基础写作1
初三 记叙文 16039字 127人浏览 我是X学生

段落的基本结构和写法

一、主题句

1. 主题句的定义

主题句是对段落中心思想的概括,是作者主要写作意图的反映,是段落的核心,其余部分都要围绕它展开论述,因此,主题句是整个段落的纲领。

Private cars benefit both individuals and the nation. It is very convenient for people to drive to work, study and do many other things. By encouraging people to buy cars, the nation can stimulate consumption and the domestic demand, and enhance the national economy.

2. 主题句的特点

a. 主题句一般位于句首。

b. 主题句一般是简单句。例如:

(1)People ’s view on the holiday economy varies from person to person.

(2 ) It is well known that holidays are important for us and concerning the holiday economy, different people have different opinions.

c. 主题句一般是议论句,表达自己的观点,便于扩展句的展开。例如:

(1)Twenty students attended the school’s Christmas party.

(2)The school’s Christmas party is as bore as usual.

d. 主题句除了要有topic 外,还要有controlling idea, 也就是说要具体,不要大而空。例如:

(1)Bikes are very important.

(2 ) Bikes have brought a lot of convenience to our daily lives.

e. 另外一种主题句的写法:没有具体的controlling idea, 只是告诉大家作者将分几个方面对主题展开讨论,我们称之为“分段式”,例如:People have been trying to solve this problem in the following three ways: ……

二、扩展句

1. 扩展句的定义

扩展句是以主题句为中心,逐步展开段落、扩展内容的部分,它一般由一组意思连贯的句子组成,要内容详实而简明扼要,表达清楚而有较强的说服力。

扩展句分主要扩展句和次要扩展句。主要扩展句用来从几个方面或层次对主题展开论述,次要扩展句是对主要扩展句的进一步解释,给出具体的细节。

2. 扩展句的特点

a. 扩展句多为长句。

b. 扩展句要能支持主题句的观点,因此要求有具体的facts ,我们可以运用理论论证、事实论证、举例论证、数据论证或解释说明等方式来写扩展句。

(1) It is well known that “practice makes perfect 熟能生巧 ”. So if you do not practice a lot, how can you grasp a skill? We have to proactive if we want to do something perfectly.

(2) Since 1990, there has been a tremendous growth in student use of computers. And in many schools the average number of hours a student spends using computers grew to 20 hours per week in 2000.

c. 扩展句在补充说明主题句时要直接,单刀直入。

(1) There are many causes for this social problem, but I think there are some main reasons. This does not mean other reasons are not very important. However, the main reasons lead to this issue. For one thing, producers can profit a lot by making fake commodities because the cost of producing fake commodities is much lower than the genuine articles. This is very harmful. For

another, salesmen and stores can also profit a lot by selling fake commodities.

d. 要正确地使用连接词,做好扩展句和主题句之间及扩展句和扩展句之间的过渡和衔接,使之有逻辑性和连贯性。

Some may proclaim that selective reading is the best way to attain high efficiency. They maintain such an idea because students’ precious time for reading is quite limited. In contrast, the objectors think that students cannot get a general view about the world without extensive reading. They argue that students should absorb all kinds of knowledge.

三、结尾句

1. 结尾句的定义

段落的结尾句一般用来总结段落的中心思想,同时在段落中起着段意收尾的工作。

2. 结尾句的特点

a. 总结全文的作用。例如:

Above all, we should make painstaking efforts to be truthful about our personal information. b .收尾呼应。例如:

A test of spoken English will be included as an optional component of the College English Test. Is it necessary to go to all the trouble to hold or take such a test? People differ in their answers.

…….

Therefore, the test of spoken English is necessary.

c. 结尾句两种写法:1. 再次表述主题;2. 摘要总结

实用短语:in summary, to summarize, in short …, in a word, in brief, in conclusion, to conclude, all in all, as has been said, to put it differently, in other words, namely, in simple terms. 段落基本构成:

Topic sentence

Major supporting sentence

Minor supporting sentence

Minor supporting sentence

Major supporting sentence

Minor supporting sentence

Minor supporting sentence

Concluding sentence

How to Succeed in a Job Interview

1) 面试在求职过程中的作用

2) 取得面试成功的因素:仪表、举止谈吐、能力、专业知识、自信、实事求是。。。 范文:

Nowadays, whenever we want to get employed, we will have to go through a job interview. (主题句) It is really important to every one of us. (扩展句1) So we must take some steps to do something in preparation.(扩展句2)

Many steps can be taken to be successful in a job interview. (主题句) First of all, we should be neatly dressed, for the right clothes worn at the right time can gain the respect of as well as leave a favorable impression on the interview. (扩展句1) In addition, we should be prepared to talk

readily about the requirements of the position. (扩展句2) Finally, it is clearly that, to be really impressive, we must show some self-confidence and interest in the job we are applying for. (扩展句3)

Above all, we should make great efforts to be truthful about our personal information. (主题句)And we should be careful neither to show too much concern for salary nor to criticize our former employers. (扩展句)

段落写作的一致性和凝聚力 To begin with ;what is more; last but not least;

一、段落写作的一致性(coherence )

段落写作的一致性体现在以下几个方面:

(1) 文章内容要围绕一个主题展开,要具有一致性

(2) 句子的一致性,例如句子中时态、人称、数的一致性

(3) 在使用平行结构时要保持语法结构的一致性

1. 在写文章时,一定要围绕主题句展开。例如:

However, we have figured out many ways to reduce the pollution from cars. Firstly, non-polluting fuel cars can be used. So long as we can make use of cheap non-polluting fuel, pollution will be gradually decreased. Secondly , people had better use cars as little as possible. Thirdly, scientists are conducting research to improve the engine.

另外,注意逻辑的一致性,不要自相矛盾。即文章围绕一个观点展开,就算引出对立观点,也要注意议论篇幅

2. 在一个句子里或紧邻的两三个句子里,要保持时态、人称、数等的一致性。

(1) Whether one likes the Internet or not, we are actually bombarded by it every day.

Whether we like the Internet or not, we are actually bombarded by it every day.

(2) One serious problem human beings are faced with are overpopulation.

One serious problem human beings are faced with is overpopulation.

(3 ) Now vegetables and fruit can be seen everywhere when it is in season.

Now vegetables and fruit can be seen everywhere when they are in season.

(4) The eating habits of Chinese people has changed dramatically in the past decade. The eating habits of Chinese people have changed dramatically in the past decade.

(5) Some thought it is not as important as before.

Some thought it was not as important as before.

(6) There are so many countries using English that it had been regarded as an

international language.

There are so many countries using English that it is now regarded as an international

language.

3. 在一个句子和紧邻的几个句子中,在表达相同、相近或相对的几个意思时,所使用

的语法结构保持一致性。

(1) In a word, everyone must take responsibility and air pollution will gradually be

eliminated.

In a word, everyone must take responsibility to eliminate air pollution.

(2) It will not only become convenient, but will also be much cheaper.

It will not only become more convenient, but will also be much cheaper.

(3) Making cities greener has a lot of advantages, such as the improvement of the

environment, contributions to industry, and making cities more beautiful.

Making cities greener has a lot of advantages, such as the improvement of the

environment, contributions to industry, and beautification of cities.

(4) Reading extensively is good for our mental health, and through it we can also train

our character.

Reading extensively is good for our mental health, and it is also beneficial to the

training of our character.

(5) Education problems are currently of great concern to nations, the world, and

human beings individually.

Education problems are currently of great concern to nations, to the world, and to

human beings individually.

(6) But other people argue that everyone has the responsibility to protect fresh water

and we’d better entitle laws to regulate it.

But other people argue that everyone has the responsibility to protect fresh water

and that we’d better entitle laws to regulate it.

二、段落写作的连贯性(cohesion)

无论段落的句子如何与中心思想有关,如何正确地说明中心思想,但是如果不按照逻辑顺序来写,没有先后顺序,那么段落的一致性也就无从谈起。也就是说,在写作时要使句子的逻辑安排具有连贯性,而连贯性就是指句子的前后衔接应平滑、流畅、自然、连贯,并且句子要按照逻辑顺序排列。例如:

Good books, on the other hand, teach and help children to do good things. Good books are children ’s real companions, and they are both instructive and inspiring. Children learn past events from history books, study communication by language books, and learn space and numbers through mathematics books. In a word, different kinds of good books can give them a large amount of ideas and knowledge.

1. 连接词

利用连接词本身的意思来表示转折、增补、举例、条件、因果、让步等,可以利用连接词来实现前后句子的衔接。

(1) 转折关系:although, despite, even though, however, in spite of, regardless of, on the

contrary

(2) 举例关系:as follows, for example, for instance, including

The reasons are as follows:…

(3) 因果关系:as a result, accordingly, because of, due to, thanks to, now that既然, since自

从既然, hence, therefore

(4) 递进关系:additionally, in addition, besides, that is to say, in other words, what’s more,

last but not least

2. 同义词或近义词

由于段落中所有的句子都要围绕主题句,有时就需要同义词和近义词来解释说明,以避免重复。例如:

Some people think English is very dull. However, if you learn it well, you will not think so. It is not boring but very interesting

3. 根据衔接词在文章中的作用,主要分为“起”、“承”、“转”、“合”四大类, 由它们 体现文章的连贯性。

“起” 是指用于文章的开篇引出扩展句的词语。

“承”是用来承接上下文的词语。

“转”是用来表示不同或相反的意见。

“合”是用来小结上文或结束本段落的内容。

段落写作的统一性和完整性

一、句子的完整性

无论采取哪样的句子,首先要保持句子的完整性,即一个句子要有主语、谓语和其他 辅助成分(如宾语、表语和状语等)。

1. 简单句

简单句:Interviews become important is job hunting.

复杂句:With the development of the H.R. market, the interview is becoming more and more important in job hunting.

Fake commodities are harmful to the society.

With the development of society, fake commodities are becoming more and more harmful. As far as I am concerned, fake commodities are becoming harmful to society.

2. 复杂句

复杂句由一个主句和一个或多个从句构成,通常主句是重要信息,而从句是对这个信息具体、有效的综合描述。

The Mississippi River is one of the longest rivers in the world, and in springtime it often overflows its banks, and the lives of many people.

The Mississippi River, which is one of the longest rivers in the world, often overflows its banks in the springtime, endangering the lives of many people.

3. 并列句

常用的并列连词:and, or, but, yet, either...or, both…and …, not only…but also…等 a. 断句方面

(1)TV becomes an important part of our daily life. Because we cannot live without it. (2 ) We must protect the fresh water supply. As it becomes less and less.

(3 ) There are many ways to solve it. For example widening the streets, building subways

and so on.

(4 ) In contrast, water power has many advantages. Such as it is clean and cheap. b. 连词方面:文章中缺少必要的连词,或是连词乱用,造成文章不完整。

(1)One should improve his English, one should work hard.

(2 ) The water is seriously polluted, people will not have fresh water to drink in the future. (3 ) One is watching TV and he will always see one or two advertisements between

programs.

(4 ) When people can afford a private car, and this create new problems.

二、段落的完整性

However, we have figured out three different ways to reduce the pollution from cars. Firstly, non-polluting fuel cars can be used. So long as we can make use of cheap non-polluting fuel, pollution will be gradually decreased. Secondly, people had better use cars as little as possible.

范文赏析

1. 如今不少学生在英语学习中不重视拼写

2. 出现这种情况的原因是…open eyesight/broaden the horizon

3. 为了改变这种状况,我认为…

Due Attention Should Be Given to Spelling

In this day and age,如今,现在 spelling receives decreasing attention in English language study. For years, teachers and students have not attached much importance to it. However, spelling is the basic building blocks to construct what we want to write.

The reasons why students don ’t have an eye on spelling lie in several aspects. First and foremost, some teachers believe it’s the content that matters and want their students to just focus on getting their ideas through on paper. What’s more, many students are taught to believe that the target of language learning is communication, and in speaking English, spelling is much less of an issue. However, writing is also a crucial means of communication, because with numerous misspelling, the meaning one wants to express may be clouded.

To change this situation, I think teachers and students should work together. Teachers should teach students the importance of spelling at the very beginning of English learning. Students should also grasp the aim of language learning, which not only concerns speaking, but also writing.

A work with numerous misspellings can never be appreciated by anyone.

1. 各大学开设了各种各样的选修课;

2. 学生选课有不同的原因;

3. 就我而言…

What Electives to Choose

Various electives are now available in today ’s universities, aiming to not only provide an opportunity for each student to explore areas of interests but also round out their general education. In the face of so many courses of diverse topics, students need to spend some time deciding which electives they would like choose. Three major factors influence their choices.

First, interest is one of the most important motivations. Students ’ choices usually depend on their interests in different fields, such as history and Chinese traditional philosophy, or music and movie appreciation. Moreover, many students would choose English and Economics since the development of our national economy is in great demand of talents in both English and economics. Lastly, students sometimes simply choose courses on account of personal charisma of some excellent teachers.

As for me, in my sophomore studies, I chose Western Art History since I was interested in western art and charmed by the glamour of the lecturer for this course. I also chose Gerontology because I wanted to take good care of my grandparents with what I would learn. I hope that in the future there will be more and more excellent lecturers and electives to expand students’ horizons.

1. 建设绿色校园十分重要;

2. 绿色校园不仅指绿色环境;

3. 为了建设绿色校园我们应该…

Creating a Green Campus

Nowadays, most of us know that there exist a lot of environment problems which threaten human ’s life. Every one of us must do something to help slow down and remedy the damages. We

can ’t leave the problem-solving entirely to the experts—we all students should shoulder our due responsibility to protect the environment. So a new concept arises: creating a green campus.

Creating a green campus not just means planting trees, flowers on campus. It is sure that plants can help our campus take on a new look. However, the real meaning of creating a green campus lies in arousing student s’ awareness of protecting the environment and creating a sustainable environment.

There are plenty of things that students can do to make a green campus thrive and have an ecolifestyle. First, recycle everything before we throw them away, especially paper. Second, avoid using disposable chopsticks and cups in refectory. Third, remember not to litter at will. Then to create a green campus will not be difficult.

如何举例例证

1. 具体事例

具体事例就是发生过的,考生和读者都熟悉的事例。

2. 模糊事例

模糊事例就是自己用语言描述一个例子,并不存在是不是真的发生过的要求。

例如,在写电脑是否对儿童有害这个题目时,我们就可以使用下面的这个例子:

It is reported that a boy has lost his life in front of a computer screen after having played computer games for over 48 hours consecutively.

Such a tragic example can show the damage the computer could do to our children.

3. 假设论证

假设例证实际算不上是真正的“例证”,而更像是逻辑论证。假设例证就是先假设论点成立,接着说可能产生的后果,然后假设论点不成立并列举其后果来进行对比,反之亦然。

If a child spend adequate amount of time on the computer, then they might still have time for regular physical exercise.

If not, however, they might easily put on too much weight without enough outdoor activities.

Spend time in doing /spend time on sth

Walking, if you do it vigorously enough, is the overall best exercise for regular physical activity. It requires no equipment, everyone knows how to do it and it carries the __47__ risk of injury. The human body is designed to walk. You can walk in parks or along a river or in your neighborhood. To get __48__ benefit from walking, aim for 45 minutes a day, an average of five days a week. Strength training is another important __49__ of physical activity. Its purpose is to build and __50__ bone and muscle mass, both of which shrink with age. In general, you will want to do strength training two or three days a week, __51__ recovery days between sessions.

Finally, flexibility and balance training are __52__ important as the body ages. Aches and pains are high on the list of complaints in old age. The result of constant muscle tension and stiffness of joints, many of them are __53__ and simple flexibility training can __54__ these by making muscles stronger and keeping joints lubricated (润滑). Some of this you do whenever you stretch. If you watch dogs and cats, you'll get an idea of how natural it is. The general __55__ is simple: whenever the body has been in one position for a while, it is good to __56__ stretch it in an

opposite position.