四级考试三层突破之写作
初二 记叙文 15145字 38人浏览 雅薇汀婚礼私享

2 . 问题解决型

随着大学的扩招,越来越多的毕业生在就业市场面临激烈的竞争。

③ Diploma and certificates are still significant standards by which many employers measure a person’s ability. In order to increase the qualifications for a job, the students compel themselves to run from one exam to another.

学位和证书仍然是很多雇主衡量一个人能力的重要标准。为了增加找工作资格条件,学生们被迫不断参加考试。

④ During the holidays, a growing number of students choose to be

volunteers, take part-time jobs, or take part in other practical activities alike.

在假期,大量的学生选择做志愿者,做兼职工作或者参加其他类似的实践活动。 ⑤ Some students spend too much time in taking part-time jobs so as to ignore their study. Therefore, we are supposed to try to balance the relationship between social practice and study.

有些学生花大量的时间做兼职工作,从而忽视了他们的学业。因此我们应该平衡社会实践和学习之间的关系。

2. 网络科技 :

相关话题: 电脑 / 互联网的普及﹑信息安全﹑媒体广告、通讯设备的进步﹑网络教学及网上阅读﹑网上娱乐(游戏﹑博客﹑开心牧场等)

热门词汇:

cyber culture 计算机文化 online love affairs 网恋

net bar 网吧 shopping online 网上购物

cyber chat 网上聊天 virtual net 虚拟网络

net partner 网友 surf the Internet 网上冲浪

net citizen 网民 cyberspace 网络空间

cyber college 网络大学 convenient and effective 方便有效

e-bank 电子银行 kill time 打发时间

security 信息安全 the popularity of computer 电脑的普及

be addicted to 对……上瘾 campus network 校园网络

release one’s pressure 减轻压力 e-mail 电子邮箱

经典句式:

① No invention has received more praise and abuse than the Internet.

没有一项发明像互联网一样同时受到如此多的赞扬和批评。

② It is commonly thought that our society had dramatically changed by modern science and technology, and human had made extraordinary progress in knowledge and technology over the recent decades.

人们普遍认为现代科技使我们的社会发生了巨大的变化,近几十年人类在科技方面取得了惊人的进步。

③ As a product of modern computer and the Internet, online games have become extremely popular among college students.

作为现代电脑和网络的产物,网络游戏已经在大学生中变得相当普及。

④ But as we see, some students lacking self-discipline are too much indulged in these games so that their health and academic performances are affected.

但是,正如我们看到的,一些缺乏自律的学生沉迷于网络游戏以至于影响了健康和学习。

⑤ More significantly, it does bring college students much pleasure and release their pressure greatly.

更重要的是,它能带给大学生们很多快乐并且极大地减轻压力。

3. 体育健康

相关话题: 体育运动、节食减肥、吸烟、流行性疾病、心理疾病

热门词汇:

lung cancer 肺癌 smoking-related diseases 抽烟引起的疾病 lose weight 减肥 go on die 节食

under the weather 生病、不舒服 flight-headed 头昏眼花

drowsy 昏昏欲睡 flu 流感

epidemics 瘟疫 rampant 猖獗的

contract infections 得传染病 pick up the habit 养成这种习惯

physical and mental condition 身体与精神状态 overweight/fat( 肥胖的 ) mentally unhealthy 精神不健全的 be good for/do good to 对……有益处 good living habits 良好的生活习惯 take regular exercise 进行有规律的运动 unhealthy eating habit 不健康的饮食习惯 junk food 垃圾食品

stay/keep healthy/fit 保持健康

build up one’s body/ improve one’s health 强身健体

经典句式:

① Epidemics are rampant throughout the whole human history, and they have caused the most devastating impacts on us.

在整个人类历史上瘟疫肆虐,他们给我们带来了灾难性的影响。

② For example, the outbreak of H1N1once killed lots of people and brought great economic loss to the whole country.

例如, H1N1 甲型流感的爆发夺去了很多人的生命并且给整个国家带来了重大经济影响。

③ According to a recent survey, four million people die each year from diseases linked to smoking.

依照最近的一项调查,每年有 4 , 000 , 000 人死于与吸烟有关的疾病。

④ Children are undergoing fast physical development; lack of physical exercise may produce disastrous influence on their later life.

孩子们正处于身体快速发育时期,缺乏体育锻炼可能会对他们未来的生活造成严重的影响。

⑤ In fact, we have to admit the fact that the quality of life is as important as life itself.

事实上,我们必须承认生命的质量和生命本身一样重要。

第一部分 写作—— 写作步骤核心指导

2009 年 12 月四级作文真题

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay on the topic of Creating A Green Campus.You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below:

1. 建设绿色校园很重要

2. 绿色校园不仅指绿色的环境……

3. 为了建设绿色校园,我们应该……

( 一 ) 审题立意

1. 首先审题目以及提纲,考生很容易判断出这是问题解决类作文。

2. 该作文体现出一种较新的命题方式,首先在题材上,依然是我们所熟悉的校园类话题,同时兼顾社会的热点:环保问题,这也与社会的大背景有关系,刚刚闭幕的哥本哈根世界气候大会也同时关注环保减排这个主题,因此我们的作文也与社会热点有很大的关系。分析题目 Green “绿色”和 Campus “校园”是本作文的关键词。考生应该考虑绿色校园具体是什么含义。重点应放在绿色校园的含义以及我们应该采取的措施上。考卷已经列出了提纲,这是对“三段式”提纲类作文写作结构的考查。

( 二 ) 草拟提纲

段落一阐述问题段①开门见山,绿色校园引发人们关注;②建立绿色校园对自己、他人及社会都有重要影响。

段落二说明原因段①绿色校园具有两层含义;②绿色,无污染;③人文精神、文明建设、人文关怀、和谐。

段落三解决方法段①为了建设绿色校园,个人、学校、政府和社会各界应该采取哪些措施;②对未来的展望。

根据以上构思,写作提纲如下:

Creating A Green Campus

What’s a green campus and how to creat a green campus?

Creating A Green Campus

I.Nowadays the topic of a green campus has aroused public attention.

1.It is of vital importance to the students

2.It has a profound impact on society

II.The idea of “a green campus” is beyond a green environment.

1.green environment preservation and protection

2.a civilized atmosphere for students’ mental health

III.It is imperative for us to take effective measures to creat a green

campus.

1.The law and regulations should be worked out

2.Enhanced the awareness of the students themselves

( 三 ) 落笔写作

1. 阐述问题段 根据题目中的提纲,首先强调建立绿色校园的重要性,最好在此句之前做一个铺垫,介绍建立绿色校园受到人们广泛关注这一背景信息,即 the topic of a green campus has aroused public attention.

常见问题:用词匮乏。如:“很重要” important 。

使用对策:使用精彩替换词。如: the indispensable part for, has a profound impact on, significance 等。

2. 说明原因段 对绿色校园的两方面含义进行论述。另外在展开论证过程中,抽象句子要举例说明,如: such as planting more trees and flowers, for example, students will be severely punished in case of cheating in exams ,这些具体信息使文章更生动,容易理解。

常见问题:结构不清,缺乏层次感。

使用对策:要注意各个理由之间的逻辑关系,适当地运用表示层次关系的词语,如: to begin with, in addition to; furthermore/not only … but also … / what ’ s more; for example/for instance/such as; in other words/ in particular 等。

本文的说明原因段可分为如下三个层次进行论证:

①开门见山:首先对“绿色校园”在下文要涉及的内容进行总体概括: The idea of “ a green campus ” is beyond a green environment.

②正面论证:说明“绿色校园”的第一层含义,也就是我们最熟知的一层含义,即

campus construction refers to green environment preservation and protection 。然后举例进一步解释此含义,并强调其重要性: which makes campus an ecological and natural resort. 在这个过程中考生要注意亮点词汇以及句型的使用。

③反面论证:使用 in addition to 引出“绿色校园”的第二层含义,即 create a civilized atmosphere for the sake of students ’ mental health. 然后举例进一步解释此含义。如: For example, students will be severely punished in case of cheating in exams and plagiarizing in academic papers.

3. 解决方法段 鉴于“绿色校园”的重要性,说明采取措施的必要性,如: To bring “ green campus ” to its full play, effective measures should be taken.

常见问题:用语过于直白或极端。如: We must … / We should …等。

使用对策:要站在中庸的立场上,客观地提出建议,可使用一些表示客观立场的词语,如: It is essential that … ; Only by the co efforts of the whole society could “ green campus ” work smoothly. 这样使自己的观点表达得既委婉又客观。

Creating A Green Campus

Nowadays the topic of a green campus has been widely debated which has aroused public attention.Undoubtedly, a green campus, the indispensable part for the development of college students, has a profound impact on both individuals and society, for its significance cannot be denied.

The idea of “a green campus” is beyond a green environment.To begin with, campus construction refers to green environment preservation and protection, such as planting more trees and flowers, which makes campus an ecological and natural resort, and advocating green products.For example, students are

encouraged to avoid using disposable plastic containers in campus dining hall and recycle wasted batteries and other electrical products properly.In addition to the environmentally friendly practice, we shall make every effort to improve the moral standard and ethical level of university students in order to create a civilized atmosphere for the sake of students’ mental health.For example,

students will be severely punished in case of cheating in exams and plagiarizing in academic papers.

To bring “green campus” to its full play, effective measures should be

taken.First, based on its education function, campus should bring the theory of “sustainable development” into classrooms, set environmental management rules and conduct environmental education activities.Second, it is essential that law and regulations be worked out and enforced by the government and school authorities.Only by the co-efforts of the whole society could “green campus” work smoothly and bring benefit to people’s well-beings.

( 四 ) 修改润色

作文基本完成以后,主要有以下两项任务:

1. 检查

检查是否包含考卷提纲列出的所有信息;各段落衔接是否连贯,使用 In the first place, Furthermore, On the one hand , For instance , On the other hand 等词可以达到这种效果;语法上单词拼写上是否有误,如较长单词 indispensable , environmentally friendly , preservation , plagiarizing 等,以及短语 has a profound impact on , disposable plastic containers , in case of , bring … to its full play, bring benefit to 以及最后一段中虚拟语气、倒装句使用是否正确。避免使用“汉语式英语”;检查文章标点符号是否正确。

2. 润色

例如: Only by the co efforts of the whole society could “ green campus ” work smoothly and bring benefit to people ’ s well beings 中使用倒装句的结构,凸显考生的语法功底。

第一部分 写作——出现亮点

四级作文在追求明白、通顺、完整的同时,还要力求语言的生动、形象、让开头结尾更新颖脱俗,为作文增色,取得高分。

(1) 词汇选择标新立异

1) 尽量使用同义词避免简单重复。 在使用同义词的时候需要考生在选词时斟酌其含义的微妙差别,辨析同义词在具体语境中的不同用法。

如“认为”可用 harbor the idea that, take the attitude that, hold the view that, it is widely shared that, it is universally acknowledged that 等;“好的”可用 conducive /beneficial/advantageous 等。

但要注意词汇的准确性,即必须还要考虑适合的语境。比如形容眼睛“大” , 很显然, great, large, huge, vast, titanic, enormous 这些“大”都是不恰当的,而只能使用 big 。

2) 尽量使用词性变化来丰富自己的表达手段。

如 to voice some different opinions 替代 to give/express some different opinions; to double/triple 替代 twice or three times;

3) 尽量使用派生形式来点缀文章亮点。

如 be indicative of ,be suggestive of ,be fearful of 替代 indicate,

suggest ,fear ; it is of great importance/ help/ use/ significance 替代 it is very important/ significant/ helpful/ useful ; not unnecessary/ not unimportant 。

4) 四级考试词汇不足采取措施:

在四级作文写作过程中,很多考生往往有很多话要说,但是词汇量不足无法完整表达自己的意思。为了应付这种情况,我们总结简便易行的应急措施:

①试用笼统词

英语中有些具体词音节较多,使用频率不高,容易遗忘,而英语中笼统词有 have, take 等,它的意义广泛,搭配性强,构成词组后可以替代众多具体动词,大致表达意思。

例如:这个男孩跟他爸爸长得很像。

The boy resembles his father.

分析:这个句子中,如果考生想不起 resemble 这个单词时,用 take after 代替。如: The boy takes after his father. 其效果及表达的意义决不亚于第一句。这样的例子还很多。如:

I experienced a terrible hard time.= I had a terrible hard time.

I will preside over the meeting.= I will take the meeting.

②联想有关词汇

当遗忘单词时,发挥想象力,想出一切与之有关的单词,多角度地运用语言。一般情况下,联想可按下列思路进行: 1 联想同义词; 2 联想反义词。

英语语言中众多的同义词在许多情况下是可以通用的。但也要注意英语同义词并不是完全对等,要根据具体语境选择同义词。

The driver stepped on the gas and accelerated the car.

分析: accelerate 使用频率不太高,很容易遗忘。而其同义词 quicken ; speed up 却很容易记。以后者取代前者丝毫不影响原句的意义。再如: the prevailing economic conditions in Northern Ireland= the current economic conditions in Northern Ireland

同样,用其反义词来取代某一遗忘了的词也是可行的,例如:

He is stubborn.= He is not tame.

She is talkative.= She is never quiet.

③试用解释性语句

解释性语句能帮助我们巧妙地避开一些大词,难词,又能使意思表达流畅。英语当中多功能解释性语句,就可以起到这一作用。例如:

He is a dumb.= He is a person who can not speak.

I’ve never seen such a stubborn person.= I’ve never seen such a person who never listens to other’s advice.

四级作文的评分标准一般侧重于能清楚地表达意义,段落,层次有系统性,语法正确,而并不过分强调用词的精确度。当考生碰到难词或遗忘词时,不要钻牛角尖,应该采取灵活的思维方法,运用有限的词汇作出美妙的文章。

(2) 恰当运用修辞

英语作文中常用的修辞方式是比喻。比喻包括明喻、暗喻和换喻三种。

明喻: 一种修辞手法,把两种基本不相像的东西进行比较 . 用 like, as, as … as, as if(though) 或用其他词语指出两个不同事物的相似之处。例如:

The man can ’ t be trusted.He is as slippery as an eel. 那个人不可信赖。他像鳗鱼一样狡猾。

Childhood is like a swiftly passing dream. 童年就像一场即逝的梦。

暗喻: 用一个词来指代与该词所指事物有相似特点的另外一个事物。例如:

The world is a stage. 世界是一个大舞台。

a sea of troubles 忧愁之海

换喻: 用某一事物的名称代替另外一个与它关系密切的事物的名称,只要一提到其中一种事物,就会使人联想到另一种。比如用 the White House 代替美国政府或者总统, 用 the bottle 来代替 wine 或者 alcohol , 用 the bar 来代替 the legal profession ,用 crown 代替 king 等。 例如:

The mother did her best to take care of the cradle. 母亲尽最大努力照看孩子。 He succeeded to the crown in 1848. 他在 1848 年继承了王位。

(3) 开头结尾新颖脱俗

文章的开篇方法多种多样,大家必须根据文章的题材、体裁、读者等来加以选择。作文常见的开头形式大致有以下几种:

①开门见山 , 直入主题

开始段可用简洁的语言直陈主题思想,既可以吸引读者的注意力,又可以避免跑题。例如:主题: Euthanasia( 安乐死 )

It has been said that euthanasia is quietly being practiced in some urban areas of China, despite a lack of legal protection for the death option.In my opinion, it is right to exercise mercy killing.

该段第一句引入安乐死这一讨论的主题,第二句接着直接陈述作者对安乐死的看法。从这个开始段不难看出,全文将阐述“为什么实行安乐死是对的”。

②以问句形式开头 , 点明主题

文章的开头还可用设问的方式点明主题,提示全文内容,激发读者读下去,探个究竟。例如:主题: Water Shortage

China, a country blessed with a great number of rivers, has abundant water resources. However, China’s many cities are going thirsty. What has caused the shortage?

本段第一句说中国水资源丰富,第二句指出中国许多城市却缺水,第三句提出了读者心中的疑问:是什么原因导致缺水呢 ? 从而激发读者的兴趣,吸引读者读下去,寻找问题的答案。

③引用名言、谚语,点明主题

开始段还可以巧妙引用与主题相关的名言、常用习语、谚语、格言等,既可增强文章的感染力,也可点题或表明作者的观点。例如:

A proverb says, “You are only young once.” ( 适用于已记住的名言 )

It goes without saying that we cannot be young forever.( 适用于自编名言 ) 引用名言,使文章很自然进入主题,同时也增强了文章的感染力。

④运用数字统计

原则上在议论文当中不应该出现虚假数字,可是在考试的时候可以编造数字。例如: According to a recent survey, about 78.9% of the college students wanted to further their study after their graduation.

A recent statistics shows that tens of billions of pounds is spent on

cigarettes every year in our country.

文章开头使用数字,这样吸引读者的注意,并且是描写显得生动有力。

⑤描写共有经历,引起共鸣

开始段还可通过描写与读者共有的经历,引起读者的共鸣,增强说服力。例如:主题: Daydreaming

“Daydreaming again, Barb? You’ll never amount to anything if you spend your time that way! Can’t you find something useful to do?” Many youngsters have heard words like those from their parents.And until recently this hostile attitude towards daydreaming….

本段通过许多年轻人常常从他们父母那听到的话开头,引出“白日做梦”这一主题,很容易引起读者的共鸣,激发他们的兴趣,同时又能增强了文章的说服力。

另外,结尾段 (Concluding Paragraph) 同开篇一样重要。结尾段对全文要点进行概括总结、表达作者的目的,以求留给读者一个深刻完整的印象,增强文章的效果。文章结尾的形式常见的有以下几种 :

①总结全文 , 得出结论

结尾段可用总结全文的方式强调、概括全文的主要内容,加深读者对全文的深刻了解与认识。例如:

主题: Physical exercise

In a word, I benefit a lot from doing physical exercise.I seldom get sick but feel vigorous even after a whole day’s work.I shall keep up doing physical exercise so as to live happily and fruitfully.

本段总结了全文,加深读者对“体育锻炼有益于健康”这一主题的认识。

②提出建议 , 号召行动 , 表达决心或展望未来

结尾段还可以在总结全文要点的基础上,对文中所提的暂时无法解决或尚无定论的问题适当引申,或提出建议,号召别人采取行动,或展望未来。这种方法可以启发读者思考并予以鼓舞,有助于增强文章的感染力。例如:

主题: Generation gap

In order to reconcile the differences, some forms of organization should be established to help the young and the old to exchange their ideas and strengthen their mutual understanding so as to bridge the gap.

该段就怎样弥补代沟方面提出一些建议。

③建议与结论

文章的结尾常结合两种写法。有的先提出建议或解决办法,再做结论。有的则先做出结论,再提出建议,例如:

主题: Shortage of natural resources( 自然资源短缺 )

The prolonged development of human society proves that population and economic and social progress eventually cannot be achieved without natural resources.To save the limited resources, we must take some measures to handle appropriately the relationship between the population and resources.

该段首先进行总结:人类社会持续的发展证明,如果没有自然资源,人口的繁衍、经济和社会的发展最终都是不可能的。作者接着建议,为了节约有限的资源,我们必须采取一些措施,正确处理人口与资源的关系。

④提醒读者事物的两面性

文章的结尾还可以以转折的形式,提醒读者任何事物都有两面性,从而认识到其不足或负面的影响。例如:

主题: Solar Energy( 太阳能 )

However, solar energy has its disadvantages.One is that it is still very expensive for widespread practical use.Besides, solar systems would not work

in cloudy or rainy days as well as at night.But in sunny areas, solar energy could help solve the energy crisis.

该段指出了太阳能的两个缺点:一、太贵;二、太阳能系统在阴雨天和晚上无法工作,从而让人们更全面地了解太阳能。值得注意的是,在指出某一事物的另一面时,不能用太多笔墨,否则会喧宾夺主,淡化主题思想。

(4) 巧妙运用名言警句

名言警句的巧妙运用不仅会使文章有一定的文采,论证更加有说服力,更能显示考生的英语功底。另外能够适时引经据典,必定会让阅卷人眼前一亮。

1) 开头段: 名言警句或俗语谚语等作为文章的开头,既文采斐然,又能突出中心。例如:

Just as the saying goes, “ so many people, so many minds”, it is quite

understandable that views on this issue vary from person to person.To this issue, different people come up with various attitudes.

2) 中间段: 中间段主题句之后引用名言警句,有力证明论点,起到锦上添花的效果。例如:

As a classic proverb goes that no garden has no weeds.Computers do play a positive role in the development of people’ lives, despite a slice of unfavorable impacts.We should ,therefore, take advantage of the fruits and avoid the opposite facet.

3) 结尾段: 用名言警句收尾,意在引申文章内涵,充分表明考生自己的观点,极具说服力,收到“言有尽而意无穷”的效果,起到了画龙点睛的作用。例如:

Therefore, we should never underestimate our own ability but should

believe in the proverb: “Where there is a will, there is a way.” Confidence is a must for success.