作文
初一 议论文 32767字 180人浏览 qxwzj1123

第六部分 作文

总述

如同我们写汉语文章一样,写英语文章也是有一定的章法可循的,既然是写英语文章,就要对英语文章的结构、西方人的思维方式有所了解。

6.1 英语文章结构分析

6.1.1 文章结构

英语文章有其固定的结构 --- 引言、正文、结尾三部分。引言开宗明义,点名主题,陈述文章的中心思想。一般英语文章的开篇比较简洁明了,直切切入主题,而很多中国学生在写英语文章时,受中国人的思维方式的影响,开篇总是罗里罗嗦。正文阐述引言中提出的中心思想,或对其进行讨论,结尾部分将正文观点归纳起来,得出结论,一般来说,结尾部分应该是文章中心思想的强调或者重述。文章组成的各个段落之间应该有启(引出话题)、承(深入论述)、转(转折)、合(总结)等表明各个段落之间关系的过渡词衔接。

表示“启”的过渡词:at present, nowadays, in recent years, recently, these days, as the saying goes(常言道,俗话说), one proverb says, it goes without saying that (不言而喻), many people believe, it is believed, it is often said, as psychologist „ says, why „? 等

表示“承”的过渡词:in addition, besides, sometimes, also, then, furthermore,

moreover, what is more, worse than all, to make matters worse, obviously, in other words, especially, particularly, in particular, in fact, in reality, no doubt, similarly, likewise, at the same time等。

表示“转”的过渡词:however, but, yet, though, nonetheless, nevertheless, despite this, in spite of all, conversely, on the other hand, on the contrary, unlike, (un)luckily, (un)fortunately, after all, anyway等。

表示“合”的过渡词:in a word, in brief, in short, to sum up, to summarize, in summary, on the whole, as a result, as a consequence, thus, hence, accordingly, therefore, consequently, in conclusion, finally, eventually, at length等。

6.1.2 段落结构

英语文章的段落通常也由三部分组成,即主题句(topic sentence), 辅助句(supporting sentence), 结论句(concluding sentence)。

主题句点明段落主旨,表明作者的观点、态度、意图等,每段的主题句放到一起便构成了文章的中心思想。主题句的位置通常在段首或段尾,有时会出现在段落中间位置,有时甚至没有明确的主题句,但是在写作文的时候,建议大家开篇明意,把主题句放在段首,这样阅卷教师一目了然地就可以看出文章的篇章结构,有助于给老师留下好印象:这个学生的篇章意识比较强。

辅助句又称扩展句,它们是用来对主题句进行深入论述的,因此,辅助句必须紧扣主

题句,与主题句无关的句子不要写。辅助句可以正反两方面来写,不要写的较为片面,即使你不支持反方的观点也要对其进行一定程度的论述,只是笔墨相对较少而已。辅助句之间常用以下过渡词进行衔接:on the one hand „ on the other hand, for one thing „ for another, in the first place „ in the second place „ finally, first(ly) „ second(ly) „ finally, first of all „ then „ at last, a good case in point is „, for example, for instance等等。

结论句是对一个段落的总结、归纳或概括,结论句实际上往往是主题句的重述,只是措辞改动罢了。在多数情况下,段落的结论句可以省略。

6.2 英语文章布局模式

英语文章的布局模式可归纳为五种:时间顺序法,列举法,比较-对比法,因果法,定义列举法。每一种模式都有特定的信号词(signal words )或者过渡词(transitions ),这些信号词或过渡词是线索词。下面我们一一进行介绍。

6.2.1 时间顺序法

记叙文、说明文(说明操作步骤、程序、过程等) 通常按照时间顺序法展开,这两种文体在学位考试中不是很常见。时间顺序法的过渡词如下:

after, afterwards, as, before, finally, first, lastly, later, next, second, subsequently, then, until, while, at the very start, for one thing „ for another „, in conclusion, in the first place, in the second place, in summary,

the former „ the latter, „

6.2.2 列举法

列举法是指一系列支持某个观点的细节,如例子、原因、事实等。列举法虽然不用按照时间的先后顺序书写,但是也要有一定的逻辑,比如按照喜好或重要性的顺序等等。列举法常用的过渡词如下:

for example, for instance, for one thing, for another, to illustrate, one example is, to begin with, first, second, furthermore, besides, in addition, moreover, finally, in conclusion, in summary, also, a case in point, as an illustration, incidentally, namely, that is,most important, what’s more, to make matters worse „

6.2.3 比较-对比法

比较和对比在我们的生活中无处不在,因此这种写作手法也是考试中经常出现的,比如最近两次的学位考试题的作文一个是讨论出国学习,一个是讨论在农村住还是在城市住,这两个话题都是在比较和对比。比较强调的是二者或多者的相似之处,而对比则是强调比较对象之间的相异之处。

比较常用的过渡词如下:

Like, likewise, just like, just as, alike, equally, resemble, also, similarly, similarity, the same, in the same way, in the same manner, still „

对比常用的过渡词如下:as opposed to, unlike, differ from, be different from, on the other hand, compare with, by comparison, in contrast to, on the contrary, but, so despite, yet, instead, while, whereas, however, nevertheless, although, even though, conversely, equally important, in spite of, instead „

6.2.4 因果法

因果法就是用来强调事情的因果关系,可能是一因多果,也可能是一果多因,无论是分析原因,还是探讨结果,往往会因为人的阅历、认识、思考问题的方式等等很难全面,但是注意要有一定的逻辑性。西方人的思维方式通常是果在前,因在后。因果法常用的过渡词如下:

because, because of, cause, effect, affect, in that, by virtue of, give rise to, give birth to, arise from, in light of, since, as, seeing that, the reason why„, on account of due to, so, thus, hence, therefore, accordingly, consequently, so that, as a result (of), in consequence (of), seeing that, due to, thanks to, result in, result from, lead to, so„as to, owing to, to have an effect on, for the reason, in this way

6.2.5 定义举例法

为了澄清一个定义,比如一个专业词汇或者一个谚语,如果用过多的笔墨来用文字叙述的话,未必能达到理想的效果,此时,可以用一系列短小精悍的例子,这样效果比单

纯用文字叙述要好得多,不过一定注意例子是否贴切,务必简短。定义举例法常用的过渡词如下:

for example, for instance, a case in point is „, to illustrate„, as an illustration, such as, to be specific, that is (to say) „

6.3 学位英语作文常考类型总结

学位作文近年来常考的类型不外乎议论文和应用文。

6.3.1 议论文

议论文常见的考试类型有对立观点类、办法类、原因类、谚语类四大类。每一类文章都可以有固定的写作模式可循,下面提供这几类作文常用的模板,模板并不是万能的,而且需要大家仔细研读,考试时能够活学活用。

6.3.1.1 对立观点类模板

对立观点类模板可应用于讨论观点、利弊、批驳、现象及选择等作文题目。

模板一

Different people have different views on __________. (此处引出要讨论的话题,表明存在不同观点)Some people think that __________, while others argue that __________. (简单说明两种对立观点)

As far as I am concerned, I agree with the __________ opinion.(明确表明自己的观点) For one thing, I firmly believe __________. For another, __________.

(论述自己支持此观点的理由)Just think of __________, who __________. (举例说明,若没有恰当例子,此句可省略)

Taking all these factors into consideration, we may safely come to the conclusion that __________. (总结) Only if __________ can we __________, just as the saying goes, __________. (以倒装句和引用谚语结束文章,为文章增添了得分点)

模板二

People ’s opinions are always different once they talk about __________. (提出人们对于某一话题有不同看法) Those who __________ maintain that __________. They also firmly believe that __________. (单方面论述某一观点)

Many people think otherwise. (指出存在对立观点) On the one hand, __________. On the other hand, __________. (深入论述对立观点)

My own opinion is that __________, in this fast-developing information era, has become more than common and acceptable. (明确提出自己的观点) If we want to __________, we have to __________. (指出这样做的必要性) So why not __________? (以发人深省的建议结束文章)

模板三

Recently there have been many reports of __________. (引出普遍存在的现象) It turns a new page of advanced education in China, and will have far-reaching effects in the forthcoming years. (说明其重要意义)

The biggest benefit, in my eyes, is that __________. In addition, __________. Finally, __________. (按照重要性程度由高到低的顺序论述其益处)

Apart from the benefits mentioned above, we should also face several unavoidable challenges. (从反方面指出不可避免的挑战,这样的论述比较全面) In the first place, __________. In the second place, __________. What ’s the most important, __________. (按照严重程度由低到高的顺序论述所面临的挑战) Only when __________ can we __________. (以倒装句结束文章,强调如果要达到某一目的,„是唯一的出路)

6.3.1.2 办法类模板

办法类文章题目通常为“How to „”, 办法类模板适用于讨论社会生活中的重大问题,如限车、房价、医疗等问题,同时适用于重大社会痼疾,如污染、犯罪(包括网络犯罪、走私、盗版、假冒伪劣商品等),还适用于与校园生活密切相关的问题,如学费、就业、考试作弊等问题。这类作文通常遵循一定的模式,即提出问题---分析问题解决办法---结论。

模板一

If sb. wants to increase living quality, the problem of __________ has to be

solved. (指出某一问题对于提高生活质量的重要性)With more and more people __________, this problem has been more and more serious.(提出这一问题的严重性)

First of all, __________. What’s more, __________. „ (展开说明解决这一问题的办法)Only when __________ can we hope to put an end to this unfavorable situation. (以倒装句结尾说明解决这一问题的唯一办法是„)

The __________ problem is of great importance to anybody at any time and place. (再次强调该问题的重要性)If a person refuses to learn cooperation and discipline, how can he enjoy the privilege of higher living quality? (用反问句加强语气,强调解决办法的重要性)

模板二

It is self-evident that the present fast-developing society calls for __________. (提出问题)If we ever want to __________, we must remember the following advice. (承上启下的句子)

In the first place, __________. In the second place, __________. Last but not least, __________. (提出三种解决办法)

I myself have reaped a lot from such principles. (以作者本人为例,增强文章的说服力)For one thing, __________. For another, __________. (从两方面论述自

己从中获益)I firmly believe that these approaches are of help for improving efficiency and living a more meaningful life. (结论)

模板三 (原因+办法)

Most people have realized that __________ has long been a serious social problem, but they are divided on whether it can ever be __________. (引出公众认为较为严重的这一社会问题,同时点明大家对此有不同看法)

The reasons why such phenomenon arrises are threefold. First, __________. Second, __________. Third, __________. (从三方面分别论述产生此现象的原因) Consequently it is of great importance that we tak three measures to solve this problem. (指出应针对上述三方面原因分别采取不同的对应策略)First of all, __________. Second, __________. Third, __________. (分别论述三个解决办法) It is beyond doubt that __________ is a serious problem to any nation at any time. (强调这一问题在任何时候对任何国家都是一个严重问题)Nevertheless, in such a nation as we have, I firmly believe if all of us shoulder the responsibility, we can deal with this problem successful.(总结:强调成功解决这一问题需要每个人参与其中)

6.3.1.3 原因类模板

顾名思义,此类作文就是要对某一问题进行深入分析,给出成因。因此,写法应该

是提出问题 --- 分析成因 --- 总结。

模板一

When asked about my favorite __________, I will not hesitate a moment to say it is __________. (提出问题) Whenever I have spare time __________, I will __________. (进一步说明我对某东西的钟爱)

Although some friends __________, I have watched it for several years. (尽管别人怎么看待这个问题,我仍然坚持己爱)The reasons why I enjoy it so much are threefold. Firstly, __________. Secondly, __________. Moreover, __________. (说明喜爱某物的三重原因)

Just like many __________, __________ has become part of my life. I believe I will enjoy it forever, and recommend it to others. (通过说明某物成为我生活必不可少的一部分和园艺想别人推荐该物,再次强调自己对某物的钟爱,首尾呼应) 模板二

For a number of years, there has been a steady rise in the number of __________. (引出某一越来越引人关注的社会问题)Three reasons, in my mind, can account for this social phenonmenon. (过渡句起到承上启下的作用,该句中使用了插入语) First and foremost, __________. In the second place, __________. Last but by no means the least, __________. (从三个方面解释原因)

I firmly believe that if we try our best to __________, we will definitely __________. (下结论)

模板三

Nowadays __________ do great harm to the consumers and the whole society. (引出既危害消费者又危害全社会的重大问题)

Why are there so many __________? (用设问句开始展开讨论,引起读者思考)The first reason, in my mind, is that __________. Furthermore, __________. Last but not the least, __________. (从三方面分析问题产生的原因)

The harmfulness of __________ has become more than obvious at the moment. (指出其危害性不言而喻)First of all, __________. In the second place, __________. Thirdly, __________. (从三方面说明这一问题的危害性)

Consequently, it is high time that we made great efforts to put an end to __________. (得出结论,用了一个虚拟语气)

6.3.1.4 谚语类模板

谚语类作文通常首先需要对题目中所给出的言语进行解释,如果在解释后觉得无法深入阐述,那么最好的办法莫过于举例说明了。

模板一 (完全赞同)

The well-known proverb __________ has long been accepted by all of us. (开

篇切入主题,指出被广泛接受的谚语是什么)It tells us that __________. (解释说明其中的道理)

Let ’s take __________ as an example __________. (举例说明谚语)

Another good case in point is __________. (进一步举例说明)

Judging from the examples given above, we may safely come to the conclulsion that __________. (依据已给事例得出结论)So why not __________?(反问增强语气) 模板二 (部分赞同)

When we talk of the famous proverb __________, we should not simply label it as right or wrong, but explore it in depth. (引出谚语,并指出不应简单地将其贴上正确或错误的标签,应深入探讨)

This proverb is especially true under several situations. (从正面说明该谚语的正确性)First, __________. Second, __________. Third, __________. (论述谚语适用的情况)

Nevertheless, there are also some exceptions, __________. (反面论述,指出谚语不适用的情况)

In a word, we can draw the conclusion that in most cases __________, but in certain circumstance, __________ the right choice. (对总结正反论述进行总结,与第二、三段形成呼应)

模板三 (表示反对)

All of us may have heard of the proverb “__________.” (开门见山提出一个大家耳熟能详的谚语)This proverb stresses the importance of __________. Otherwise, __________. (正反两方面论述该谚语的重要性)

In my mind, however, I do not agree with it to some extent, generally for three reasons. (明确指出在某种程度上我不赞同该谚语,并指出我的反对基于三个原因)First, __________. Second, __________. Third, __________. (一一论述我反对该谚语的三个原因)

In conclusion, I agree with many people in that __________ should __________, but they had better not __________. (总结)

6.3.2 应用文

应用文考试最常见的作文类型就是书信类,书信有固定的格式要求,考试时往往给一定的提示,即写信的目的、安排等等,只要格式正确,将所给出的汉语提示翻译成通顺、地道的英语,不要遗漏信息即可。

书信的格式:考试时书信的格式比较固定,通常包括写信日期、收信人地址、称呼语、正文、结尾客套语、签名。写信日期一般在信纸的右上角,日期有两种写法,英式为日、月、年的顺序,美式为月、日、年的顺序;而后空一至两行左起写收信人地址,地址由小到大;下一行左起写称呼语,如果是正式的公务信函,则称呼语后面用冒号,一般性

信件则用逗号即可;正文部分就是将所给的汉语提示语译成通顺、地道的英语;结尾的客套语也有固定的说法;注意最后的签名,一般是不允许写出考生的真实姓名的,签什么名字一般在提示中会给出的,一定不要写真实姓名,有时还会要求不要写出所在院校的真实名称,这些细枝末节的地方一定要予以充分的重视。

模板一 (抱怨、投诉类)

日期

称呼语:

__________ I am awfully sorry to occupy your precious time, but I really have to talk about __________. (开门见山指出要抱怨、投诉的内容。如果此时要求你以某人的名字写此信件,则可在开篇进行自我介绍)

__________. To make matters worse, __________. It is true that

__________, but __________ also __________. (从多方面来讨论抱怨或投诉的原因)

I am looking forward to your reply. (指出希望得到对方的回复)

Best regards.

Yours sincerely

签名

模板二 (私人信函)

日期

称呼语,

I am most happy to receive your Jan. 1st letter and hear that __________. (点名写信的目的)

I plan to __________.(做计划)What ’s more, I do advise you to __________. (为对方提出建议)Remember to __________. (提醒对方注意事项)

I am looking forward to your reply and wish you __________. (盼望对方回复并祝对方„)

Best regards.

Yours

faithfully

签名

6.4 高分技巧

6.4.1阅卷老师心理及考生对策

若要在写作中得高分,首先要研究阅卷教师的心理,要给阅卷老师留下美好的印象。阅卷过程是枯燥的。要在不到1分钟的时间内,迅速地让自己的作文在他们的脑海中形成较多的兴奋点是至关重要的。

首先,卷面的设置。要想让阅卷老师对你的作文有一种赏心悦目的感觉,作文的排版应该不多于2/3,不少于1/3,要留有余地,不要将卷面写得密密麻麻。字体不要过大或过小。字迹要工整。段落方面,应该严格地按照英语作文三段式的结构,所谓的三段式并不是说只能写成三段,而是应该按照引言、正文和结尾的三段式书写,通常引言和结尾只写成一段,而且所占篇幅不宜过大,对于一篇100词左右的作文,引言和结尾各占20词,正文60词左右是比较合理的布局安排。正文部分可以写成两段或者更多,比如,在论述正反观点的时候,正反观点一段,反方观点一段也是可以的,另外,如果是论证一个观点,那么有几点就可以写成几段。但是,鉴于考试作文的字数限制,建议将正文写成一段即可,以免把握不好尺度。应当注意的是,如果引言段开头有缩进,留有两个单词的位置,那么之后的每一段都要开头缩进;也可以每一段都顶格写。但是一定要注意的一个问题是统一,就是说要段首缩进就都缩进,若顶格写就都顶格。

其次,除了形式之外,作文的内容也尤其重要。阅卷老师阅卷一般是从第一段看语言,从第二段看结构。这就要求考生的作文开头部分以及每一段的第一句一定要写得地道,不要出现任何的拼写或语法错误。除了语言地道外,还要求作文有层次感。可以用一系列表示逻辑关系的连词来表明清晰的思路,如and, however, furthermore, also, what ’s more等。此外,还可以用对等的句式结构,如for one thing, for another; On the one hand, on the other hand等来增加文章的层次感。总之,对语言的要求主要体现在三个方面:①用恰当的逻辑词表现文章的逻辑性;②注意自然段与主题句的运

用,即用自然段表现出文章的逻辑性,并在每段中用主题句说明要点,给人一目了然的感觉;③注意句型结构,注意每句的重心和句与句之间的衔接,使句意一环扣一环,避免松散。

6.4.2写作亮点

作文得高分的秘诀在于文章的“亮点”,文章一定要有能够吸引阅卷教师的闪光点。一般“亮点”可以通过以下几种方式呈现:

6.4.2.1 结构

结构清晰是文章最大的亮点,因为教师在阅卷时首先能够感受到的就是文章的结构。通常情况下,学位考试的作文写成三段式即可,按照文章给出的提示或要求,一般会给出三句话,可能是汉语也可能是英语,只要严格按照给出的每一句话发展成一个独立段落的方式写就没有问题。可在实际写作中,有的同学不分段,有的同学分的段落又太多,而自己又搞不清楚哪里是论点,哪里是论据,一会写论点一会写论据,这样的作文就会给阅卷教师留下思路不清晰的印象,因此不会得高分。

此外,文章的结构还要通过各种各样的过渡词来表现出来。比如,如果有两种观点,就可以采用on the one hand, on the other hand, 当然,还可以采用另外一对关联词for one thing, for another等等。

6.4.2.2 词和词组

多数考生在考试时写作中所运用的词汇和词组都是初高中所学的,或者都是一些静

态的词或词组,亦或是重复使用同一个词或词组。这些做法都会给老师留下一个印象:该考生词汇量有限,对所学词汇理解不够透彻。最好的做法应该是在写作中尽量丰富你所选用的词或词组,不重复使用一个词或词组,要再次表达同一个意思时,尽量使用同义词或者近义词。另外,多使用一些动态动词,这样能够活化你的语言,赋予文章生命力,这种文章才会让读者有兴趣读下去。比如,最常见的一个例子:要表达某人持什么态度或者观点时,大多数考生所能想到的一个词就是think, 这是应用最广泛的一个词,是初中词汇,如果此时你还能用上hold, argue, maintain等,文章就会增添不少色彩。再比如,有很多同学的作品中be 动词频现,这是一个静态动词,无法将所要表达的意思形象生动地表现出来,此时,我们可以用一些具有动态含义的词来取代它,比如keep, remain 等。以下是30个最经典的替换词供大家参考:

1). individuals,characters, folks代替(people, persons);

2). positive, favorable, rosy (美好的) ,promising (有希望的) ,perfect, pleasurable , excellent, outstanding代替good;

3. dreadful, unfavorable, poor, adverse(有害的) 代替bad, 如果bad 做表语,可以用be less impressive代替;

4. (an army of, an ocean of, a sea of, a multitude of ,many, if not most)代替many ;

5. a slice of, quiet a few , several代替some ;

6. harbor the idea that, take the attitude that ;hold the view that, it is widely shared that, it is universally acknowledged that) 代替think ;

7. affair, business, matter代替thing ;

8. shared代common ;

9. reap huge fruits代替get much benefit;

10. for my part, from my own perspective代替in my opinion;

11. Increasing(ly), growing代替more and more(注意没有growingly 这种形式。所以当修饰名词时用increasing / growing修饰形容词,副词用increasingly ;

12. little if anything, 或little or nothing代替hardly ;

13. benefitial rewarding代替helpful be beneficial of;

14. client, consumer, purchaser,代替customer ;

15. exceedingly, extremely代替very ;

16. hardly unnecessary, hardly inevitable ...代替necessary, inevitable;

17. sth. appeals to sb., sth. exerts a tremendous fascination on sb 代替sb. take interest in;

18. capture one’s attention代替attract one’s attention;

19. facet, demension, sphere代aspect;

20. be indicative of, be suggestive of, be fearful of 代indicate, suggest, fear;

21. give rise to, lead to, result in, trigger代替cause;

22. There are several reasons behind sth.代替„reasons for sth.

23. desire代替want;

24. pour attention into代替pay attention to;

25. bear in mind that代替remember;

26. enjoy, possess代替have;

27. interaction代替communication;

28. frown on sth.代替be against, disagree with sth.

29. to name only a few, as an example代替for example;

30. next to / virtually impossible, 代替nearly impossible„

6.4.2.3 句型

作文对句型的要求还是比较高的,一般情况下,一篇100词左右的句子大概写10-12个句子就可以了,不要都用简单句,还有的同学在写作时都是I „, I „, I„, 整篇文章都是这样的句型就如同小学一、二年级学生写的汉语作文,缺少变化性,不具吸引力。在文章中应该尽量加大并列句和复合句的比例。所学过的倒装句、虚拟语气、从句等运用到写作中方能显示出考生的语言功底,一篇文章中只要出现2-3处特殊句型就足以为文章赚得一些掌声了。另外,还可以背诵一些经典句型,比如,如何开篇,如何结尾等

等,此处推荐一本上海外语教育出版社出版的蔡基刚编著的《大学英语写作常用句型》共大家参考,书中列举了各种各样的经典表达,比如:

开篇经典句型:

1) Many nations have been faced with the problem of ... 很多国家都面临这样一个问题„

2) Recently the problem has been brought into focus. 最近人们比较关注这个问题。

3) Recently the phenomenon has become a heated topic. 最近这一现象已成为热点话题。

4) Recently the issue has aroused great concern among ... 最近这一问题引起了„的广泛关注。

5) Nowadays there is a growing concern over ... 当今,人们越来越关注„

6) Never in our history has the idea that ... been so popular. „观点从未像今天这样受欢迎。

7) Faced with ..., quite a few people argue that ... 面对„, 很多人认为„

8) According to a recent survey, ... 根据最近的一项调查,„

9) With the rapid development of ..., ... 随着„的迅猛发展,„

结尾经典句型:

1) From what has been discussed above, we can draw the conclusion that ... 综上所述,我们可以得出结论:„

2) It is high time that strict measures were taken to stop ... 是该采取严厉措施,停止„的时候了。

3) It is necessary that steps should be taken to ... 有必要采取„措施以„

4) In conclusion, it is imperative that ... 总之,„是迫在眉睫的。

5) There is no easy method, but ... might be of some help. 没有简单易行的办法,但是„或许有些帮助。

6) To solve the above-mentioned problem, we must ... 为了解决上述问题,我们必须„

7) In summary, if we continue to ignore the above-mentioned issue, more problems will crop up. 总之,如果我们继续忽视上述问题,越来越多的问题将接踪而至。

8) With the efforts of all parts concerned, the problem will be solved thoroughly. 大家共同努力,问题终将彻底解决。

9) We might do more than identify the cause; it is important to take actions to ... 我们不应仅仅找出问题的根源,更重要的是采取措施„

10) Taking all these into account, we ... 考虑到所有情况,我们„

11) Whether it is good or not /positive or negative, one thing is certain/clear ...

无论它是否好/无论积极还是消极,有一件事是肯定的/清楚的„

必备佳句

1) the + 最高级 + 名词 + (that) + 主词 + have ever + seen ( known/heard/had/read, etc)

the most + 形容词 + 名词 + (that) + 主词 + have ever + seen ( known/heard/had/read, etc)

例句:Helen is the most beautiful girl that I have ever seen. 海伦是我所看过最美丽的女孩。

Mr. Chang is the kindest teacher that I have ever had. 张老师是我曾经遇到最仁慈的教师。

2) Nothing is + 比较急 than to + V ;Nothing is + more + 形容词 + than to + V 例句:Nothing is more important than to receive education. 没有比接受教育更重要的事。

3) „ cannot emphasize the importance of „ too much.(再怎么强调... 的重要性也不为过。)

例句:We cannot emphasize the importance of protecting our eyes too much. 我们再怎么强调保护眼睛的重要性也不为过。

4) There is no denying that +主语+ V ...(不可否认的... )

例句:There is no denying that the qualities of our living have gone from bad to worse.

不可否认的,我们的生活品质已经每况愈下。

5) It is universally acknowledged that + 句子 (全世界都知道... )

例句:It is universally acknowledged that trees are indispensable to us. 全世界都知道树木对我们是不可或缺的。

6) There is no doubt that + 句子(毫无疑问的... )

例句:There is no doubt that our educational system leaves something to be desired. 毫无疑问的我们的教育制度令人不满意。

7) An advantage of ~~~ is that + 句子 (... 的优点是... )

例句:An advantage of using the solar energy is that it won’t create (produce) any pollution.

使用太阳能的优点是它不会制造任何污染。

8) The reason why + 句子 ~~~ is that + 句子 (... 的原因是... )

例句:The reason why we have to grow trees is that they can provide us with fresh air. / The reason why we have to grow trees is that they can supply fresh air for us.

我们必须种树的原因是它们能供应我们新鲜的空气。

9) So + 形容词 + be + 主词 + that + 句子 (如此... 以致于... )

例句:So precious is time that we can’t afford to waste it. 时间是如此珍贵,我们经不起浪费它。

10) Adj + as + Subject(主词)+ be, 主语+ V„ (虽然... )

例句:Rich as our country is, the qualities of our living are by no means satisfactory.

虽然我们的国家富有,我们的生活品质绝对令人不满意。

11) The + 比较级 + 主语 + V, „ the + 比较级 + 主语 + V„

The + more + Adj +主语+ V, „the + more + Adj +主语+ V„(愈... 愈... )

例句:The harder you work, the more progress you make. 你愈努力,你愈进步。 The more books we read, the more learned we become. 我们书读愈多,我们愈有学问。

12) By + V-ing, „ can „ (借着... ,... 能够... )

例句:By taking exercise, wem can always stay healthy. 借着做运动,我们能够始终保持健康。

13) „enable + Object(受词)+ to + V(„使„能够... )

例句:Listening to music enables us to feel relaxed.听音乐使我们能够感觉轻松。

14) On no account can we + V „(我们绝对不能... )

例句:On no account can we ignore the value of knowledge. 我们绝对不能忽略知识的价值。

15) It is time + 主语 + 过去式 (该是... 的时候了)

例句:It is time the authorities concerned took proper steps to solve the traffic problems.

该是有关当局采取适当的措施来解决交通问题的时候了。

16) Those who „(... 的人... )

例句:Those who violate traffic regulations should be punished. 违反交通规定的人应该受处罚。

17) There is no one but „(没有人不... )

例句:There ism no one but longs to go to college. 没有人不渴望上大学。

18) „ be + forced / compelled / obliged + to + V(不得不... )

例句:Since the examination is around the corner, I am compelled to give up doing sports.

既然考试迫在眉睫,我不得不放弃做运动。

19) It is conceivable that + 句子(„ 是可想而知的)

It is obvious that + 句子(„ 是显而易见的)

It is apparent that + 句子(„ 是显然的)

例句:It is conceivable that knowledge plays an important role in our life. 可想而知,知识在我们的一生中扮演一个重要的角色。

20) That is the reason why „(那就是 ... 的原因)

例句:Summer is sultry. That is the reason why I don’t like it.

夏天很燠热。那就是我不喜欢它的原因。

21) For the past + 时间, 主语 + 现在完成式 ...(过去 ... 年来,... 一直 ...) 例句:For the past two years, I have been busy preparing for the examination. 过去两年来,我一直忙着准备考试。

22) Since + 主语 + 过去式, 主语 + 现在完成式。

例句:Since he went to senior high school, he has worked very hard.自从上高中,他一直很用功。

23) It pays to + V„ (... 是值得的。)

例句:It pays to help others. 帮助别人是值得的。

24) „ be based on „(„ 以 ... 为基础)

例句:The progress of the society is based on harmony. 社会的进步是以和谐为基础的。

25) Spare no effort to + V (不遗余力地„)

例句:We should spare no effort to beautify our environment. 我们应不遗余力地美化环境。

26) „ bring home to + 人 + 事(让 ... 明白 ... 事)

例句:We should bring home to people the value of working hard.

我们应该让人们明白努力的价值。

27) „ be closely related to „ („ 与 ... 息息相关)

例句:Taking exercise is closely related to health. 运动与健康息息相关。

28) „ get into the habit of + V-ing „ = make it a rule to + V (养成... 的习惯)

例句: We should get into the habit of keeping good hours. 我们应该养成早睡早起的习惯。

29) Due to / Owing to / Thanks to + 名词 / V-ing, „ (因为... ) 例句:Thanks to his encouragement, I finally realized my dream.

因为他的鼓励,我终于实现了我的梦想。

30) What a + Adj + 名词 + 主语 + V! = How + Adj + a + 主语 + V!(多么... !) 例句:What an important thing it is to keep our promise!

How important a thing it is to keep our promise! 遵守诺言是多么重要的事!

31) Leave much to be desired(令人不满意)

例句:The condition of our traffic leaves much to be desired. 我们的交通状况令人不满意。

32) Have a great influence on „ („ 对 ... 有很大的影响)

例句:Smoking has a great influence on our health. 抽烟对我们的健康有很大的影响。

33) „ do good to(„ 对 ... 有益),do harm to„(„ 对 ... 有害) 例句:Reading does good to our mind. 读书对心灵有益。

Overwork does harm to health. 工作过度对健康有害。

34) „ pose a great threat to„ („ 对 ... 造成一大威胁)

例句:Pollution poses a great threat to our existence. 污染对我们的生存造成一大威胁。

35) „ do one’s utmost to + V = „ do one’s best (尽全力去... ) 例句:We should do our utmost to achieve our goal in life.

我们应尽全力去达成我们的人生目标。

6.4.2.4 谚语、格言

谚语、格言是人类智慧的结晶,通过简练的语言来说明深刻的道理。恰如其分的谚语、格言的使用会为文章增添相当的砝码,但是切忌运用不当,要与上下文相切合,不

宜过多,一篇文章中以最多出现两处为宜。通常,谚语、格言的使用要么是用来开篇,要么是用来结尾,中间段落可以不必有,因为阅卷教师通常对开篇和结尾予以更多的关注。

下面是一些常用谚语、格言:

Every coin has its two sides. 事物都有两面。

Every cloud has a silver lining. 守得云开见月明。

Every man has his fault. 人孰无过。

First come,first served. 捷足先登。

Haste makes waste. 欲速则不达。

Honesty is the best policy. 诚实至上。

In fair weather prepare for foul. 未雨绸缪。

Knowledge is power. 知识就是力量。

Look before you leap. 三思而后行。

Man proposes,God disposes. 谋事在人,成事在天。

Money talks. 金钱万能。

No pains,no gains. 吃得苦中苦方为人上人/ 不劳无获。

Practice makes perfect. 熟能生巧。

Silence is golden. 沉默是金。

Speak well of your friend,of your enemy say nothing. 隐恶扬善。

The ear1y bird catches the worm. 先到先得。

Time and tide wait for no man. 岁月不饶人。

To burn the cand1e at both ends. 自暴自弃。

Well begun is half done. 事半功倍。

When you are in Rome,do as the Romans do. 入乡随俗。

Where there is life, there is hope. 留得青山在,不怕没柴烧。

6.4.2.5修辞

此处修辞所指为一些简单易用的修辞,如比喻、拟人等。这些修辞能使文章栩栩如生。当然还有很多高级的修辞手法,但是如果用不好会适得其反。因此,考试时能用上一些比较简单的修辞手法就可以了。

比喻包括明喻、暗喻。

例如:If life is a journey, we have nothing to regret so long as we put meaning into it. 此句中把生命比作旅途,是一个暗喻。

Her smile is like flower, making everyone around happy. 此句中把笑容比作花,是个明喻。

6.4.2.6 插入语

插入语可起到进一步说明、调节语气、解释说明等作用。善于使用插入语,比如说

把副词、连接词等,作插入语放在中间,一般放在主语、动词或者助动词后,两边分别加上逗号。

如however / therefore /for example/I believe做插入语放在中间,一般放在动词,助动词后,两边分别加上逗号。

比如说:Other individuals, however, take the attitude that„

6.4.2.7 标点符号

在英文写作中, 标点符号也是相当的重要。下面分别就常用的标点进行说明。

1)句号 Period [.] 作用如下:

(1)用以表示一个句子的结束

Hockey is a popular sport in Canada. 曲棍球是加拿大比较流行的运动。

(2)用在缩写中

The company is located at 888 Bay St. in Toronto. 公司位于多伦多圣湾路888号。 It is 4:00 p.m. right now. 现在是下午四点整。

2)问号 Question Mark [?]作用如下:

在句子的结尾使用问号表示是直接疑问句:

How many provinces are there in Canada? 加拿大有多少个省?

注意:在间接疑问句结尾不要用问号

The teacher asked the class a question. 老师问全班同学一个问题。

Do not ask me why. 不要问我为什么。

3)叹号 Exclamation Mark [!]在句子的结尾使用叹号表示惊讶、兴奋等情绪。 We won the Stanley Cup! 我们赢得了史丹利杯!

The forest is on fire! 森林着火了!

4)逗号 Comma [,] 表示句子中的停顿

Therefore, we should write a letter to the prime minister. 因此,我们应该给总理写封信。

(1)在疑问句中引出说话人:

“I can come today,” she said, “but not tomorrow.” 我今天,而不是明天能来。

(2)排列三个或以上的名词:

Li ning, Deng yaping, and Liu xiang are the most famous sportsman in China. 李宁、邓亚萍和刘翔是中国最著名的运动员。

(3)引出定语从句

Lang lang, who was born in 1982, is a great pianist.

朗朗,出生于1982年,是一个了不起的钢琴家。

5)单引号 Apostrophe [’]

(1) 表示所有格。

This is David’s computer. 这是大卫的计算机。

These are the player’s things. 这些是那个运动员的物品。

注意: 对于复数形式的名词,只加’

These are the players’ things. 这些是那些运动员的物品。

(2) 用于缩写

I don’t know how to fix it. 我不知道如何修理它。

6)引号Quotation Marks [“”] 直接引出某人说的话:

The prime minister said, “We will win the election.” 总理说“我们必将赢得这次选举”

“I can come today,” she said, “but not tomorrow.” 她说“我今天,而不是明天能来。”

7)冒号Colon [:]

(1)引出一系列名词

The most popular majors are: accountant, psychology, medicine and lawyer. 最受欢迎的专业有:会计,心理学,医学和律师。

(2)引出一个较长的引语

The prime minister said: “We will fight. We will not give up. We will win the next election.”

总理说:“我们将战斗下去,不会放弃,我们必将赢得下次选举”。

8)分号Semicolon [;]

(1)将两个相关的句子连接起来

The festival is very popular; people from all over the world visit each year. 节日非常受欢迎;每年来自世界各地的人们来此参观。

(2)和逗号一同使用引出一系列名词

The three biggest cities in Canada are Toronto; Montreal; and Vancouver. 加拿大三个最大的城市是多伦多;蒙特利尔;温哥华。

9)破折号Dash [-]

(1)在一个句子前作总结

Mild, wet, and cloudy - these are the characteristics of weather in Vancouver. 温和,潮湿,多云是温哥华气候的特点。

(2)在一个句子的前面或后面加入额外的注释

The children --- Larry, Kate, and Cindy --- went to the store.

孩子们 --- 拉里,凯特和辛迪--- 去了商店。

Most Canadians --- but not all --- voted in the last election.

多数加拿大人 --- 不是全部 --- 都在上次的选举中投票了。

(3)表示某人在说话过程中被打断

The woman said, “I want to ask --- ” when the earthquake began to shake the

room.

那个女人说“我想问问 ---”这时地震开始撼动了房屋。

10)连字符Hyphen [-]

(1)连接两个单词

sweet-smelling 香甜的 fire-resistant防火的

(2)将前缀与词根连接起来

anti-Canadian 抵制加拿大的 non-contact 非合同的

(3)在数字中使用

one-quarter 四分之一 twenty-three 二十三

6.4.3 写作注意事项

首先,作文的写作时间为30分钟,合理的时间安排为5+20+5,首先用5分钟来审题, 构思并列提纲,接着的20分钟用来按照提纲写作,最后5分钟用来检查及润色。合理的时间安排是写出优秀作文的必不可少的第一步。

另外需要大家注意的就是书写方面的大小写规则:

在英语文章中,有关大小写方面的错误层出不穷,这是考生的一个弱点。一般来说,大写规则有以下几条:

(1)大写每句话的第一个字母和直接引语的第一字母, 如:

He said, “He is going to Shanghai next week”.

(2)大写专有名词,或用作专有名词的部分普通名词,通常是缩略形式。如:Dr., China, Smith „

(3)大写缩写字母。如:GRE, RMB, VOA „

(4)特别要注意题目的大小写,第一个单词的第一个字母和最后一个单词的第一个字母一定要大写。中间的单词除冠词、连词(但如连词的字母大于等于5,则大写) 、介词外,其他的词都应该大写第一个字母。比如:

例1误:Attitudes toward Money

正:Attitudes Toward Money

(5)头衔在专有名词前要大写,在专有名词后就小写。例如:

Captain Smith → Smith, the captain

Uncle George → George, my uncle

6.4.4 考生写作困境及对策

困境一:缺乏框架意识

学位考试的作文往往会给出一个三点(间或是两点)的提纲,写作时只要严格按照提纲的提示书写在结构上就不会被扣分,但是有些同学压根儿没有看题目中给出的提纲,标新立异地另起炉灶。结果写出只有一段式的文章,这种作文肯定是不及格的成绩。 对策:提纲叫咱们怎么写,咱们就怎么写。我们要把提纲看成是三个简答题,一个题目我用一个段落来回答。明白这一点就会得到一个比较理想的分数。

困境二:缺乏内容意识

当看到作文题时,有些同学见到某些不太熟悉的话题就觉得无话可说了。学位英语作文要么是议论文要么是应用文,应用文只需要严格按照格式书写,不遗漏提示语中所给的信息就可以,议论文往往会让考生分析某一现象的原因,说明某一做法的利弊,对比两种观点或做法,对存在的问题提出解决办法或建议等等。

另外有部分同学想向阅卷老师倾诉衷肠。他们想利用精彩的内容来打动阅卷老师,从而获得高分。但是往往事与愿违,因为阅卷老师不会,而且永远不会因为你的”精彩内容”给你高分。说的更明白一些,那些花了老半天想出来的观点和例证其实阅卷老师也许早就看了好几百、好几千份了。

对策:内容相关即可,不必一定要向阅卷老师掏心掏肺。

困境三:缺乏亮点意识

考生应该始终牢记这一点:语言质量是第一重要的,也是最终的目的。注意积累和运用大学英语词汇、经典句型等,请参看6.5.2节。

很多考生在作文中多次重复使用诸如“think, believe, important”之类的词汇和诸如:“Some people think „, “Some people think „, I think „, Do you think so? ”。这样的文章,如果去掉相同的词汇就剩不了几个词汇了。象这样的作文又怎么能够拿到高分呢?

对策:用不同的词汇表达同样的概念。用不同的句型向阅卷老师展示语言水平。

6.4.5 考生写作常见错误与修正

6.4.5.1 词法层面

学生语言基础薄弱,基础知识没有得到巩固与提高,主要表现在:a. 对许多词语的形式掌握不牢,单词拼写错误、词组错漏残缺、词语搭配不当等现象频繁出现;b. 基本词汇记忆不清,对已知词汇未能熟练运用;c. 词汇量太小,表达受限制,对于大学词汇的使用少之又少;d. 只记住词语的字面意思,不知词语的文化内涵,把语言和语境孤立开来,造成应用不当。下面归纳了几个常出现错误的方面:

1) 冠词

(1) For an example, if I were you, I would have attended the party. (去掉an)

(2) On the earth, plants and animals get their energy from light and heat of the sun. (去掉the)

(3) There are many talented students in their class, but most promising one is John. (应为the most promising one „)

(4) By year 2050, there will be about 1.6 billion people in China. (应为By the year 2050, „)

(5) Neither types of reasoning seems to give students correct understanding of the subject. b(应为neither the types of reasoning „)

2)介词

(1) At the middle of the century... (应为In the middle of )

(2) Tourists are posing with pictures, or pointing toward the peak. (应为posing for pictures, „)

(3) It was considered as a matter of course to obey the rule. (去掉as)

(4) Computers are relied by manufacturers for similar reasons. (relied 后面缺少on / upon)

(5) Blacks used the word as though they had coined it on themselves. (on 改为by)

3) 固定搭配

(1) She left to Beijing on the first day of her vacation. (to 改成for)

(2) This common form of sugar is derived of two plants: the sugar cane and sugar beet. (of 改成from)

(3) In September of 1620, the Mayflower left port with 102 people on the board. (去掉the )

(4) Take it as granted that children will like any kind of food offered to them. (as 改成for)

(5) He was charged for taking bribes. (for改成 with)

(6) They danced with the music. (with 应该为to)

4) 拼写错误

(1) In mordern society, „ (mordern应改为modern)

(2) Nowdays, „ (nowdays 应该为Nowadays)

5) 单词混淆

(1) The little girl inquired a good knowledge of English because she spent her childhood in Britain. (inquired 改成acquired ,前者意为“询问”、“调查”,而此处要表达的意思是“获得”)

(2) The speaker rose his voice when he saw that people began to leave. (rose 为不及物动词,后面加了宾语the voice, 因此应该将rose 改成raise, 表示提高音量)

(3) The teacher contributed his success to diligence and good luck. (contribute to 表达的意思是“对„做出贡献”, 而此处的意思是“将成功归功于„”, 应该用attribute to, 所以将contribute 改成attribute )

(4) The actress received many complements on her excellent performance. (complement 意为“补充物,补足语”,此处想要表达的意思是“赞扬,称赞”,所以将complement 改成compliment)

(5) The machine is of imaginable design. (imaginable意为“可想的”,此句想表达的意思应该是“这个机器的实际是想像的/虚构的”,此时改用imaginary)

6.4.5.2 句法层面

句法层面常见错误可归结为:a. 句子语法结构混乱,主谓不一致,时态、语态、语气前后不一致,省略倒装不得当,并列结构混乱等;b. 缺乏英语语感,缺少对英汉文化差异尤其是对英汉思维差异的了解,中国式英语频现;c. 句式结构单一,简单句太多,尤其是以I 开始的句子到处可见。下面总结了学生常出现的错误(中国式英语的频现是由于阅读量过少造成的,因此,建议多阅读英语原文读物,大量阅读是很奏效的方法):

1)词类错误

a. + n, adjective as complement, ad. + a., object + a, ad. + v., compound adjective

(1) To produce “pollution-free” cars is a scientifically impossibility. (scientifically 改成scientific)

(2) When situations became seriously , the government would interfere. (seriously 改成serious)

(3) The considerate hostess tried to make every guest comfortably . (comfortably 改成comfortable )

(4) Before public school education was general practiced, mothers taught their children at home. (general 改成generally)

(5) It is the first time in history that man is entire free of smallpox. (entire 改成entirely )

2)时态、语态和虚拟语气

(1) Individuals belong to existing species differ from one another. (belong belonging )

(2) He told me he will be a good tennis player the next year when we met on a train. (will改成would)

(3) That was the only party that I ever really enjoyed. (I ever really enjoyed改成I had ever really enjoyed)

(4) He scarcely left the house when he heard a cry of “Help”. (He scarcely left the house改成He had scarcely left the house)

(5) Suppose you are a millionaire, how would you spend the money? (are改成were)

3)一致性

主谓一致,定语从句中的谓语动词与做主语的关系代词及先行词保持一致

(1) Old people complained that the young was ignorant of the past. (was 改为were)

(2) Only the first few questions are easy; the rest is very difficult. (is 改为are)

(3) The little girl accompanied by her parents and her teacher are leaving for NY. (are 改为is)

(4) Statistics are a rather modern branch of mathematics. (are 改为is)

(5) The teacher said he was the only one of the boys who were granted a scholarship. (were 改为was)

4)非谓语动词错误

(1) Lighthouses are set up to warn the passed ships of the dangers along the coast. (passed 改为passing)

(2) Comparing with other media, TV is almost unrivalled. (comparing 改为compared)

(3) People cannot but feel puzzling , for they simply cannot understand why. (puzzling 改为puzzled)

(4) We insist on your to leave the place before anything happens. (to leave 改为leaving)

(5) You don’t have to remind him. He will remember returning the book sooner or later. (returning 改为return)

5)形容词和副词的比较级和最高级

(1) The climate in the center of a city is much warmer than the suburbs. (此句比较的是城市中心和郊区的气候,因此,than 后面缺少代替前面climate 的词,因此添加that in)

(2) He is more friendlier than when we met him for the first time. (此句中比

较级more friendlier 出现错误,more 本身即为比较级,因此后面的friendly 无需用比较级,此题有两种该法:friendlier 或者more friendly)

(3) We are more ignorant of science as people with little education. (与比较级more 搭配的应该是than ,as 是平级比较的标志词,故将本句中的as 改为than)

(4) This mountain is almost three times as high than the Jingshan Hill. (此题有两种该法,或者将than 改为as, 此时意思为这座山是景山的三倍高/这座山比景山高两倍;或者将as high改为higher)

(5) This recorder is more superior to that one in quality and price. (superior 是特殊词,其本身具有“比„好 / 高级”的含义,因此在构成比较级的时候不能用more )

6)排比

(1) The teachers have the same interest in good facilities as that of the students. (此句比较的是教师和学生,不是二者对于好设备的兴趣,因此,as 后面的that of 应该删掉)

(2) Jack spent his vacation going to Paris, flying to London and went to NY. (此句中并列的成分是所到的三个城市Paris, London和NY, 所以三者应同时受介词to 支配,故应删掉flying to, 和went to)

(3) While in China, the tourists enjoyed to their heart’s content the weather, the food and going to the cinema. (此句的错误同上句,因此将最后the cinema之

前的going to删掉即可)

(4) The value of a course depends as much on its inherent interest as its use.(此句并列的成分应为its inherent interest和its use,二者同时受介词on 支配,充当其宾语,所以应该在its use之前增加on )

7)逻辑错误

1) 肯定与否定

(1) In the past all inhabitants in a town knew each other very well, while nowadays people on the same floor even say “Hello” to each other. (此句要表达的意思是“过去同一个镇上的居民都相互熟悉,而今同一楼层的人们都不甚了解”,while 一词表达两者间的对比,而本句表述的却都是肯定的含义,所以后半句中应该为„ even don ’t say „)

(2) Many people are very conservative. They do not like and can accept new things. (此句要表达的意思是“很多人非常传统,他们不喜欢也不接受新鲜事物”,而第二个单句却变成了“他们不喜欢但是能接受新鲜事物”,这样和前面的非常传统的意思就不太一致了,故第二个句子应该变为 „ and can not accept „)

(3) Computers answer telephones, read and answer letters in much more time than a person can. (此句要表明的是计算机比人类在回电话、阅读并回复信件方面更高效省时,但是比较级却用反了,句子应该为 „ in much less time „)

2) 指代错误

(1) China is determined to continue their fight against drug-related crimes. ( 此句中代词指代的是China, 通常情况下祖国用her 来代替,所以将their 改为her)

(2) Few of us realize how important health is until they are seriously ill. (句中出现了人称代词混用的情况,前面用us ,后面却用they, 应统一二者,将后面的they 改为we)

(3) Scientists discover that sea water can be valuable. It has been suggested that their currents be used to make electricity. (句子中用的是sea water, sea用的是单数,后面却用了their currents ,这样单复数混淆了,所以应将后面的their ,改为its )

(4) The world’s energy demand still continues to rise. How will that ever be possible for us to get through? (此句中错用代词that ,后面的问句实际上式it 做形式主语的句型,即it is possible for sb. to do sth., 所以that 应改为it )

(5) The difficulty is that this heat from the sun cannot be used without some machine to turn them into power. (此句中this heat应用it 来代替,所以将them 改为it)

3) 连接词与关系词错误

(1) Carbon is widely found in many forms including both diamonds as well as coal.

(与both 搭配的词应为and, 所以此句要么将as well as变为and, 要么将both 删除,as well as 与both „ and同义)

(2) He smoked too many cigarettes that his lung turns black. (此句中的关联词应用so „ that,引导因果关系,所以句中的too 应改为so )

(3) By time you graduate from college, the problem will have been solved. (句子中by time应改为by the time,特指大学毕业的时候)

(4) No sooner had the words been spoken so he realized that he should have remained silent. (此句中的关联词为no sooner „ than, 而不应该是that, 所以将that 改为than )

6.4.5.3 语篇层面

首先,很多考生平时不动笔,没有掌握基本写作技巧,写文章的时候不分段,全文只有一段,这样的文章在结构上缺乏层次感。

第二,有些学生写作只顾眼前的句子,没能够做到瞻前顾后,文章前言不搭后语,句子间、段落间缺少润滑油,衔接不顺畅。英语文章通常每段只有一个主题句,其余各句多事仅仅围绕主题句展开的,句句相扣,条理分明。

第三,作文没有深度,分析的片面,不够透彻。

第四,卷面方面的功夫做的不够。字迹潦草,卷面勾勾抹抹,不重视大小写、标点符号。有些同学在写作文时每停一次笔,就在卷面点一个点,有的甚至每个单词间都要点个点,

这就意味着每个单词都是一句话,因此给评卷教师造成麻烦。另外,很多同学把握不好字数,要么写起来停不住笔,要么字数写不过,最好字数控制在要求字数+/-5的范围内。