英语作文讲座主要内容
初一 散文 32114字 1872人浏览 战士4546

本次写作课主要内容

一.四、六级作文的评分原则及标准

二.如何应对大学英语四、六级短文写作

三.“过渡衔接词语”在大学英语四、六级短文写作中的“闪光点”作用 四.历年四级真题作文选读 五.四、六级作文实用套语

一、四、六级作文评分原则及标准

(1) 评分原则: 四、六级作文题部分采用总体评分(Global Scoring) 的原则——阅卷人员就总的印象给出奖励分(Reward Scores),而不是按语言点的错误数目扣分。

(2) 具体评分标准:

四、六级作文试题满分为15分。阅卷标准分为五等:2分、5分、8分、11分、14分。

(3) 关于作文最低分的规定:

作文最低分的规定是1997年6月开始实施的,其具体含义是:如果写作部分不能及格,则四、六级考试不能通过。全国大学英语考试委员会这一规定的目的是为了突出写作在四、六级考试中的权重。记分方法如下:

a. 作文及格分为6分;

b. 作文分为0分,原计算分数即使高于60分,公布的成绩一律为59分;

c. 作文分低于及格分(6分) 时,公布的成绩以此计算公式得出:

原计算分数 - 6分(及格分数) + 作文实得分数

例:(原计算分数)62分-(及格分数)6分+(作文实得分数)3分=59分

d. 字数不足酌情扣分

(注:题目中给出的主题句、起始句、结束句、均不得计入所写字数。只写一段者,给0~4

分;只写两段者,给0~9分——指规定的三段作文)

(4)评分样卷及说明

Title: Getting to Know the World Outside the Campus

Outline: 1. 大学生了解社会的必要性;

2. 了解社会的途径(大众媒介、社会服务等);

3. 我打算怎么办?

例文1:

With the rapid development of our society, the campus is no longer an “Ivory Tower”. Students must get in touch with the world outside the campus so that they can adapt themselves to the society more quickly when they graduate.

Almost all the students keep themselves informed by TV, radio broadcasts and newspapers. Some of them even take up a part-time job in their spare time. Working as tutors, serving in some fast-food restauants …All these have keep the students get in touch with the society.

Now the summer vacation will come and I`ve already found myself a job----working as a typist in an office. I`ve learned typing for many years and I think I can do it well. It`s a good chance for me to get to know the society, to learn how to get along with my colleagues and to see how my knowledge is put into practise. When the next semester begings, I`ll still try to get this kind of little job. Regardless of the pay, I think the most important thing is that I can really know a lot about the society.

例文1为14分样题。切题。思想表达清楚,文字流畅,内容比较充实,基本上无语言错误。 例文2:

It is important for the sttdents to know the world outside the campus. Now the society is developing quickly. We have to adapt us to the society. After graduating, we must find a job to support ourselves. And we must know what kind of people the society requires.

To know the world outside the campus, we can read newspaper, watch TV and listen to the radio. We can also get to know the society through taking part in serving for the society. And we can exchange information with our classmates and friends.

According to me, I will try my best to study well firstly. And then I plan to find a job in the Summer Holidays. I think I will be saleman or a clerk during the holidays. It will help me to know the world outside the campus.

例文2为11分样题。切题。思想表达清楚,文字连贯,但有个别语言错误。

例文3:

University students must get to know the world outside the campus, because university students will step into the society at once. in another world, they will be faced to all kinds of social problems. and complex relationship between people in society. If we don`t know the world outside the campus before, we should not know how to do when we step into the society.

Because students must focus his most attention on studying, in my opinion, we can get to know the world by TV, radio, newspaper and so on. First, watching TV is the main method. by watching TV. we can know what happened in the world imediately. Certainly, by other ways, such as newspaper, we can also know how the world runs.

As a university students, certainly, I can get to know the world outside the campus. by ways above. Especially. I should find a part-time job in society. by such way. I can know the society better. So that in the future, I can adapt to the society well.

例文3为8分样题。切题。但有些地方思想表达得不够清楚,有较多语言错误和标点错误。 例文4:

There is a phenomenon dabate now days on the problem of the college students getting out of the campus. Most people agree with it. They think that college students need know the knowledge not only from the books but also from the society. Then they will survive well and adapt for the society.

There are sever methods knowing of the society. For one way, college students can read newspaper and watch TV every day. They may get the message more fast than ever. For another, they can do some part-time jobs and hear of citizen feeling. Still

I think I`ll often know about the society. I`ll visity a factory in my city and write down a report in this summer holiday. I`ll have a part-time job to teach a child, and have a talk with her parents. I think they are very effective. Do you think so?

例文4为5分样题。基本切题。表达思想不清楚,连贯性差。有较多严重语法错误。

例文5:

A collage student would not only studied hard for his conpression knowledge.but also get to know the world outside the campus. If you have a poor known of the world outside, You will never stand in the world

整,表达简洁,而且句型要稍有交替变化,句子间要用连接词衔接,以确保句意连贯顺畅。

然而,许多学生普遍认为:写作时只要不犯语法上的错误,多用简单句,短句最保险。的确,简单句,短句比较容易驾驭,不易出现句法上的混乱。但是过多地使用简单句,短句就会使短文显的单调,松散,令人感到混乱,无感染力,更多地暴露写作能力薄弱的一面。同样的内容,考生若能恰当地运用连接词把单句有机地连接起来,并注意长句,短句,简单句,并列句以及复合句及特殊句式(如:强调句、it 句型、倒装句、否定句、)等的交替使用,用短句表达有力的结论,用长句体现严密的逻辑关系,短文才会完整连贯,生动耐读。

例1:

a. It be……that …… (强调句)

b. It ’s very kind / considerate of you to help me with my homework.——You are kind / considerate → c. It’s important / necessary / vital / essential...... that ……

It ’s important / necessary / vital / essential for sb. to do sth. ........ d. It takes / took sb. some time / money to do sth. e. Only in this way / when we…… f. I think that you are not right. g. Is failure a bad thing?

例2:

A lot of talented people , especially young people are at the bottom of the hierarchy. It is unfair. People think they are old enough for the position and they can get promoted. That takes them twenty or even thirty years.

此段语意完整性较差,各句子间连接松散,读来乏味。

It is unfair that a lot of talented people, especially young people are at the bottom of the hierarchy. It takes 20 or even 30 years for them to get promoted when they are thought to be old enough for the position.

经修改后,此段语意连贯完整,符合英语逻辑思维和习惯表达。D. 当然,在平时的写作练习中,要特别留心学习英语语法规则和常用句型,尽量少犯语法错误,同时又要注意避免冗长杂乱,眉目不清的长句,切不可盲目追求过长,过于复杂的句子。

三、如何准确把握段落结构:

段落是短文写作的有机组成部分. 段落把握得好坏直接影响短文是否切题,或偏离了主题。四级考试的写作部分无论采用何种出题形式,通常要求三段式(当然两段或四段式作文也时有出现,但三段式短文为常考型)。因此,了解段落结构,掌握段落写作特点是短文成功的关键所在。在三段式作文中到底该如何把握段落结构呢?每一段该写些什么,怎样写呢?

在此,笔者向大家推推荐一种既直观具体、又简便易用的段落写作模式,供大家参考:

我们不妨把三段式的段落结构称之为"三明治"式(西餐中的面包上、中、下三层),可谓形象生动。即:用主题句(Topic Sentence )开头――文章的第一段(三明治的第一层);中间夹着扩展句(Developing Sentence )――文章的第二段,即核心段落(三明治中间最有品味的部分);用结论句结尾(Concluding Sentence) ――文章的第三段,即最后一段(三明治的第三层,即最后一层)。所谓主题句是指能够用来表明作者观点和态度,或者能够概括文章主题内容的句子。主题句的确定将对整篇文章起着统领作用。在第一段中对主题句要稍加展开,二到三个句子为宜,一般来说第一段不要写得太长,因为四级短文的字数被限制在100-120之间,若第一段写得太长有可能会影响到第二,三段的内容,甚至有可能背离作文的提示要求,影响短文得高分。开门见山,直截了当,为主题句所在段落的宗旨。扩展句是用来说明和发展主题句所表达的段落中心思想的句子,也是短文的主体核心部分。扩展句所提供的信息材料必须紧扣主题句,为主题句服务,论据的说服力要强,条理要清楚,要合乎逻辑。因此,在写扩展句之前,必须抓住主题句的中心词汇即关键词(Key Word)或制约思想(Controlling Idea),从而更好地,深入具体地服务于主题句。条理清楚,逻辑性强,为扩展句所在段落的宗旨。结论句就是指用一句话或几句话来总结、归纳所写短文的总体内容。第三段也不必写得太长,太啰嗦,要用较为简洁的,概括力强的词、句收尾。言简意赅,概括力强,为结论句所在段落的宗旨。请看下面实例分析:

(1)If there were no electric power, our modern world would be in trouble. (关键词:in trouble为本段制约思想,下文应对此进行扩展和说明)(2) For one thing, all the wheels would stop because the motors that power the machines would fail. (扩展论句1)(3) For another, many, if not all, of our industries would cease production.(扩展论句2)(4)Besides, all the electrical appliances such as washing machines, refrigerators, TVs would stop working. (扩展论句3) (5) In short, our modern life would be impossible without electricity.(结论句) 主题句—―――――—(1)

—―――――(2)

由此可见,段落结构可以概括为: 扩展句 —―――――(3)

—―――――(4)

结论句―――――――(5)

大学英语四级短文写作恰恰是这个段落结构模式的扩充。一般要求考生围绕主题思想写出3个自然段(或2-4个自然段)。同时也可参考下面简便易行的一种写作方法,即:"十句作文法"(每句大致含10-12个词),或采用"十二句作文法"(每句大致含10个词左右),每段紧扣主题句写出3-4个扩充句,便可达到四级短文的篇幅要求(100-120个字) ,短文字数不必追求数量,切记太长,只要达到规定字数要求即可。

由此可见,四级短文写作并非难不可"及",除了平时要多读多练以外,写作时务必要做到:准确,恰当地选用词语;句式变化交替使用;正确把握段落结构等三大要素。 总之,四级短文写作的宗旨为:

开门见山,直截了当。 (主题句)

条理清楚,逻辑性强。 (扩展句)

言简意赅,概括力强。 (结论句)

三、“过渡衔接词语”在大学英语四、六

级短文写作中的“闪光点”作用

The Function of Transitive Conjunctions

in College English Writing

在大学英语四级考试(CET4)中,短文写作越来越显示出它的重要性。自1997年6月起,大学英语四级考试正式实施了短文最低分(6分)。也就是说,如果考生的短文写作成绩达不到最低分(6分),考生将很难通过四级考试。由此可见,短文写作得高分,是通过四级考试的重要环节之一。那么如何快速、有效的提高写作,突破最低分(6分),取得短文写作的好成绩呢?笔者认为:准确、恰当地运用 “过渡衔接”词语(以下简称“衔接词语”)将是短文写作得分的“闪光”点所在。

大学英语四级短文写作无论采用何种出题方式,通常要求写三段(二段、四段也时有出现),即:1、用主题句(Topic Sentence )开头——文章的第一段。2、中间夹着扩展句(Developing / Supporting Sentence)——文章的第二段。3、用结论句结尾(Concluding Sentence)——文章的第三段。为此,短文写作就涉及到了一个非常关键性的问题,即:句与句之间如何衔接,段与段之间如何自然过渡?这个问题就需要有衔接词语来解决。在短文写作过程中若能准确、恰当地运用衔接词语,不仅能使句子之间做到有机的衔接,而且段落之间过渡自然,并能最终实现短文的完整性与连贯性。下面就三段式短文中,每一段常用的衔接词语以归类的形式来分别加以论述。

一、主题句所在段落中常用的过渡衔接词语

所谓主题句是指能够用来表明作者观点和态度,或者是能够概括文章主题内容的句子。在第一段中应对主题句稍加展开,由于四级短文的字数被限制在100-120个字之间,因此对主题句的展开一般为二到三个句子为宜,切忌过长,影响二、三段的内容。那么如何使用衔接词语引出主题句,又如何把用来展开主题句的句子有机地衔接起来呢?笔者通过对近十年的大学英语四级真题短文的分析,以及多年在对学生写作的指导实践中发现:在短文写作的第一段中若能有所选择地、准确地使用以下衔接词语,不仅能解决上述问题,同时也有助于解决作文“开头难”的问题。(All things are difficult before they are easy. 万事开头难)

如:now; lately; currently; generally; nowadays; presently / at present; recently / in recent years; in our daily life; in the past few years; in modern society; with the development / improvement / growth / opening of„„等等,这些衔接词语往往具有开场白的作用,例如当我们要写一篇有关社会发展、科技进步、环境保护、以及有关日常生活等内容的文章时,便可选用以上词语作开场白,从而引出主题句。例如:

1、Generally (衔接词),people think that fresh water is inexhaustible.(主题句) „„(96年6月真题)

2、With the development of our society(衔接词语),the campus no longer be an ” Ivory Tower .” „„(主题句)(97年6月真题)

3、Nowadays in the society(衔接词语),there are enormous fake commodities(主题句) 。„(98年1月真题)

4、In our daily life(衔接词语),there are many occasions on which we should not hesitate to say ”No” when asked for help(主题句) ,„„(99年1月真题)

5、In the past few years (衔接词语), while the cost of college education has risen sharply, students have several ways to pay for their college tuition and fees.(主题句)„„(2000年1月真题)

由此可见,过渡衔接词语的使用,对主题句的引出自然顺畅,尤为重要。又如: 1、Recently, a hot topic people are talking about is „ /there is a heated discussion on /about

/whether „

2、Nowadays, a social / common phenomenon that you can find everywhere is „

3、Nowadays, more and more people are concerned about „

4、Nowadays, there is a widespread view that „

5、Recently ,there has sprung up a heated discussion as to whether „

6、In our daily life, we often hear /see / come across „

7、With the development of national economy „

8、With the progress of science and technology „

9、With the quickening pace of modern life „

10、With the improvement of people’s living standard …

11、With people’s living standards rising, more and more people „

12、With the growth of population…

13、With the opening and reform of our country…

matter where your friends and relatives live, it is always very easy to pay a visit to them if you would like. Therefore, when you meet an old friend on a strange street, you may exclaim: ” oh, what a small world.”(94年6月真题短文)

由于衔接词语(下画线部分)的引导作用,很自然地引出了主题句:the communication between us becomes more and more frequent.不难看出这是一篇以“现代交通工具越来越发达,人与人之间的交往越来越频繁”为主题的短文,在主题句之后又用了两句话对主题句稍加展开 (从No matter where„„到 “Oh, what a small world.”)

二、扩展句所在段落中常用的过渡衔接词语

扩展句所在段落即短文写作的第二段,是短文的主体段落,应当体现短文的具体内容或实例,因此,在这一段中使用衔接词语“条理性”要十分突出。当客观、辩证地论述某个问题时,往往需要从正反两个方面列举实例,此时常用的衔接词语有:for one thing„„„for another, on the one hand„„on the other hand等; 当我们要从多角度、多层面地来论证某个问题时,往往需要列举三个或三个以上的实例,这种情况下常用的衔接词语有:first(ly) „„second(ly) „„third(ly) / finally; in the first place„„„in the second/ next place „„in the third place; first „„„besides „„„finally; first(ly) of all ……second(ly) / furthermore ……finally / last but not least; actually „„„besides „„moreover; to begin with „„furthermore „„„in addition/finally; mainly because„„partly because„„also because„„等等。 例1:

Many more college students today take a part –time job. Because it has a lot of advantages. A part-time job can offer a student a chance to contact with the society and get some idea of the society. The students can gain some valuable experience which will be helpful to their future career. They can apply what they have learnt in class to the practical work, which will enable them to know themselves clearly. Some jobs can bring them some profit and it can cultivate independence among the young people.

例2:

Many more college students today take a part- time job because it has a lot of advantages. a part-time job can offer a student a chance to contact with the society and get some idea of the society. the students can gain some valuable experience which will be helpful to their future career. they can apply what they have learnt in class to the practical work, which will enable them to know themselves clearly. some jobs can bring them some profit.it can cultivate independence among the young people.

在例1中没有使用过度连接词,而例2中用了5个过度连接词。对比结果十分明显:例1显得松散杂乱,而例2则显得自然流畅,清晰易懂。由此可见,过度连接词起着逻辑联系的作用,对保证段落的连贯性十分重要。

例3: it is not the case in our real life. Many people prefer to say ”Yes” when they should say ”No ”. they are afraid to lose their own face. Since they think refusal means their inability. they are afraid to offend their acquaintances’ face; such as their friends, relatives and so on.(99年1月真题:Don’t Hesitate to Say ”No”) fresh water is in a short supply. Due to the rapid population increase, fresh water consumption remains great. a lot of our rivers and lakes have been so polluted that water from them is undrinkable. (96年6月真题:Global Shortage of Freshwater )„„„„

有时为了达到递进或并列关系上的进一步强调,还可以重复使用同一个衔接词语如:

sometimes „„sometimes „„even sometimes; some people„„some people„„„some people例如: Failure is not an uncommon matter in our life. As a student, we fail to get A grade in our examination. we lose the football game to our opponent. e fail to get a desired jab.(91年6月真题:Is Failure a Bad Thing?)„„„ don’t take failure seriously, and pay no attention to it, the same failure may repeat itself later. are frustrated and discouraged at it,they lose their confidence in their future career. on the contrary, keep calm when failure occurs and draw a lesson from it. they will succeed in what they are doing after several times of trial.(1991年6月真题;Is Failure a Bad Thing? )

以上例句十分明显地体现 了衔接词语的重要性,试想在上述段落中如果没有衔接词语的使用,短文的条理性将难以体现,尤其在最后一个实例中,衔接词语some people„„„consequently; some people„„„thus; some people„„„As a result的使用,不仅体现了同一个衔接词语some people“重复强调”的效果,

而且通过三个意义相同,拼写不同的衔接词语:consequently, thus, as a result 的使用,充分展示了衔接词语灵活多变的特点,足以体现衔接词语的作用所在。

三、结论句所在段落中常用的过渡衔接词语

所谓结论句所在段落就是指短文的最后一段。结论句就是指用一句或几句较为简洁的话归纳、总结全文的内容。因此,在短文最后一段中所使用的衔接词语要“言简意赅,概括力强”。常用的有:

in short ; briefly / in brief; in sum / in summary; generally / in general; lastly / in the end; in conclusion; in a/one word; to conclude; to sum up; all in all; on the whole; from the above; as a matter of fact; actually等等,而且在最后一段中往往需要使用表达自己观点的衔接词语,如:(as )for me; personally; in my opinion; in my view; in my point of view; to one’s mind; to my thinking; as far as I am concerned等

例如: all the people in the world can benefit a lot from the advanced traffic tools, „„(94年6月真题) I think the interview will do good to both the interviewer and the interviewee„„„„(95年6月真题) I will make good use of the time to have a rest and develop my own hobbies„„„„ (96年1月真题) there are disadvantages in doing so„„„„(99年1月真题) I’ll let my parents pay for my collage education„„„„(2000年1月真题)

此外,在表示结论、总结性的句子时还应注意到:

1、From the above analysis, we can see that „/we come to the conclusion that „

2、Only in this way can we „

3、Only when we „can we „

大量的实例分析表明,“过渡衔接词语 ”在英语短文写作中的作用是不可忽视的。望同学们能重视“过渡衔接词语”的作用,灵活、恰当地选用衔接词语,提高短文写作水平。

(OK,this is what I want to say; That ’s my opinion; Do you agree with me? That ’s all, thank you.)

小技巧:

s o — thu s — consequentl y — as a result

actually — virtually — practically — in fact / truth — as a matter of fact

now — nowadays — at present — in recent years — in our daily life / in modern society

personally — (as) for me — in my opinion / in my view / to my mind — as far as I am concerned

(字数及级的体现)

四、历年四级真题作文选读

Is Failure a Bad Thing? (91’1)

Failure is not an uncommon matter in our daily life. As a student, we sometimes fail to get a grade in our examination. Sometimes, we lose the football game to our opponent. Even sometimes, we fail to get the desired job.

Attitudes toward failure vary though it happens to everyone of us. Some people don’t take failure seriously, and pay no attention to it. Consequently, the same failure may repeat itself later. Some people are frustrated and discouraged at it; thus, they lose their confidence in their future career. Some people, on the contrary, keep calm when failure occurs. They work carefully to find out the causes for failure and draw a lesson from it. As a result, the will succeed in what they are doing after several times of trial.

I don’t think failure is a bad thing. As long as we keep confident in ourselves and learn

something from failure, we can improve ourselves and succeed in what we are doing though the way to success is full of twists and turns.

S ocial Practice (91’6)

More and more university students are involved in social practice off campus, because it brings about a lot of benefits to them. First, social practice can offer students a chance to apply what they have learnt on campus and to know better about themselves. Besides , social experience will enable them to function well in their future career. At the same time, social practice can bring them some profits, which helps them to be independent of family.

Social practice, however, has its disadvantages. For one thing, it consumes much of students time and energy for campus life. For another, some students are even distracted from their study because they become interested in making money. As a result, they may fail in their study, which surely will affect their future career.

In my opinion, it is most important for students to strike a balance between study and social practice. We should be aware that our primary task is to study, while social practice is just a supplementary of campus study. We can follow the right guidance from teachers or friends and take the relevant jobs on weekends or holidays.

The Two-day Weekend (96’1)

Since the carrying out of the two-day weekend, college students have benefited a lot from it. First, after five days , study, they are very tired. They can use the weekend to have a good rest. Second, the two-day weekend provides them more chances to contact with the society, for example, they can take a part-time job or go sightseeing. Third, they can use it to review the lessons and preview what they will learn next week.

Every sword has two blades, Problems do exist in some college students two-day weekend. Some lazy students may spend most of the time sleeping, doing nothing else, Some may be addicted to playing cards, drinking, leaving their homework far away. Therefore, the two-day weekend can bring nothing useful to them.

As for me, I will make good use of the time to have a rest and develop my own hobbies, such as reading, listening to music or playing sports. And I should prepare myself for the next week, s stud.

Global Shortage of Fresh Water (96’6)

Generally, people think that fresh water is inexhaustible. Every year there is enough rain. And there is plenty of fresh water in the rivers and lakes. What is more, we have a lot of underground water.

Actually, fresh water is in a short supply, Due to the rapid population increase, fresh water consumption remains great. Besides, with the development of industry, more water is needed. Moreover, a lot of our rivers and lakes have been so polluted that water from them is undrinkable.

We must take some measures to solve the problem of water shortage. First, population

growth should be slowed down to reduce fresh water need. Second, pollution should be controlled to purify fresh water in the rivers and lakes. The most important of all, we should cherish every drip of water in our daily life.

How to Succeed in a Job Interview ( 2001’1 )

Besides written documents like resume and recommendation letters, an employer needs some first-hand information about the applicant, such as his appearance and response. So a job interview often comes after one’s application has been accepted. As th e employer will base his final decision on the performance of the candidate in the interview, job interviews are of great importance to any applicant. To some extent, to succeed in a job interview is to succeed in acquiring the job.

If you are going to have a job interview, please pay attention to the following things. First of all, be sure to arrive on time. If you are late, even if only one minute, your chance of getting the job will become gloomy. Secondly, be careful about your appearance. Your dress should be neat, formal and proper for the occasion. Thirdly, be polite to your interviewer but confident of yourself. Your good manners and confidence will leave a pleasant impression on your future boss.

A job interview is both a challenge and an opportunity for you. Bear the above points in mind, and I believe you can make good use of the chance. Wish you good luck.

假设你是李明,请你就本校食堂的状况给校长写一封信,内容应涉及食堂的饭菜质量、价格、环境、服务等,可以是表扬,可以是批评建议,也可以兼而有之。

Writing ( 2002’1 )

January 12th ,2002 Dear Mr. President,

As a regular student at our college, I have some complaints to make about the canteen service on campus, Firstly, the canteen environment is very bad. Actually, it is becoming more and more crowded and noisy with an ever larger presence of vocational students every term. Secondly, the canteen workers are bad-mannered. Far from being warm-and-hearted, they always seem to be cold and rude to us students. Thirdly and most importantly, the dishes at our canteen are too expensive, though they are by no means good quality or delicious. The survey the Student Union carried out last week reveals that on average a student will spend 10 to 12 Yuan on meals every day. This is far more than the food expenses of students in the neighbourhood colleges.

Nutritious and delicious meals well within the students’ means are very important for young students. I really wish measures could be taken to improve our canteen service.

Sincerely yours, Li Ming

1、上图所示为1990年、1995年、2000年某校大学生使用计算机的情况,请描述其变化;

2、请说明发生这些变化的原因(可从计算机的用途、价格或社会发展等方面加以说明);

3、你认为目前大学生在计算机使用中有什么困难或问题?

Student Use of Computers (2002’6)

Students tend to use computers more and more nowadays. Reading this chart, we can find that the average number of hours a student spends on the computer per week has increased sharply.

In 1990, it has less than 2 hours; and in 1995, it increased to almost 4 hours, and in 2000, the number soared to 20 hours.

Obviously computers are becoming more and more popular. There are several reasons for this. First, computers facilitate us in more aspects of life. Also, the fast developments of the internet enlarges our demands for using computers. We can easily contact with friends in remote places through the Internet. Besides, the prices of computers are getting lower and lower, which enables more students to purchase them.

However, there still exist some problems, such as, poor quality, out-of-date designs and so on. And how to balance the time between using computers and studying is also a serious problem.

Anyhow, we will benefit a lot from computers as long as we use them properly.

1、当前社会上存在许多不诚实的现象

2、诚实利人利己,做人应该诚实

I t Pays to Be Honest (2003’1)

Nowadays, wherever you go, you will hear people complain about people’s dishonesty. On campus, people are talking about students’ cheating in exams; in job market, the employers are troubled with confusing false credentials; and in shopping areas, customers are worrying about the many fake commodities they can never protect themselves from buying. In a word, there is cheating and dishonest practice in every walk of our life.

Why is dishonesty so prevailing? There are, to my mind plenty of contributing causes, among which, the following ones are particularly worth mentioning. First, competition is always so fierce everywhere, from campus to company, and from job market to supermarket. Second, people are attaching too much importance to the improvement of their material life that they neglect the development of the spiritual and moral values, and consequently, they do a lot of things insensibly. And finally, we lack powerful and effective laws, rules and regulations to fight against this social problem.

It pays to be honest in the long run, and honesty will do good to both the honest people themselves and everybody else. To be exact honesty will bring you friends and more business partners, and thus bring you happiness and fortune. Besides, to behave ourselves is to behave in an honest way. And what’s more, being honest is the essential step towards spiritual civilization. Therefore , let’s remember that “honest is always the best policy.”

(Your role: a tour guide

Your audience: a group of foreign tourists

Your introduction should include:

some welcoming words

the schedule for the day

a description of the place the tourists will be visiting

You should make the introduction interesting and the arrangements for the day clear to everybody.)

A Brief Introduction to a Tourist Attraction (2004’6)

You are welcome, everyone, I am glad that you can come to Wuhan city, which is the capital of Hubei Province, a place of strategic importance to central China and the economic and cultural center in the middle reaches of the Changjiang River. In addition, there are all kinds of places of interest deserve your visit.

I hope you can appreciate the spot indeed.

First, I will show Yellow Crane Tower, the most famous scenic spot of Wuhan city.

Second, we I will tell a brief history of Yellow Crane Tower.

Finally, we can have a walk across the Bridge of Changjiang River to see the beautiful scenery of the Changjiang River from above.

Yellow Crane Tower, located on Snake Hill in Wuchang, is one of the “Three Famous Towers South of Yangtze River (the other two; Yueyang Tower in Hunan and Tengwang Tower in Jiangxi). According to records, the tower was first built in 223 A. D during the Three Kingdoms period. After completion, the tower served as a gathering place for celebrities and poets to party and compose poetry, It was estimated that up to the Tongzhi Reign of the Qing dynasty, as many as 300 poems about the tower had been found in historical literature. Cui Hao, a famous poet during the Tang dynasty, made the tower well known throughout China with his poem“Yellow Crane Tower ”. Destroyed many times in successive dynasties, the tower was rebuilt time and again until 100 years ago when it was, for the last time, reduced to ashes, The present tower is a complete reconstruction and is the result of four years of work beginning in 1981.

That is the history of the Yellow Crane Tower.

Please visit as you like. If you have any questions, don’t hesitate to ask me. That’s all.

1.各大学开设了各种各样的选修课

2.学生因为各种各样原因选择了不同的选修课

3.以你自己为例……

What Electives to Choose (2007’12)

Nowadays, more and more universities are opening more opportunities for their students to choose from various optional courses in their spare time. This is , in fact, not a new phenomenon, but presently, it is different inplications to the students who want to or need to improve themselves.

There can be a great many different reasons for students to choose their optional courses. For example, some of them may choose some courses on practical skills so that it will be more likely for them to get a good job after graduation, because nowadays companies are placing emphasis on a candidate’s working experience, an inseparable part of which is practical skills. However, some others may choose to learn some courses, like literature, philosophy, ect., to broaden their view and find a different way of looking at things. And still some others may choose tha electives just in that they are interested in the courses.

Personally, I prefer to choose coreses which can enrich my knowledge of science and society, and even of ourselves as human being, whether the courses can be of any practical uses does not make any big difference to me, because I think “To learn is fun.”

总之:文无定法,有章可循

五、四、六级作文实用套语

一、表示列举他人的观点、看法:

1、some people think (say, believe) that„, while some others argue that „

2、some people think that „ However, some others hold the opposite view/ a different opinion.

3、With regard to the question / topic, different people have different answers /opinions. Some

think that „ Some others maintain /are of the opinion that„

4、Contrary to the above view, some others insist that„

5、Nevertheless, there are some people who disagree (don’t agree ) with the view.

6、There are much controversy on this phenomenon.

二、表示发表自己的观点(赞成,不赞成,怀疑) :

1、Which opinion is right /more reasonable? I’m inclined to accept the latter /the second view.

2、My opinion is that there is something in both of the views.

3、I think both of the above opinions are too radical/ go to the extremes and therefore are

incomplete.

4、It is true that „,but „

5、To my mind, both of the opinions are right in a certain sense.

6、As far as I’m concerned, I prefer the former/the latter.

7、I ’m in favor of the latter.

8、My opinion is similar to the latter/my view is in agreement with the latter.

9、In my opinion, both of the above views are only partly right.

10、With regard to the question, I think a correct attitude is (that)„

11、To my mind, whether „ or not depend on our attitude towards the matter and how we deal

with it.

12、In my opinion, whether it is good or bad depends on how we look at it.

三、表示引入要讨论的问题、现象:

1、Recently, a hot topic people are talking about is „ /there is a heated discussion on /about

/whether „

2、Nowadays, a social / common phenomenon that you can find everywhere is „

3、Nowadays, more and more people are concerned about „

4、When asked the question “what /how „? ” people have various answers.

5、It is generally believed that „

6、With the development of national economy „

7、With the progress of science and technology „

8、With the quickening pace of modern life „

9、With the improvement of people’s living standard …

With people’s living standards rising, more and more people „

10、With the growth of population…

11、With the opening and reform of our country…

12、There is a prevalent belief among people that „

11、Nowadays, there is a widespread view that „

13、Recently there has sprung up a heated discussion as to whether „

14、In our daily life, we often hear /see / come across „

15、„is a common phenomenon in our daily life.

四、表示陈述原因:

1、There are several /various reasons for this (phenomenon).

2、The reasons for this are as follows.

3、Several factors are responsible for the phenomenon.

4、There are several reasons why „

5、Their opinion is based on the fact that „/ the following facts „

6、It is due to several factors.

7、„, for they think that „

8、Those who are in favor of the „ believe that „

9、The main / direct reason (for this )is that „

10、These /The following are my reasons for my choice.

五、表示好处、坏处、利弊、优缺点:

1、It benefits us in many ways /respects.

2、The advantages /disadvantages of „are obvious.

3、It contributes to „

4、Doing sth. is beneficial to „

5、It does harm / good to „

6、While „ has so many advantages, we should not ignore the problems it brings us.

7、The negative aspect /effect is that „

8、Although „, we should also take the negative effects into account /consideration.

9、Just as a coin has two sides, everything has its advantages and disadvantages.

六、表示措施、办法怎样做打算:

1、We should take effective /drastic measures to stop /prevent /protect „

2、Faced with such a situation, what shall we do?

3、What should we do to solve the problem?

4、Perhaps the best choice is the combination of the two „

5、The solution to this problem is to / that „

6、There are several ways to cope with the problem.

7、The government should make strict regulations /laws to ban such practice /to stop this

phenomenon from spreading.

8、We should take immediate action to „

9、It ’s urgent for us to do something about this.

10、We should spare no effort /try every means to „

七、表示重要、必要:

1、It is indispensable to our life.

2、It ’s an indispensable part of „

3、It plays an important part.

4、××× is of vital importance.

5、The important thing is that we should pay more attention to „

6、It ’s important /necessary /urgent for us to „

八、表示结论、总结:

1、From the above analysis, we can see that „/we come to the conclusion that „

2、Only in this way can we „

3、Only when we „can we „

The proof of the pudding is in the eating. (空谈不如实践)

Diligence is the mother of a good luck. (勤奋是成功之母)

God helps those who help themselves. (苍天不负苦心人)