

Hello / Hi. How are you? / I hope everything is fine. / How are things going with you?

/ How are you getting on in / getting along with…..?

3、 解释写信的原因

(1) 致谢:

I deeply appreciate your courtesy and I hope to reciprocate your favor when the opportunity arises.

/ I am greatly indebted to you for (the double) you have gone to on my behalf.

/ Thank you for your letter about studying in Canada.

/ I am writing to tell you how grateful I am for…

/ I would like to thank you most sincerely for…

(2) 抱怨:

I am writing to complain about the poor service at your dining-room. / I am writing to express my dissatisfaction with / at…

/ I wish to make a complaint about…

/ I am writing to draw your attention to….

/ I am afraid I have got a complaint about….

(3) 致歉:

I would be grateful if you would be so kind as to provide me with certain essential information regarding the following aspects.

/ I am writing to you because I am unable to….

/ I an terribly sorry that….

/ I would like to express my apologies for not being able to….

(4) 询问:

I would like to obtain /request/seek/inquire about some information about…

/ I am writing to ask if you can do me a favor.

/ I would like some detailed information on/about….

(四)结尾段:

1、发出请求

(1)Please give this matter your immediate attention.

(2)I would very much appreciate it if……as soon as possible.

(3)Please render me some valuable advice which is conductive to my final decision.

2、提供帮助

(1)I hope these……will be helpful, and please feel free to contact me for more information.

(2)……will be taking responsibility for you and if you should need any assistance, she/he will be pleased to help you

3、 再次表示歉意或感激

(1)Thank you for your kind assistance.

(2)Please accept my heartfelt thanks and deepest gratitude, now and always.

(3)I am sorry that I cannot……, and trust that you will understand.

(4)In addition, let me apologize for any inconvenience I may have caused.

(5)I shall feel obliged by a reply at your earliest convenience.

(6)Once again, I am sorry for any inconvenience caused.

4、 期盼回信:R.S.V.P .

(1)I look forward to your prompt response.

(2)Looking forward to a prompt reply,

(3)I expect to hear from you very soon.

(4)I hope to receive your reply shortly.

(5)I am already eagerly awaiting your reply to this first letter.

书信题范文:2001.6

Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a letter.

Suppose you are Zhang Ying. Write a letter to Xiao Wang, a schoolmate of yours who is going to visit you during the week-long holiday. You should write at least 100 words according to the suggestions given below in Chinese.

1. 表示欢迎

2. 提出度假安排的建议

3.提醒应注意的事项

A Letter to a Schoolmate

June 23, 2001

Dear Xiao Wang

Example I:

Dear Xiao Wang,

I am very happy to learn that you are going to visit me during the week-long

holiday. My parents will also be happy to see you again. I am sure you will enjoy every minute here.

I know you like swimming. A river lies not far away from my home. We can go swimming there. I think it would be very pleasant and refreshing to swim in such hot summer days. In every big room of my home there is an air-conditioner. We can watch TV, play VCDs or read books very comfortably at home.

A mountain about two miles away from here is beautiful and it is worth touring. We can go there on foot. When we climb to the top of the mountain, we can have a wonderful birds eye view of the whole village.

Just phone me before you set off. There is no need for you to take anything. I’ll prepare everything for you.

I am looking forward to seeing you soon.

Yours,

Zhang Yin

公文信函: 2002.1

Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic:

A Letter to the University President about the Canteen Service on Campus You should write at least 100 words, and base your composition on the outline given in Chinese below:

假设你是李明,请你就本校食堂的状况给校长写一封信,内容应涉及食堂的饭菜质量、价格、环境、服务等,可以是表扬,可以是批评建议,也可以兼而有之。

January 12th, 2002

Dear Mr. President,

Li Ming

freshman 大一

sophomore 大二

junior 大三

senior 大四

Example II:

Dear Mr. Prometheus,

I am a student at your TOEFL class and I am writing to explain my absence from classes since March 11, 2001.

On March 10, 2001, I was involved in a serious motor vehicle accident. I was transported to the hospital in an ambulance, where I was treated for a broken ankle, fractured collarbone, and 3 bruised ribs. My doctor advised

complete bed rest for 6 weeks, and as a result, I have been unable to attend classes since March 11, 2001.

I am concerned about keeping up with my studies, and have been doing the required readings, as assigned by you. My biggest concern is whether I will be able to participate the final class. Would you please advise me regarding my courses, specifically if there will be any special consideration given to me in light of my current situation? Thank you for your kind assistance. I look forward to hearing from you soon.

Sincerely,

Janet,

Student No…

题型总结:

对比观点选择题:4段

社会热点话题:3段

图表题:

书信题:

格言题:

描写叙述题:

完型填空

做题技巧

(一)Prep Tips for Cloze

I .做题步骤:

1、通读全文,了解文章大意;文章两种模式:总分、对比;

2、初选答案(排除法、优选法);

3、寻找线索;

4、回头补缺;

5、核实答案。

II .出题重点:

1.词语的辨析:

1)同义词; 2)反义词; 3)形近词;

形近词举例:Test 2

87. A) lying B) laying C) laid D) lied 注:说谎:lie lied lied lying

躺:lie lay lain lying

放置,下蛋:lay laid laid laying

2.逻辑关系:

1)列举/种属关系:

such…as; especially; in particular; specifically; for example; for instance; likely;

2)因果关系:

because (for); due to; owing to; thanks to; since; for; as; for the reason that; seeing that;

3)并列/递进:

besides; likewise; moreover; also; too; what’s more; apart from; except; furthermore;

not noly…but also….; in addition;

4)转折/让步关系:

however; but; never the less; nonetheless; whereas; still; though; although; anyhow; anyway; in any case; yet;

5)对比关系:

by contrast; in contrast; by comparison; like; as…as; on the contrary; conversely; oppositely; ….than….;

逻辑关系举例1:Test 4

Sometimes homework is returned brief written comments but without a grade.

76. A) by B) in C) for D) with

逻辑关系举例2:Test 2

The United States is well-known for its network of major highways designed to help a driver get from one place to another in the shortest possible time.

71. A) Although B) Since C) Because D) Therefore

72. A) stable B) splendid C) smooth D) complicated

73. A) little B) few C) much D) many

74. A) selections B) separations C) series D) sections

75. A) terrible B) possible C) enjoyable D) profitable

3.固定结构的识别:提高阅读的速度、对于内容有合理的预期、有利于总体把握文章:

either…or…; neither…nor…; too…to…; so…that…; not…until…; hardly…when…; no sooner…than…; not only…but also…

固定结构举例:Test 3

geography books focus on a small area a town or city. Others deal with a state, a region, a nation. Or an continent. Many geography books deal with the whole earth. Another to divide the study of is to distinguish between physical geography and cultural geography. The former focuses on the natural world; the starts with human beings and how human beings and their environment act each other. but when geography is considered as a single subject, branch can neglect the other.

76. A) Some B) Many C) Most D) Few

77. A) outside B) except C) as D) like

81. A) second B) later C) next D) latter

2. 搭配:

例如:a. + n.; ad. + v. ; take advantage of….; make use of….等;

3. 动词用法:

1)主谓一致; 2)时态; 3)语态; 4)非谓语动词;

4. 介词用法:

1)介词与名词; 2)介词与动词; 3)介词与形容词;

.