浙江新高考英语作文概要和续写
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2016年浙江新高考英语题型解读—概要写作

一、2016年浙江新高考《考试说明》英语写作样题

第二节:概要写作(满分25分)

阅读下面短文,根据其内容写一篇60词左右的内容概要。

Getting rid of dirt, in the opinion of most people, is a good thing. However, there is nothing fixed about attitudes to dirt.

In the early 16th century, people thought that dirt on the skin was a means to block out disease, as medical opinion had it that washing off dirt with hot water could open up the skin and let ills in. A particular danger was though to lie in public baths. By 1538, the French king had closed the bath houses in his kingdom. So did the king of England in 1546. Thus began a long time when the rich and the poor in Europe lived with dirt in a friendly way. Henry IV, King of France, was famously dirty. Upon learning that a nobleman had taken a bath, the king ordered that, to avoid the attack of disease, the nobleman should not go out.

Though the belief in the merit (好处) of dirt was long-lived, dirt has no longer been regarded as a nice neighbor ever since the 18 century. Scientifically speaking, cleaning away dirt is good to health. Clean water supply and hand washing are practical means of preventing disease. Yet, it seems that standards of cleanliness have moved beyond science since World War II. Advertisements repeatedly sell the idea: clothes need to be whiter than white, cloths ever softer, surfaces to shine. Has the hate for dirt, however, gone too far?

Attitudes to dirt still differ hugely nowadays. Many first-time parents nervously try to warn their children off touching dirt, which might be responsible for the spread of disease. On the contrary, Mary Ruebush, an American immunologist (免疫学家), encourages children to play in the dirt to build up a strong immune system. And the latter (后者) position is gaining some ground.

(原创范文,仅供参考)

One possible version:

People have mixed opinions towards dirt on our skin. (要点 1 ) For a long time in history, people of some European countries, such as France, believed that dirt protected people from getting ill. (要点 2 ) However, people began to change their attitudes to dirt about 200 years ago. People have been told that washing dirt off our body can keep us healthy. (要点 3) However, some scientists believe that exposure to some dirt may help our immune system. (要点 4)

【范文点拨】

(一) 要点分析

1. 文章第一段就是本篇文章的主题句,点明了总的观点:However, there is nothing fixed about attitudes to dirt. 换句话说:Different people have different attitudes towards dirt. 再结合下文谈到的主题可知Different people have different attitudes towards dirt on th

e skin. 范文中的要点1“People have mixed opinions towards dirt on our skin. ”概括非常精炼。

2.第二段主要谈到了在16世纪,人们认为dirt on the skin was a means to block out disease ,尤以英、法两国的贵族为代表。结合第三段第一句Though the belief in the merit of dirt was long-lived, dirt has no longer been regarded as a nice neighbor ever since 18 century.可知,直到18世纪之前,人们都认为dirt 是很“友好的”,有助于预防疾病。范文中的要点2 “For a long time in history, people of some European countries, such as France, believed that dirt protected people from getting ill.”很好地总结了这些要点。

3. 第三段用Though 引出人们对dirt 观点的转变“…since the 18th century. Scientificall y speaking, cleaning away dirt is good to health.”再结合本段最后一部分Advertisements repeatedly sell the idea…可得出要点3“However, people began to change their attitudes to dirt about 200 years ago. People have been told that washing dirt off our body can keep us healthy.”

4. 文章最后一段第一句指出,现在人们对于dirt 的态度还是有所不同,On the contrary 引出专家的观点,一位免疫学家认为dirt 有助于增强免疫系统。这一观点获得了一些支持。范文中的要点4“However, some scientists believe that exposure to some dirt may help our immune system.”表达很恰切。

(二) 要点连接

文章概要,在写完了要点之后,下一步的工作就是要把这些要点用适当的连接词进行连接,使上下句之间具有连贯性。本篇文章整篇结构是总分的结构,要点2和要点3在观点上截然相反,因此,之间需要表示转折的连接词,范文用了However 恰到好处。要点3和要点4在观点上又存在不同,因此,还是用表转折的连接词However 。不过小编认为,此处用Nevertheless 可以避免三句话内出现两次However 。

(三) 关键词汇

第一段:fixed (确定的;不变的) 第二段:means (手段,方法), block out (挡住), open up (打开), upon (……之后;立即) 第三段:long-lived (长期存在的), sell the idea (说服某人接收某个观点) 第四段:warn sb off (警告某人不要靠近), position (观点), gain some ground (取得优势)

以上这些关键词对于整篇文章的理解与转化成自己的语言都很关键,如果不能准确领会其用意,语篇理解的效果会大打折扣。所以,概要写作的基础是理解语篇,而读懂语篇的基础是词汇,尤其是对关键词汇的掌握与运用。在此基础上,综合运用语法与句法结构,按照行文逻辑组织语言,形成概要。

二、题型解读

1. 题型介绍

◆选材特点

(1)所需阅读的短文词数在350以内;

(2)所选材料体裁没有限制,以说明文、议论文和记叙文为主。

◆评分参考

阅卷时主要考虑以下内容:

(1)对原文要点的理解和呈现情况;

(2)应用语法结构和词汇的准确性;

(3)上下文的连贯性;

(4)对各要点表达的独立性情况。

注意:理解准确,涵盖全部要求,完全使用自己的语言,准确使用相应的语法结构和词汇,得分相应比较高。相反,如果概要写作部分出现两句以上整句抄自原文现象,得分档次将会大大降低;所写内容与所提供内容无关不得分。

2考查能力

概要写作,简言之就是对所读过的文章简要概括,写出文章的中心大意,也可称之为摘要。写概要时,读者要是把文章的具体信息用一些具有概括功能的词和句表述出来,而不是抄袭文章的原句,更不是把细节性信息作为中心,而是要通过对文章中的单词、词组和句子进行合理转换,对文章的具体信息进行概括,再用合适的语言表述出来。这一题型主要考查学生对文章主旨大意的概括和准确获取关键词的能力,同时考查学生用简洁的语言概括文章重要信息的能力以及对文章整体结构的把握能力。因此,概要写作是基于阅读理解和书面表达,是二者的有机结合体,是阅读理解和书面表达的沟通桥梁。

3写作步骤

1)细读原文。首先要仔细阅读短文,掌握文章主旨和结构,明确各段的大意。

2)弄清要求。新高考的概要写作是写全文概要,不是写某一部分的概要,或者就某些问题写出要点。

3)列出原文要点。分析原文的内容和结构,将内容分项扼要表述并注意在结构上的顺序。在此基础上选出与文章主题密切相关的部分。

4)在写作时要特别注意下面几点:

(1)概要应包括原文中的主要事实,略去不必要的细节。

(2)安排好篇幅的比例,概要应同原文保持协调,即用较多的文字写重要内容,用较少的文字写次要内容。

(3)注意要点之间的衔接,要用适当的关联词语贯通全文,切忌只简单地写出一些互不相干的句子,但也不要每两句之间都加关联词语,以免显得生硬。

(4)不排斥用原文的某些词句,但不要照搬原文的句子,如果不能完全用自己的话语表达,至少对原文句子做一些同义词替换,如果结构上也能有一些转换会更好。

(5)计算词数,看是否符合规定的词数要求。

4. 备考建议

概要写作,其实我们考生并不陌生,在日常的英语教学中,教师经常让学生就所学英语课文逐段概括段落大意或者复述课文,这在一定程度上都为概要写作打基础。除此之外,作为考生,还要注意以下几点:

(1)积累常见的同义短语和句型转换,掌握并运用单词、短语和句型。“巧妇难为无米之炊”,即使有再好的写作技巧,如果没有相应的基础词汇和句法知识,也很难写出概要写作的上乘之作。因此,考生要在基础词汇和句法知识上下功夫,以不变应万变。

(2) 进行适度地专题练习。有计划地进行适度练习有利于考生快速掌握概要写作的要点,找到概要写作的感觉,冲破对概要写作的不适感。平时可多关注往年的高考阅读文章,进行结构分析和主旨概括训练。可按文体和题材,分类训练篇章结构的布局,增强对文章上下文连贯性的把握。概要写作首先要掌握各种文体的写作特点和框架。如:

记叙文:what / who / when / where / why / how

议论文:opinion / idea + argument (supporting ideas / reasons)

说明文:phenomenon / problem + reason + solution (cause and effect), introduction of an object (how it is made, how it is used, how it may change, what makes it new or significant)

新闻: a focus on the first paragraph and the first and last sentences of the other paragraphs

综合以上分析可知,新高考更加重视考查考生高中阶段英语基本技能的掌握情况,也注意考查考生进入高等学校继续学习的潜能,目标是利用高考命题的导向功能推动新课程的课堂教学改革

2016年浙江新高考英语题型解读—读后续写

第二节:读后续写(满分25分)

阅读下面短文,根据所给情节进行续写,使之构成一个完整的故事。

A funny thing happened to Arthur when he was on the way to work one day. As he w

ying to start a car. He tried again and again but couldn’t get the car moving. Arthur turned and looked inside at the face of a young man who looked worried. Arthur stopped and asked, “It looks like you’ve got a problem,” Arthur said.

“I’m afraid so. I’m in a big hurry and I can’t start my car.”

“Is there something I can do to help?” Arthur asked.and then said, “Thanks. If you’re sure it wouldn’t be too much trouble, you could help me get these suitcases into a taxi.”

“No trouble at all. I’d be glad to help.”

The young man got out and took one of the suitcases from the back seat. After placing it on the ground, he turned to get the other one. Just as Arthur picked up the first suitc抢劫)!

Park Avenue had been quiet a moment before. Now the air was filled with the sound ossengers joined the crowd in front of the bank. People asked each other, “What happened?” But everyone had a different answer.

Arthur, still carrying the suitcase, turned to look at the bank and walked right into the young woman in front of him.

She looked at the suitcase and then at him. Arthur was surprised. “Why is she looking at me like that?” He thought. “The suitcase! She thinks I’m

Arthur looked around at the crowd of people. He became frightened, and without another thought, he started to run.

注意:

1. 所续写短文的词数应为150左右;

2. 应使用5个以上短文中标有下划线的关键词语;

3. 续写部分分为两段,每段的开头语已为你写好;

4. 续写完成后,请用下划线标出你所使用的关键词语。

Paragraph 1:

As he was running, Arthur heard the young man shouting behind, “Stop, stop!” _____________________________________________________________

Paragraph 2:

The taxi stopped in front of the Police Station and Arthur...

_____________________________________________________________

原创范文,仅供参考)

One possible version:

As he was running, Arthur heard the young man shouting behind, “Stop, stop!” And aland said to the driver, “Go to the police station, please. The man sho!’’ The taxi raced away like the wind.

The taxi stopped in front of the Police Station and Arthur told the police what had haptcase and there was a large sum of money inside, as Arthur had expected. Then the police asked Arthur to describe the young man and the other suitcase. Later, with the informaords 153)

Another possible version:

As he was running, Arthur heard the young man shouting behind, “Stop, stop!”Thinkin earest police station. The driver followed what Arthur said and drove away.

The taxi stopped in front of the Police Station and Arthur thanked the driver and directand reported the young man to the police, he heard a voice outside, “Help! Help!” To the surprise of Arthur, it was the young man. He had followed Arthur in another taxi. It turned out that the young man was innocent and inside the suitcases were just some clothes. Arthur felt embarrassed but the policemen thanked him anyway.(Words: 158)

【范文点拨】

原文所给关键词分类:

地点:Park Avenue, the bank

人物:The young man, people, the bank thief

事件:suitcases, in the back seat, loud noise of an alarm, robbery, the shouts

在续写时,除了注意原文给出的关键词,还需要注意以下线索:

1. Why did the young man look worried?

2. What happened? But everyone had a different answer.

3. Arthur became frightened and without another thought, he started to run.

二、题型解读

1. 题型介绍

◆选材特点

(1)所需阅读的短文词数在350以内;

(2)多以记叙文故事类文章或者夹叙夹议类文章为主,故事情节有曲折、有起伏,但是,故事线索的逻辑性比较强。

◆评分参考

阅卷时主要考虑以下内容:

(1)与所给短文及段落开头语的衔接程度;

(2)内容的丰富性和对所给关键词语的覆盖情况;

(3)应用语法结构和词汇的丰富性和准确性;

(4)上下文的连贯性。

注意:

(1)所续写短文的词数应为150左右(词数少于130的,从总分中减去2分);

(2)应使用5个以上短文中标有下划线的关键词语;

(3)续写部分分为两段,每段的开头语已为你写好;

(4)续写完成后,请用下划线标出你所使用的关键词语。

2. 考查能力

读后续写是一种将阅读与写作紧密结合的考查形式,旨在考查学生的综合语言运用能力。与应用文不同,故事续写除了要求学生掌握丰富的词汇和句式外,还注重学生的内容构思和情节衔接的能力。主要聚焦在以下四个方面:

一是把握短文关键信息和语言特点的能力。学生需要了解给定短文的主要内容,清楚其关键词和语言结构的使用情况,并通过续写短文表现出来。

二是语言运用的准确性和丰富性。期望学生在词汇和语言结构的使用方面准确、恰当,能够根据内容需要使用较为高级的词汇和语言结构,阅卷老师会感觉这个学生很有水平。 三是对语篇结构的把控能力。考查学生对上下文逻辑关系的掌握情况,希望学生续写的短文语句连贯、有序。

四是创造性思维能力。这是对学生续写短文内容得要求,期望学生续写的短文具有较丰富的内容。该试题具有一定的开放性,要求学生详细和生动地描述情景、态度和感情,符合课程标准的要求和学生的能力水平(刘庆思,陈康,2016)。

3. 续写特点

读后续写,简言之,就是阅读完一篇还未写完的文章之后,根据要求和提示把这篇文章未写完部分补充完整,使之浑然一体。它一方面很好地考查考生对所学语言知识的实际运用能力,而另一方面,它也培养学生的发散思维能力。根据《考试说明》该部分的规定,考生在续写文章时,要注意续写部分“与所给短文及段落开头语的衔接程度”,“内容的丰富性和对所标出关键词语的应用情况”,“应用语法结构和词汇的丰富性和准确性”以及“上下文的连贯性”。根据这些规定,我们会发现读后续写有如下特点:

(1)读后续写不是随心所欲,是要在引导语(开头语)和提示词的帮助下完成续写部分。如《考试说明》样题中规定“应使用5个以上短文中标有下划线的关键词语(10处)”。这些关键词语类似于传统写作中的要点提示,如人物、地点、事件,但是不同点在于这些关键词语并不是全用。这样考生可根据自己的理解有很大的自主权。另外,所续写部分不能脱离各自段落的首句开头语,即:不能另起炉灶。这些开头语与传统写作中的开头语类似,在某种程度上引导你的思路向哪方面发展。

(2)续写短文多以记叙文故事类文章或者夹叙夹议类文章为主,故事情节有曲折、有起伏,但是,故事线索的逻辑性比较强。这样考生能够根据提示词语,顺着原来文章的思路续写文章,并适当发散。

(3)读后续写要求读写并重。与阅读理解题一样,读后续写同样需要对本篇文章精确理解,这样所续写部分才不至于偏离主题,就这方面而言有点类似阅读理解题中对文章后续发展的推断,如“Whatwould happen next?”。

(4)所给文章的未完部分的思路和内容并不一定是唯一的,考生可以根据自己对文章的理解,从而对文章的结尾有不同的诠释。如《考试说明》中读后续写的样题的结尾,考生可以理解为这个年轻人是银行抢劫者,而Arthur 因此成为一个大英雄;考生也可以理解为这个年轻人不是一个银行抢劫者,结果产生了误会。

4. 续写步骤

(1)精读文章,确定文章线索。每篇文章都有各自独特的写作思路,通过精读文章,找到该篇文章的写作线索,如是以时间为线索还是以空间为线索等,这样有利于考生“顺藤摸瓜(结尾)”。

(2)仔细审题,明确续写要求。一般短文后面的“注意”都有对此次短文续写的具体要求,如字数限制、使用几处下划线关键词语、续写段落的首句提示,这样考生做到“心中有数”。

(3)回扣原文,揣摩续写思路。根据文章后面的要求,再次快速回读短文,抓住文章的思路,结合段首的提示语,最终确定续写段落的思路,同时结合文章划线词语提示,确定续写段落的内容。

(4)拟写草稿,修改错词病句。在确定了思路和内容之后,最关键的就是结合提示语或者文中划线的关键词拟写草稿。拟写时,注意句子结构的多样性,语言的丰富性,并通过句与句之间连接词的正确使用,使上下文连贯。

(5)标出续写部分中使用到的原材料中标有下划线的关键词语。这一点可以帮助考生自己检查关键词的使用情况并根据情况做出修改。最后在誊写文字时,务必做到“字迹工整、清晰”。

5. 备考建议

面对读后续写这一新写作题型,在了解了其特点和写作技巧之后,考生只要加以适度练习,对此新题型可以做到得心应手。

1. 充分利用记叙文故事类的阅读理解或者完形填空。考生在做此类文章的试题时,读到适当的位置,可以短暂停止,根据已读部分文章的脉络,对文章进行发散思维,设想可能的几种结尾,最后对照原文的结尾,看自己的设想是否与原文一致。

2. 经常实施微型化训练,也就是对所读文章的某一段落进行设想。根据某一段落的首句提示,结合文章的上文对该段进行合理设想,具体推断该段可能要讲述的内容。

3. 与传统写作类似,续写文章更加要注意句与句之间的连接词,甚至是冠词的暗示作用。如《考试说明》的样题中续写部分的第二段“the Police Station”中的“the”表明在上一段中已经提到,同时后面的and 表明前后之间是并列关系。

4. 进行适度专题化练习。俗话说,熟能生巧。对于读后续写这一新题型也是如此。通过适度地练习,可以进一步熟知该种题型的特色,更好地掌握该种题型的写作技巧,更有效地调动传统写作的基础知识,从而写出一篇优美的续写短文。需要注意的是,后续写补全的是语篇,而非单词或短语。

5. 在平时的教学中,老师要帮助学生释放创造力和想象力,激发表达动机。

综合以上分析可知,新高考更加重视考查考生高中阶段英语基本技能的掌握情况,也注意考查考生进入高等学校继续学习的潜能,目标是利用高考命题的导向功能推动新课程的课堂教学改革。

浙江新高考英语作文概要和续写1篇同标题作文
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