英语六级—新东方六级写作 (1)
初一 其它 32767字 832人浏览 慕容小禾

前 言:

教习过好几门课程,深感写作这一课是最难教的,“危乎高哉!‘写作’之难难于上青天。„„一夫当关,万夫莫开。”学生学习英语写作多时,大多不能迥脱蹊径之外,工而入逸者更是寥寥。于是我悲观起来,认定“文不可以‘教’而能”。虽说文字和技法可以也应当教一些,俾学生邯郸学步,渐次入门,但就本质特征而论,写作远不只是一个章法和技巧的问题,而是“气之所行”,是皮相之下许多深层主观因素的综合,是一个厚积薄发的养成过程。这些主观因素,在我看来,体现在国内的英语写作考试当中只局限于素心烂读的积累。Reading makes a full man.这是英国学者的传世之言,我们的祖先说“读书破万卷,下笔如有神”。我们赞叹一篇文章,往往是因为我们被文章中的语言所吸引、所征服:语汇丰富、句式整齐、语言或精练或华丽,句式安排熟练自如,自然流畅;而者只能来自于 reading 。但是我们已没有那么多的时间去“读”了,于是乎,语言的总结就变得极其必要!

要归纳记叙文中漂亮、地道的语言是困难的,但是要归纳论说文这个各种英语考试的作文类型中的语言不是不可能的。论说文是由开头、结尾、启转、分析、举例、比较等部分所组成的,其中都有些固定而漂亮的句型来表达。由于这些句型都是地道的英语,是经过千锤百炼,且能表达论说文写作中的不同意思,若能把以论说文为主的当代英语essays 中的这些句型摘录归纳成类,供读者参考,无疑是能有助于提高英语写作的语言水平。

模仿和学用漂亮和地道的英语表达法或句型并不是可耻的事。地道的英语不应是你用学过的词汇和语法规则按某个意思苦苦思索造出来的,地道的英语应是你把英美人对这个意思的习惯说法用到你自己的文章上来的。该讲义收集了论说文常用的一些句型,与六级考试的一些文章结构模式;希望同学们能以此为依据,Practice makes perfect,达到熟能生巧的境界,从而在六级考试作文部分获得理想的分数!

写作原则

内容简单化

结构模式化(主题句-分论点-总结)

语言要包装

错误要回避

万能理由 (Omnipotence):

1、方便:convenient/convenience

2、效率:efficient/efficiently/efficiency

3、节省和浪费:save time/money/space; economical, thrift

waste time/money/space; costly, lavish

4:人的心理健康:independent, cooperative, competitive,

considerate, confident, creative, sociable,

perseverance; selfish, isolated, conservative

5、人的身体健康:health, disease, strong, strength, energetic

6、娱乐:colorful, pleasure, joy, recreation, entertainment, relax

tired, boring, lonely

7、环境:environment, pollute, poisonous, dirty

8、安全和危险:safe, danger, risk

9:经验:experience, social experience, enter the society

10、人际:humane, fair, unfair, help, assist, freedom, freely

基本表达(Basic Elements of English Writing):

越来越:be increasingly + adj., be on the rise, the growing number of

人们认为:it is generally/widely believed/held/agreed that

许多问题:a host of/a number of problems

引起人们注意:claim call/attract general/public/world attention to sth.

意识到:there is a growing awareness/realization of/that, awaken sb. to the fact/danger 适应新的形势/变化:adapt/adjust/accommodate oneself to new environment/change

接触各种思想/经历:be exposed to new ideas/experiences/problems

接触社会:come into frequent/close contact with the world/society

获得成功:achieve/accomplish success

提出观点/建议:advance / put forward / come up with the arguments/ideas/suggestions

作出努力:make tremendous/persistent/sustained effort to do sth., take great pains to do(with work/study)

影响学习/工作:interfere with studies/work

产生影响:have/exert a profound influence on life/personality, have a dramatic/undesirable effect on

较好地驾驭生活:be a better pilot of one's life

剥夺机会/权力:deprive oneself of the chance/right/opportunity

取代就的方式:substitute for/take the place of the old way

采取措施:take effective steps/measures to

控制我们的环境:take/gain increasing control over our own environment

躲避危险/挑战:shy/run away from the dangers/challenge

满足要求:meet/satisfy/accommodate the demand of

补偿损失:compensate for/make up for the loss/damage

解释某现象:account for/explain the phenomenon

对„„很好的了解:have a better understanding/appreciation of, have a new perspective on. provide/gain an insight into

把某因素考虑进去:take sth. Into account(consideration), give much thought to

品位人生/自由/青春:savor the life/freedom/youth

培养对„„的信心:develop/foster one's interest/confidence in

经历变化/困难/艰险:undergo/experience great changes/hardships/experience

表现出自信心等:project one's confidence/feeling/image

生活充满不公正的地方:life is full of minor irritation/injustice

追求学习/职业:pursue one's academic interest/professional career

学习知识/技术:pursue/acquire knowledge/technology/skill

被看作学习的„„榜样:be held up as a good example

交流经验/知识:share experience/ideas/problems/knowledge

发挥/起到重要作用:play an (important/active/great) role/part

逃学/缺课:skip school/a class/a meeting/a lecture

知识/经验丰富:rich in knowledge/experience

确立/追求目标:set/pursue a goal/higher standard

到达目标:achieve/accomplish/stain the goal/aim/objective

克服困难:overcome obstacles/difficulty

面临危险/困难:be confronted/faced with/in the face of danger/difficulty

阻碍了成功:stand in the way of success, be an obstacle/barrier to success/growth

阻碍了发展:hamper/impede/stunt the development of

持传统的看法:hold conventional wisdom

发表看法:voice/express one's opinion

持相反/合理的观点:take the opposite/fresh view

揭穿某种一贯的说法:shatter the myth of

求得帮助:enlist one's support/help

缩小差别:bridge/narrow/fill the gap/gulf (between city and country)

把成功/错误归咎于:attribute/own the success/failure to

对„„重要:be indispensable/important/vital to

施加压力:put/exert a academic pressure on

重视:assign/attach much importance/significance to

强调:place/put much emphasis/stress/value on

把注意力集中在:focus/concentrate one's attention/efforts/thoughts upon

提供机会/信息:provide/offer/furnish an opportunity/information for sb.

抓住机会:grab/seize/take the opportunity

得到机会:enjoy/gain access to a opportunity/information

有可能:there is (little/much) possibility/likelihood that, chances/the odds are that

展开竞争:compete against/with sb. for the prize/position/control/the mastery of

开展运动:conduct(carryon/undertake/initiate/launch/wage) a (vigorous/nation-wide/publicity/advertising) campaign (for/against)

对我很有/没有什么意义:make much/little sense to me

带来无穷的幸福/满足:be a source of happiness satisfaction/contentment/pride/complaint 献身于:devote/dedicate/commit oneself to a cause/career

大不(没什么)两样:make much(little/no) difference

真正重要的是:what really matters/accounts is „

改变生活旅程:change/alter the course of life

建立在大量的学习/实践上:built on tremendous amount of study/practice

进行调查/执行任务:conduct/carry out an study/task/experiment

辞去工作/学习:leave/quit one's job/work/school

参加考试/竞赛等:enter (for) the examination/contest, race

参加活动/讨论:take part/participate/be engaged in sports/activities/discussion

影响思想/态度/事件的形成:shape one's thinking/attitude

进入大学/社会/家庭/劳力市场/职业:enter a school/college/society/the work force/professionals 实现自己的理想/愿望:realize/fulfill/achieve one's dream(hops/wish/desire)

减轻压力/紧张:reduce/alleviate/relieve the stress/pressure/tension

提高社会地位:enhance/improve/upgrade social status/position/standing rise to the position of leadership

提高技术/能力:sharpen (increase/improve/enhance/boost) one's skill/ability

加快/促进发展:accelerate/facilitate/advance/enhance/boost the development of

随着生活节奏的加快:with the quickening pace/rhythm/tempo of modern life/society

开阔眼界/兴趣:broaden one's interest/outlook, expand(broaden/enlarge) one's mental horizons 有助于了解/发展/宣传/解决:contribute much/little/greatly/to a better understanding of/the popularity of/the growth of/the solution of

有助于解决问题:go a long way to(towards) solving the problem

迷恋名利/分数:be obsessed/preoccupied with grades/fame/fortune

把时间花/浪费在:spend/waste time doing sth., put in hours doing sth.

利用机会/技术:make (full/better) use of/take advantage of opportunity/time, tap/harness technology potential/skills/talent

把知识/经验运用到„:apply/put the theory/knowledge/experience„ to practice/daily life/good use

取得进步:make much progress/strides/gains in

充分发挥潜力/能力:develop one's ability/potential to the full, give full play to one's ability 充满激情/渴望:have a burning desire/a great passion for

实例二 99年6月真题

Reading Selectively Or Extensively?

Outline: 1.有人认为读书要有选择

2. 有人认为应当博览群书

3. 我的想法

①11分

When it comes to reading, some people think that reading selectively is a good way, but some other people do not agree with them, they think that reading extensively is better.

Those people, who think that reading selectively is better, believe that good books are as many as bad books. Those good books can give us pleasure and knowledge, while those bad books can only lead us to the wrong way. So, they suggest that we should only choose the good books to read and never touch the bad books.

But, the other people, who hold that reading extensively is better, think that one kind of books can only give us one aspect of knowledge. Even the best book only contains one field of information. So, they can easily come to the conclusion that “to know more, to read more”. So they believe that reading extensively is better.

To my point, we should choose good books to read and read good books as many as possible. By this way, we can increase the quality and quantity of reading.

②5分

I think reading not only selectively but also extensively. Because the two sides are not contradict. Our time is limited. So we can not read every book in the world. However, we will not be interested in every book. We should read those books may be useful to ours, read those books which we like. But those books which we choose must be extensively so it can give ours all kinds of knowledge, news and so on, it also make ours become a wise man. On the one hand reading selectively let ours not waste our time which it is limited. Moreover it can emphasis among all books that we can read. On the other hand reading extensively can deal with all kinds of need in our life. They are all useful to ours.

失分原因:分段太少,语法错误太多

③2分

Most people thought that read books should have been selective. But others believed reading extensively was correction.

Selective books or reading extensively?

Sure, you can choice one from previous ideas,

on one hand, There are too book to read for us. We should choose those which we interested, and it would be helpful for us.

On another hand. Someone’s interesting was wide. Each book could bring you specific contain we

couldn’t reading at only one level.

I confirmed all of these ideas were good but weren’t wise.

As a reader, the main task is to discover more and more books the second task is to held some which wonderful and helpful for us. Don’t treat these books with reckless abandon.

The best technology of reading is connect.

失分原因:分段太多,语法错误太多

④14分

How should we read? Should we read selectively or extensively? Everyone has his own view.

Some people think we should read selectively. They argue that with the development of modern science and technology, more and more books are published. It is impossible for us to read all the books. What’s more, there are many bad books that are poisonous to our mind, and we shouldn’t read them. Since we can’t read all the books and we shouldn’t read bad books, we must read selectively.

But others may not agree, they emphasize that today's society is not what it was. If one man has many kinds of knowledge, he will have more chances to succeed. If a man knows much in one field but knows nothing in other fields, he may be useless. Since we must have many kinds of knowledge, we must read extensively.

Who’s right? I think both of them have something right. But I think we should read extensively first. We should read books in many fields, and read selectively in one field.

⑤8分

Some people think reading shall be chosen. Because some books are good to human beings and some books are harmful to people.

Some people think that men should read books widely. Because wide reading can help man get much knowledge. And man can use it to change the world.

It is my point that reading must be selectively. Because reading is important to man. Some books can help man but some books can lead some people to crime. It can be seen in the newspapers and watched on TV. We can make full use of some good books and gain more useful knowledge. It can make our life more beautiful. We must give up those unhelpful books. They are not good to us. Reading them is wasting time and money. So reading selectively is an important part in reading. 失分原因:结构失调,表述方式单一

典型的对比观点选择题的文章逻辑结构:

(启)Paragraph I :(1)引出将要评论的事物或者是观点;

(2)简明扼要的提出人们在这个问题上的两种不同看法。

(承)Paragraph II :(1)提出一种观点或优点;

(2)本段的支持性分论点;

(3)本段总结(可以省略)。

(转)Paragraph III:(1)承上启下的过渡句;

(2)提出另一种观点或缺点;

(3)本段的支持性分论点

(4)本段总(可以省略)。

(合)Paragraph IV:(1)平衡两种看法;

(2)给出自己的观点。

④14分

How should we read? Should we read selectively or extensively? Everyone has his own view.(启) 注:1. 第一句提出问题,第二句提出两种见解

Some people think we should read selectively. They argue that with the development of modern science and technology, more and more books are published. It is impossible for us to read all the books. What’s more, there are many bad books that are poisonous to our mind, and we shouldn’t read them. Since we can’t read all the books and we shouldn’t read bad books, we must read selectively. (承)

注:1. 本段总分总结构

2.they argue that = they think that

3.with the development of...

4.what's more 递进关系,moreover

But others may not agree, they emphasize that today's society is not what it was. If one man has many kinds of knowledge, he will have more chances to succeed. If a man knows much in one field but knows nothing in other fields, he may be useless. Since we must have many kinds of knowledge, we must read extensively.(转)

注:1.But 转折词

2.they emphasize that = they think that

3.today's society is not what it was 现代社会今昔非比

4. 许多知识 a wide range of/a large scope of/much;获取知识 acquire/get knowledge

5.knows nothing→little ;he may be useless→he may not be of great use to the society 后者比前者更委婉

Who ’s right? I think both of them have something right. But I think we should read extensively first. We should read books in many fields, and read selectively in one field.(合)

①11分

When it comes to reading, some people think that reading selectively is a good way, but some other people do not agree with them, they think that reading extensively is better.

Those people, who think that reading selectively is better, believe that good books are as many as bad books. Those good books can give us pleasure and knowledge, while those bad books can only lead us to the wrong way. So, they suggest that we should only choose the good books to read and never touch the bad books.

注:1. “people, who”应去掉逗号,改为非限制定语从句。

2.they suggest that = they think that

3.touch 碰,闪光点词汇,如教材P7:shoulder the responsibility of doing sth. 肩负起责任

But, the other people, who hold that reading extensively is better, think that one kind of books can only give us one aspect of knowledge. Even the best book only contains one field of information. So, they can easily come to the conclusion that “to know more, to read more”. So they believe that reading extensively is better.

To my point, we should choose good books to read and read good books as many as possible. By this way, we can increase the quality and quantity of reading.

Directions: Write a composition about 120/150 words based on the following outline:

1) 当前社会上存在许多不诚实的现象

2) 诚实利人利己,做人应该诚实

2002.6

Topic: Student Use of Computers (at least150 words)

Average number of hours a student spends on the computer per week

1、上图所示为1990、1995、2000年某校大学生使用计算机的情况,请描述其变化;

2、请说明发生这些变化的原因(可从计算机的用途、价格或社会发展等方面加以说明);

3、你认为目前大学生在计算机使用中有什么困难或问题。

2002.1

Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic:

A Letter to the University President about the Canteen Service on Campus You should write at least 120 words, and base your composition on the outline given in Chinese below:

假设你是李明,请你就本校食堂的状况给校长写一封信,内容应涉及食堂的饭菜质量、价格、环境、服务等,可以是表扬,可以是批评建议,也可以兼而有之。

January 12th, 2002

Dear Mr. President,

Li Ming

2001.6

Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a letter.

Suppose you are Zhang Ying. Write a letter to Xiao Wang, a schoolmate of yours who is going to visit you during the week-long holiday. You should write at least 120 words according to the suggestions given below in Chinese.

1. 表示欢迎

2. 提出过度假安排的建议

3. 提醒应注意的事项

A Letter to a Schoolmate

June 23,2001

Dear Xiao Wang

2001.1

Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic How to Succeed in a Job Interview? You should write at least 120 words, and base your composition on the outline given in Chinese below:

1. 面试在求职过程中的作用。

2. 取得面试成功的因素:仪表、举止谈吐、能力、专业知识、自信、实事求是„„

2000.6

Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic Is a Test of Spoken English Necessary?

The first sentence has already been written for you. You should write at least 120 words, and bas

your composition on the outline given in Chinese below:

1. 很多认为有必要举行英语口语考试,理由是„„

2. 也有人持不同意见,„„

3. 我的看法和打算

2000.1

Direction: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic How I Finance My College Education. You should write at least 120 words, and base your composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below.

1. 上大学的费用(tuition and fees)可以通过多种途径解决

2. 哪种途径适合于我(说明理由)

1999.6

Direction: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic Reading Selectively Or Extensively? You should write at least 120 words, and base you composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below:

1. 有人认为读书要有选择。

2. 有人认为应当博览群书。

3. 我的看法。

1999.1

Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic. Don't Hesitate to Say "No"

You should write at least 120 words and you should base your composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below:

1. 别人请求帮助时,在什么情况下我们说" 不" 。

2. 为什么有些人在该说" 不" 的时候不说" 不" 。

3. 该说" 不" 时不说" 不" 的坏处。

1998.6

Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic Do "Lucky Numbers" Really Bring Good Luck?

You should write at least 120 words and you should base your composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below:

1. 有些人认为某些数字会带来好运。

2. 我认为数字和运气无关,„„

1998.1

Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic My View on Fake Commodities.

You should write at least 120 words and you should base your composition on the outline (given on Chinese) below:

1. 假冒伪劣商品的危害。

2. 怎样杜绝假冒伪劣商品。

1997.6

Directions: For this part you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic My View on Job-Hopping

You should write at least 120 words and you should base your composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below:

1. 有些人喜欢始终从事一种工作,因为„

2. 有些人喜欢经常更换工作,因为„

3. 我的看法。

1997.1

Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic Haste Makes Waste. You should write at least 120 words and you should base your composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below:

1. 为什么说" 欲速则不达" 。

2. 试举例说明。

1996.6

Directions:

For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition based on the grouphs below. Heaalth Gains in Developing Countries

Life Expectancy Infant Mortality

1996.1

Directions:

For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition based on the title: Why I Take the College English Test Band 6, You should base your composition on the following outline (given in Chinese).

1. 有人认为没有必要参加大学英语六级考试

2. 我参加CET -6考试的理由

You must write your composition in no less than 120 words on the Composition Sheet and remember to write in readable handwriting.

1995.6

Directions:

For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition based on the title: Should Firecrackers Be Banned? You should base your composition on the following outline (given in Chinese).

1. 有人认为放鞭炮是好事,为什么?

2. 有人认为放鞭炮是坏事,为什么?

3. 我的看法

You must write your composition in no less than 120 words on the Composition Sheet and remember to write in readable handwriting.

1995.1

Directions:

For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition based on the title: My View on the Negative Effects of Some Advertisements. You should base your composition on the following outline (given in Chinese).

1. 现在有些不良的商业广告

2. 这些广告的副作用和危害性

3. 我对这些广告的态度

You must write your composition in no less than 120 words on the Composition Sheet and remember to write in readable handwriting.

1994.6

Directions:

For this part , you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition based on the title: The Career I Pursue.

You must write your composition in no less than 120 words on the Composition Sheet and remember to write in readable handwriting.

1994.1

Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic We Need to Broaden Our Knowledge.

You should write no less than 120 words and you should base your composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below:

1. 科学技术是社会发展所不可缺少的

2. 社会科学和自然科学相互渗透

3. 现代大学生需要广博的知识

1993.6

Directions:

For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic My View On Opportunity. You must base your composition on the following instructions (give in Chinese): 有的人认为机会是极少的,另一些人则认为人人都会有某种机会。你的看法如何? 写出你的理由并且适当举例。在你的文章结尾处不要忘记写出你的结论。

Your composition should be no less than 120 words. Remember to write it neatly.

1993.1

Directions:

For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition based on the title: Motorcycles And City Traffic. You should base your composition on the following outline (given in Chinese).

1. 近年来中国城市的摩托车

2. 摩托车的优点和缺点

3. 你对我国城市中摩托车发展的前景的看法

You must write your composition in no less than 120 words on the Composition Sheet and remember to write in readable handwriting.

1992.6

Directions:

For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic Looking Forward to the Twenty-First Century. Your composition should be based on your answer to the following question written in Chinese:

1. 新世纪科技发展的前景如何?

2. 新的科学技术会给社会带来什么好处?

3. 新的科学技术会带来什么问题?

4. 你怎样对待新世纪的挑战战?

Your composition should be no less 120 words.

1992.1

Directions:

For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition based on the following graph which shows the change in the number of film - goers and TV - watchers in a certain city. The title of the composition is: Film Is Giving Way to TV. You should write no less than 120 words for your composition and it must include the following ideas (given in Chinese):

1. 电影观众越来越少

2. 电视观众越来越多,因为„„

3. 然而,还是有人喜欢看电影, 因为„„.

Quote as few figures as possible. Remember to write your composition in readable handwriting.

1991.6

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition based on the graph below.

The suggested Title is: Car Accidents Declining in Walton City. Remember that your composition

must be written according to the following outline:

1.Rise and fall of the rate of car accidents as indicated by the graph;

2.Possible reason(s) for the decline of car accidents in the city;

3.Your predictions of what will happen this year.

Your composition should be no less than 120 words and you should quote as few figures as possible.

1991.1

Directions:

For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition about Man Is to Survive. You should base your composition on the following outline:

1. 人类面临的问题(如能源,疾病,污染,人口等)

2. 悲观的看法(如人类将无法生存)

3. 人类的智慧出路

Your composition should be no less than 120 words. Be sure to write your composition in readable handwriting.

1990.6

Directions:

For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic: How to Solve the Housing Problem in Big Cities. Four suggested solutions to this problem are listed below. You are supposed to write in favour of one suggestion (ONE only) and against another (ONE only). You should give your reasons in both cases. You should write no less than 120 words. Remember to give a short introduction and a brief conclusion. Write your composition clearly.

四种可能解决住房问题的方案:

1. 多造高层建筑

2. 向地下发展

3. 建造卫星城市

4. 疏散城市人口

1990.1

Directions: For this part you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic How to Solve the Problem of Heavy Traffic according to the following OUTLINE. Your composition should be no less than 120 words. Remember that the contents of the OUTLINE should ALL be included in your composition. But you are not supposed to translate the OUTLINE word for word.

OUTLINE

问题:城市交通拥挤

解决方案(solution )

1. 建造(lay down)更多道路

优点:(1) 降低街道拥挤程度

(2) 加速车流(flow of traffic)

缺点:占地过多

2. 开辟(open up)更多公共汽车线路

优点:减少自行车与小汽车

缺点:对部分人可能造成不方便

结论:两者结合

题型分类 (Classification of every essay):

一、第一种题型(对比观点选择题;Essay I):

(一) 题型特点:

1、 大多为三点提纲,提纲模式一般为:有一些人„„;还有人„„;我的看法或观点;

2、少数时候也会出现两点提纲的情况,此时可以补充成三点提纲来写作。

(二) 历年真题:

2000.6; 1999.6; 1998.6; 1997.6; 1996.1;1995.6;1993.6; 1993.1

二、 第二种题型(社会热点话题;Essay II):

(一) 题型特点:

1、 应该为三点提纲,但是通常以两点提纲出现的题目居多,所涉及主题为当时社会热点;

2、如果是两点提纲,则补充成三点提纲写作。

3、通常模式为:现象概述--细节(原因、危害、方式等)--自我评论

(二) 历年真题:

2002.12; 2000.12; 2000.1; 1999.1; 1997.12; 1995.1;

三、第三种题型(图标题;Report; Essay III):

(一)题型特点:

1、 以图表作为信息来源的写作模式

2、通常模式为:描述图表--解释原因--自我评论

(二)历年真题:

2003.6; 2000.6; 1996.6; 1992.1; 1991.6

四、第四种题型(书信题; Essay IV):

(一) 题型特点:

1、写书信

(二)历年真题:

2001.6; 2002.1;

五、第五种题型(谚语格言题; Essay V):

(一) 题型特点:

1、文章题目为一句格言或谚语

2、通常模式为:解释谚语--举例论证--画龙点睛

(二) 历年真题:

1997.1;

文章主体句式(Body):

一、原 因 结 果

例:There are probably +[many\several\three]+[resons\causes]+ for this +[dramatic\marked]+[increase\decline\change]+ in...

二、比 较 对 照

例:[There is no doubt that\Obviously,]+ it has [its\both]+[drawbacks\disadvantages\negative effects]+[as well as\and]+[merits\advantages\positive effects]...

三、例 证

例:We may +[cite\quote\mention\take\point out]+[a single\a common\another]+ example of...

四、事 实

例:No one can +[deny\doubt\ignor\overlook]+ the +[bare\hard\essential\profound]+ fact that...

五、数 据 调 查

例:A +[recent\new\nationwide]+[study\survey\poll\investigation]+[conducted\taken]+[at a factory\by officials]...

六、权 威(专 家)

例:As one +[scientist\writer\doctor\psychologist]+[wrote\commented\pointed out\noted], ...

七、分 析

例:It seems +[quite\almost]+[(un)likely\(im)possible\(in)credible\(in)conceivable]+ that...

2000.1

Direction: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic How I Finance My College Education. You should write at least 120 words, and base your composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below.

1. 上大学的费用(tuition and fees)可以通过多种途径解决

2. 哪种途径适合于我(说明理由)

Nowadays, tuition and fees for college are much higher than ever before. How to finance your college education has become a matter of concern for many. You can deal with in many ways. You can get all of the money from your parents. You can apply for a loan especially set up for college students. You can also acquire the money completely by yourself, doing a full-time job in summer or winter holiday. In addition, you can ask your parents for most of it and earn the rest in your spare time in college, by doing a part-time job.

注:1. 第一句引言。

2. 太多you can重复使用,缺乏变化

In my opinion, I prefer the last way. Having acquired most of the tuition and fees from my parents, I needn’t worry too much about the money and can concentrate on my study; on the other hand, a part-time job in my spare time makes my campus-life colorful. I can make a lot of friends, improve my abilities and learn lots of knowledge. So, I choose this way to cover my tuition and fees.

缺点:缺少连贯性

How I Finance My College Education?

Previously in China, a university education was funded by the government. This situation is changing and students must now finance their own education. As a result, students are now faced with the question “how to pay for my college education”?

注:This 指代前文

There are several possible ways to raise the money to pay for fees and tuitions. Parents are a source for college funding, as is the case with most students. Scholarships are also available for students with outstanding academic performance. Because scholarships are competitive, they are not available to every one. Students can also take out a loan from the bank. Banks can provide loans to students without collateral for those who need them. And, many students can take on part-time jobs to help finance their education. In cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, there are many part-time job opportunities for students both on and off campus.

注:1.source 来源,TV program is main source of my pleasure 电视是我欢乐的主要来源

2.available 重要词汇,Are you still available? 你还单身吗?

3.take part-time job打工,还可以用do out job\temporary job

4.on and off 校园内外

Personally, I believe a scholarship is the best way to fund an education as it not only pays for fees and tuition, but also encourages studying hard.

My View on Fake Commodities

The prevalence of fake commodities has been a big problem in our society. Almost every day in newspapers carry articles pertaining to fake commodities. Although measures have been

implemented to deal with this problem, it still remains a serious threat.

Fake goods are harmful on many levels. People sell fake commodities to make a quick profit which undermines the economy and fake goods can also be dangerous to one’s health. The effect is a general mistrust among consumers toward sellers and the free market in general. In addition, many fake commodities have been exported overseas which has resulted in a poor reputation for goods coming out of China and has had a negative influence on exports.

There are several ways to address this problem. Laws and regulations should be implemented/make/work out to ban the manufacturing and distribution of fake goods. At the same time, consumers should be educated to/enhance the awareness of identify these fake goods. With tough laws and an educated public, fake goods will become a thing of the past.

用My View On Fake Commodity改写Brain Drain

Brain Drain

Brain drain is a delicate problem with which our country is confronted. In the last ten years or so, a lot of scientists and technicians have swarmed into developed countries for further studies or research work, let alone numerous promising students. And there are no indications that they will be back home before long. Our country has paid the expenses of training them but lost them. How did that come about?

It is self-evident that their delay of coming back is due to those favorable working and living conditions which are essential to research work. Sophisticated equipment makes it easier for one to gain academic achievements. Our competent scientists abroad are offered higher rewards and greater opportunities which contribute to their success in career.

It seems that it isn’t impossible to solve the problem and attract the scientists and the like back home so long as great importance is attached to the intellectual’s deserving treatment and effective measures are taken to provide them with excellent pay and agreeable conditions.

1997年1月

Directions”

For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic Haste Makes Waste. You should write at least 120 words and you should base your composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below.

1. 为什么“欲速则不达”?

2. 举例说明。

谚语格言题文章逻辑结构 :

Paragraph I:(1)点明要阐释的谚语或名言(general);

(2)用自己的话解释这一谚语或名言的意思,有时有正反两面的逻辑(specific)。

Paragraph II: (1)作者对该谚语或名言的观点态度,即文章的论点句;

(2)支持性的细节分论点,举例子论证(至少两点,有时有正反两面的逻辑);

(3)本段总结(可以省略)。

Paragraph III: (1)总结全文,定下结论(通常为阐明其现实或更深远意义)。

Haste Makes Waste

By “Haste makes waste” is meant that one should do everything step by step. Even simple operations can easily be spoiled if we rush to complete them, neglecting important stages in the process. One should make full preparations before beginning an task.

注:spoilt=spoiled 被毁坏;Spare the rod, spoil the child. 棍棒出孝子

Take English study for example. Without a good command of pronunciation, we can never hope to speak in an understandable way. Similarly, if we do not learn to spell properly and to acquire a basic grasp of grammar, we will never succeed in writing good composition.

In short, laying a solid foundation is essential if we want to make achievements in our studies or work, or indeed in any other aspect of our lives. At every step, review what has been achieved and assess the problems ahead before moving to the next step. And remember, Rome was not built in a day.

注:laying a solid foundation 打下坚实的基础

[讲义P7]

Example :

An English proverb says,

One of the great men once remarked, “Haste Makes Waste”.

Nearly every civilization has its own equivalent to the proverb:

It means that

……

In other words,

History/Our society abounds with the examples of “Haste Makes Waste”. ……. On the other hand/On the contrary, …….

For us college students, the saying/proverb has a profound and realistic significance: ……. 图表题:

三图一表--柱状图(Bar Graph)、线形图(Line Graph)、饼状图(Pie Graph)、表格(Table)

图表题文章写作逻辑结构:

Paragraph I:(1)描述图表:趋势描写;

(2)描述图表:必要数据支持(细节性)。

Paragraph II:(1)提出自己理由和观点;

(2)细节性分论点(支持自己观点)。

Paragraph III:(1)预测未来和提出解决方法;

(2)总结全文和表达作者自己观点。

Car Accidents Declining in Walton City

According to the graph, the rise and fall of the rate of car accidents in Walton City varies with the seasons. From January to March last year it increased by 68%, from March to June it dropped by about half the previous rate; and from June to August there was a steep rise of 66.6%. After that, however, there was a steady decrease, and this makes us optimistic that car accidents are declining in Walton City.

注:1.According to the graph 如图所示,还可以说成 As can be seen from the graph

2.steep rise 陡然上升,steady decrease 缓慢下降

There are three reasons for this improvement. First, new traffic regulations have made drivers more careful, second, more people are using bicycles for transportation, and third, in the later part of the year good weather made the roads safer to drive on.

This year, major roads have been repaired and the number of public buses has been increased. Moreover, a traffic safety campaign has made all the local people more aware of the dangers of unsafe driving. So, I am confident that there will be even fewer car accidents in Walton in the future.

Film Is Giving Way to TV

(A)

The latest statistics show that the number of people attending cinemas is getting steadily smaller. At the same time, the number of television viewers is growing at almost the same rate.

Experts say that these two trends are connected in three ways. First, over the past few decades television sets have appeared in almost every home. Second, film very quickly become available on video, and can be shown on the TV screen. Third, it is becoming more expensive to make films, and so the prices of cinema seats are rising.

However, this does not mean the death of the movie industry. There will always be people who prefer to go out to see a film. This is because no matter how good a TV film or video, it can never be as entertaining as a film shown on the “big screen.”

社会热点话题

用My View On Fake Commodity改写Brain Drain

Brain Drain

Brain drain is a delicate problem with which our country is confronted. In the last ten years or so, a lot of scientists and technicians have swarmed into developed countries for further studies or research work, let alone numerous promising students. And there are no indications that they will be back home before long. Our country has paid the expenses of training them but lost them. How did that come about?

It is self-evident that their delay of coming back is due to those favorable working and living conditions which are essential to research work. Sophisticated equipment makes it easier for one to gain academic achievements. Our competent scientists abroad are offered higher rewards and greater opportunities which contribute to their success in career.

It seems that it isn’t impossible to solve the problem and attract the scientists and the like back home so long as great importance is attached to the intellectual’s deserving treatment and effective measures are taken to provide them with excellent pay and agreeable conditions.

My View on Brain Drain

The prevalence of brain drain has been a big problem in our society. Almost every day in newspapers carry articles pertaining to brain drain . Although measures have been implemented to deal with this problem, it still remains a serious threat.

A multitude of factors, both individual and social contribute to brain drain. For one thing, a large of scientists and technicians have swarmed into developed countries for favorable living and working conditions which are essential to research and work. Sophisticated equipment also makes it easier to gain academia achievement. For another, a great many top universities in developed countries offer higher rewards and greater opportunities which contribute to their success in career.

There are several ways to address this problem. Rules and regulations should be implemented to control. At the same time, people with outstanding academic perfoming should be educated to gain their willness of coming back. With tough laws and an educated public, brain drain will become a thing of the past.

[讲义] 15.A +{Number\multitude}+ of factors, both + {physical and psychological\academic and professional\individual and social} + {affect\influence\contribute to\both promote},„.

2002年6月真题范文:

Topic: Student Use of Computers (at least150 words)

Average number of hours a student spends on the computer per week

As is shown by the bar graph, the average number of hours a student in a certain university spends on the computer per week increased dramatically over the period from 1990 to 2000. In 1990, it was less than two hours. And in 1995, it hit four hours. And in 2000, the number soared to nearly twenty hours, which is over ten times than that of 1990.

第一段还有一种写法:

In 1990, the number was less than 2 hours, while the figure hit 4 hours(或者这样写:while in 1995, )as compared with that of 1990, it had almost doubled. And what impress us most is that the figure soared to „„, which„„

Obviously computers are becoming increasingly popular for males and for females. A multitude of factors could account for the rise. In the first place, computers facilitate us in more aspects of life. Also, the rapid development of the internet enlarges our demands for using computers. We can easily contact friends in remote places through the internet. In the second place, the prices of computers are getting lower and lower, which enable more students to purchase them.

However, there still exist some problems, such as, poor quality, out-of-date designs and so on. And how to balance the time between using computers an studying is also a serious problem. Anyhow, we will benefit a lot from computers as long as we use them properly.

私人信件(Personal Letters);公文信函(Business Letters)

2001.6

Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a letter.

Suppose you are Zhang Ying. Write a letter to Xiao Wang, a schoolmate of yours who is going to visit you during the week-long holiday. You should write at least 120 words according to the suggestions given below in Chinese.

1. 表示欢迎

2. 提出过度假安排的建议

3. 提醒应注意的事项

A Letter to a Schoolmate

June 23,2001

Dear Xiao Wang

2002.1

Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic:

A Letter to the University President about the Canteen Service on Campus. You should write at least 120 words, and base your composition on the outline given in Chinese below:

假设你是李明,请你就本校食堂的状况给校长写一封信,内容应涉及食堂的饭菜质量、价格、环境、服务等,可以是表扬,可以是批评建议,也可以兼而有之。

January 12th, 2002

Dear Mr. President,

Li Ming

信内格式

日期Date (Aug 5, 2003)

称谓Solution (Dear Sir or Madam\To whom it may concern),

Body 部分顶格写,段落之间要空格。

署名Sincerely Yours,

Li Ming

书信题写作五点基本结构

开门见山说意图

咨询建议一二三

不同内容可分段

感谢客气不可少

期盼回信成老套

(一)开 头 段:

1、告知对方你的身份(假如对方不认识你)

Dear Sir/Mr. Prometheus,

I was a student at your college, enrolled in Philosophy Department.

/ I am a … at your …

/ I am a … at your college, enrolled in the … course.

/ My name is …, I am ….

2、问候收信人(假如他/她是你的朋友)

Dear Prometheus,

Hello/Hi. How are you? / I hope everything is fine. / How are things going with you?

/ How are you getting on in……?

3、解释写信的原因

(1)致谢:

I deeply appreciate your courtesy and I hope to reciprocate your favor when the opportunity arises.

/ I am greatly indebted to you for (the double) you have gone to on my behalf. / Thank you for your letter about studying in Canada.

/ I am writing to you to express my heartfelt gratitude.

/ I am writing to tell you how grateful I am for…….

/ I would like to thank you most sincerely for…….

(2)抱怨:

I am writing to complain about the poor service at your dining-room.

/ I am writing to express my dissatisfaction with/at …

/ I wish to make a complaint about…….

/ I am writing to draw your attention to…….

/ I am afraid I have got a complaint about…….

(3) 致歉:

I would be grateful if you would be so kind as to provide me with certain essential information regarding the following aspects.

/ I am writing to you because I am unable to…….

/ I am terribly sorry that…….

/ I would like to express my apologies for not being able to…….

(4)询问:

I would like to obtain/request/seek/inquire about some information about… / I am writing to ask if you can do me a favor.

/ I would like some detailed information on/about……

(二) 结 尾 段:

1、发出请求

(1) Please give this matter your immediate attention.

(2)I would very much appreciate it if„„as soon as possible.

(3)Please render me some valuable advice which is conducive to my final decision.

2、提供帮助

(1)I hope these „„will be helpful, and please feel free to contact me for more information.

(2)„„will be taking over responsibility for you and if you should need any assistance, she/he will be pleased to help you.

3、再次表示歉意或感激

(1)Thank you for your kind assistance.

(2)Please accept my heartfelt thanks and deepest gratitude, now and always.

(3)I am sorry that I cannot„„, and trust that you will understand.

(4)In addition, let me apologize for any inconvenience I may have caused.

(5)I shall feel obliged by a reply at your earliest convenience.

(6)Once again, I am sorry for any inconvenience caused.

4、期盼回信

(1)I look forward to your prompt response.

(2)Looking forward to a prompt reply.

(3)I expect to hear from you very soon.

(4)I hope to receive your reply shortly.

(5)I am already eagerly awaiting your reply to this first letter.

2001年6月真题范文:

Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a letter.

Suppose you are Zhang Ying. Write a letter to Xiao Wang, a schoolmate of yours who is going to visit you during the week-long holiday. You should write at least 120 words according to the suggestions given below in Chinese.

1. 表示欢迎

2. 提出过度假安排的建议

3. 提醒应注意的事项

Dear Xiao Wang,

Is it really true? Are you coming to visit me for the upcoming holiday? We have not seen each other for such a long time and I have missed you.

Do you have any plans for what you would like to do? Since you are not familiar with where I live, I can make some recommendations. There are many scenic spots in the suburbs. When you first get here, we could plan a camping trip with some of my classmates. We can also visit the museums which are very interesting. And, we can go shopping! The shopping malls downtown are large and many have discount promotions during the holidays.

What do you think of my recommendations? I should tell you that the weather here is much colder so you should bring a warm overcoat. Please also take care of your belonging during your travel here as there has been much theft reported.

I am looking forward to your visit.

My best wishes.

Yours,

Zhang Ying

2002年1月真题范文:

Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic: A Letter to the University President about the Canteen Service on Campus You should write at least 120 words, and base your composition on the outline given in Chinese below:

假设你是李明,请你就本校食堂的状况给校长写一封信,内容应涉及食堂的饭菜质量、价格、环境、服务等,可以是表扬,可以是批评建议,也可以兼而有之。

January 12th,2002

Dear Mr. President,

I’m very lucky to attend this world -famous university, but I’m afraid I’m not con tent with the canteen service on campus.

Firstly, the quality of the dishes should be improved. Undoubtedly, there are a lot of delicious dishes, but all the year, they are the same. More and more students are complaining about eating the same food each day. So I think the most urgent problem is variety.

Secondly, the price is a bit too high. Many of us hope that the canteen can provide us with not only delicious but also cheaper food.

Finally, the environment is so noisy that we can’t enjoy our meals in good mood. I suggest that there be some soft music to help us relax.

Those presented suggestions are not just of my own, but also of many other students. We hope our respectable president will pay attention to your suggestions.

By the way, the canteen workers are very patient and always smiling. So I think if our university offers them better conditions, they will offer us better service.

Best wishes,

Yours sincerely,

Li Ming

综 合 改 错(Errors Correction):

一、语法错误

二、词汇错误

三、逻辑错误

四、多词少词

Example:Television is rapidly becoming the literature

of our periods. Many of the arguments 1.time/times/age having used for the study for literature as a 2. /

school subject are valid for ∧ study of television. 3. the

综 合 改 错(Errors Correction):

一、 语法错误

1、平行结构(not only...but also\both...and\either...or\and)

1) A professor’s salary is higher than a secretary.[secretary’s]

2) One of these is informative, interesting, and is easy to understand.[去掉]

3) Defining a problem is easier than to provide a solution.[providing]

2、连词错误

1) Candle will later be replaced by lamp, that could burn longer and lighter. [which]

2) The children attended a small elementary school (often of just one room) to that they had to walk every day, possibly for a few miles. [which,that 前只能有except 和in 。except that除此以外;in that因为,体现在]

3) It will be interesting to discover how many young people go to universities without any idea of that they are going to do afterward. [what,what 相当于the thing that]

4) It appears that we all find company in sound, if we demand a little quiet from time to time. [but或yet]

5) They are likely to travel more and to want more education. Nevertheless, many more jobs are available in these services. [Therefore或So]

3、分词错误

1) Police’s records show a surprised link between changes in the seasons and crime patterns.

[surprising]

2) Deciding how much discomfort and risk we are preparing to put up with in the name of better health is a high personal matter, not a decision we should remain to doctors alone.

3) Even the quiet of our careful protected wilderness areas can be invaded at any moment by a passed jet. [passing]

4) So a sportsman’s individual way of walking with raised shoulders is imitated by an admired fan.

[admiring]

4、指代错误

1) A break in their employment, or a decision to work part time, will slow its raises and promotions-because it would for men. [their]

2) Clearly some risks worth taking, especially when the rewards are high: a man surrounded by flames and smoke generally considers that jumping out of a second-floor window is an acceptable risk to save its life. [his]

3) The modern light-house also identifies it in a code known to all ships. [itself]

5、形容词、副词(略)

6、谓语错误(主谓一致、时态、语态)

1) Business today whether it is running a little gas-station or a big factory take good management.[takes]

2) Advances in technology has also changed people’s lives.

3) But if 98 percent of us doesn’t need to work, what are we going to do with ourselves?

[don’t]

4) Whether women who have started a career will attain pay equality with men rest on at least two factors. [rests]

5) In some places all the trees have cut down. [have been]

二、词汇错误(搭配错误、用词错误)

三、逻辑错误(肯定否定乱用)

1) Blood pressure drugs definitely help some people live after a heart attack, but these same drugs may be both necessary and harmful for those with only mild blood pressure problems. [unnecessary]

2) In every case, the influential person may consciously notice the imitation but he will feel comfortable in its presence. [unconsciously] 四、多词少词(介词、冠词、形式宾语)

1) When two Americans meet for first time, it is normal for them to call each other by their given name immediately. [the first]

2)In fact, until recently seawater has almost be considered to be useless and no value. [of no] Passage 2 Until the very latest moment of his existence, man

has been bound to the planet on which be originated and

developed. Now he had the capability to leave that planet 1. has and move out into the universe to those worlds which he

had known previously only directly. Men have explored 2. indirectly parts of the moon. put spaceships in orbit around another

planet and possibly within the decade will land into anoth- 3. on er planet and explore it. Can we be too bold as to sug- 4. so gest that we may be able to colonize other planet 5. planets within the not-too-distant future? Some have advocat- ed such a procedure as a solution to the population problem: ship the excess people off to the moon. But

we must keep in head the billions of dollars we might 6. mind spend in carrying out the project. To maintain the earth's population at its present level, we would

have to blast off into space 7,500 people every hour of every day of the year.

Why are we spending so little money on space 7. much

exploration? Consider the great need for improving 8. Considering many aspects of the global environment, one is surely justified in his concern for the money and resources

that they are poured into the space exploration ef- 9. 去掉 forts. But perhaps we should look at both sides of the

coin before arriving hasty conclusions. 10. arriving at/reaching Passage 3

Most people work to earn a living and they Produce goods and services. Goods are either agricultural (like maize) or manufactured (like

cars). Services are such things like education, 1. as medicine, and commerce. These people provide 2. Some goods; some provide services. Other people provide

both goods or services. For example, in the same 3. and garage a man may buy a car or some service which helps him maintain his car.

The work people do is called as economic 4. 去掉 activity. All economic activities taken together make

up the economic system of town, a city, a country,

or the world. Such economic system is the sum-total 5. 之前加an of what people do and what they want. The work

people do either provides what they need or provides

the money with that they can buy essential 6. which commodities. Of course, most people hope to have

enough money to buy commodities and services which

are essential but which provide some particular

7. nonessential personal satisfaction, such as toys for children, visits

8. 之后加to the cinema, and books.

The science of economist is basis upon the facts

9. based of our everyday lives. Economists study our everyday

lives and the general life of our communities in order

to understand the whole economic system of which we

are a part. They try to describe the facts of the

economy in which we live, and to explain how it

works. The economist methods should of course be

10. economist’s strictly objective and scientific.

Passage 4

British people don’t drink as many tea as they

1. much used to, but Great Britain still takes almost twenty-

five per cent of all world exports of the commodity.

The world largest producers of tea are India, China

2. world’s and the Sri Lanka.

3. 去掉 The quantity of tea is affected by the climate,

4. quality by the latitude at which it is grown and also by

that part of the tea bush is plucked. In fact, as

5. which Dominic Beddard, a tea taster, tells us, favour can

6. flavour even depend on which day the leaf is plucked:

”There are very considerable differences between teas

from the same estate made on different day,” he says.

7. days Processing tea is a complicated procedure. After

the green leaf has been plucked, it is processed in a

factory. Quickly and carefully, the tea is reduced to

8. slowly a small brittle particle, which is then dried and looks

like the tea you see in a packet. The tea companies

then rely on tasters as Donimic to value the tea. This

9. 之前加such has to be done on a day-to-day basis because of

fluctuations in quality. Having to taste up to six

hundred cups of tea a day certainly causes Dominic’s

10. makes job an unusual one!

Passage 5

Parents can be supportive of suspicions. They

can be helpful to the teacher, or are in need of help 1. be themselves. Sometimes, I think parents are too hard

to their children. I have seen many parents of this 2. on kind. I often have the problem of parents coming in

and telling me what they really treat their kids. They 3. how tell me that they usually stand over their kinds when

they do their homework. They check their work and

make big fuss over the grades. They criticize the kids 4. 之前加“a ” over everything having to do with school. My

response usually is: ”well, you know, he is really a

good kid. He is fine in my class. Maybe you should

not be too strict with them.” 5. him We want parents to realize the fact that teachers

are professors at working with children. They have 6. professional observed many children and many parents. Because

of this, and because of their specialized training,

teachers can be realistic about children. Teachers

know whether parents want their children to do well 7. that and to behave well. But teachers know less what 8. better children should be able to do at different ages and

stages. They don’t expect the 8-year-olds to do the

work that can only be done by the 12-year-olds.

Parents, in the contrary, often expect their children 9. on to do what is usually beyond their age and ability.

Obviously, this may make great harm to the 10. do children’s development.

Passage 6

Thus you experience success as you complete

each chapter. While you have completed the overall 5. have not

goal, you know you have progressed toward it.

Passage 7

although the tremendous amounts of money, time 3. despite

and energy giving over to oral health.

Critics, on the other hand, slam the profession.

It can be conservatively estimated that at least

15 percent of United States dentists are

incompetent, honest, or both, says a former 10. dishonest

Passage 8

All these tokens of success are in a sense merely bribes

provided by another person. Therefore, they can be 10. However\But

effective and useful.

Passage 9

It is not just in academy that children are been pushed 4. being

too far and too fast. Some parents start their preschool

We need to abandon the false notions that we can

create exceptional children by early instruction and

such children are symbols of our competence as 8. 之前加“that ”

parents.

完型填空(cloze) :

做题七种武器

① 无关词排除

② 逻辑关系

③ 同现

④ 浮现

⑤ 关联

⑥ 时间线索

⑦ 总分结构对照分析

逻辑关系举例

Close Test 4

Manpower Inc., with 560,000 workers, is the world’s largest temporary employment agency. Every morning, its people 41 into the offices and factories of America, seeking a day’s work for a day’s pay. One day at a time. 42 industrial giants like General Motors and IBM struggle to survive 43 reducing the number of employees, Manpower, based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, is booming.

44 its economy continues to recover, the US is increasingly becoming a nation of part-timers and temporary workers. This “ 45 ” work force is the most important 46 in American business today, and it is 47 changing the relationship between people and their jobs. The phenomenon provides a way for companies to remain globally competitive 48 avoiding market cycles and the growing burdens 49 by employment rules, healthcare costs and pension plans. For workers it can mean an end to the security, benefits and sense of 50 that came from being a loyal employee.

41. [A] swarm [B] stride [C] separate [D] slip

42. [A] For [B] Because [C] As [D] Since

43. [A] from [B] in [C] on [D] by

44. [A] Even though [B] Now that [C] If only [D] Provided that

45. [A] durable [B] disposable [C] available [D] transferable

46. [A] approach [B] flow [C] fashion [D] trend

47. [A] instantly [B] reversely [C] fundamentally [D] sufficiently

48. [A] but [B] while [C] and [D] whereas

49. [A] imposed [B] restricted [C] illustrated [D] confined

50. [A] excitement [B] conviction [C] enthusiasm [D] importance

同现举例

Cloze Test 5

Until recently most historians spoke very critically of the Industrial Revolution. They 41 that in the long run industrialization greatly raised the standard of living for the 42 man. But they insisted that its 43 results during the period from 1750 to 1850 were widespread poverty and misery for the 44 of the English population. 45 contrast, they saw in the preceding hundred years from 1650 to1750, when England was still a 46 agricultural country, a period of great abundance and prosperity.

The view, 47 , is generally thought to be wrong. Specialists 48 history and economics, have 49 two things: that the period from 1650 to 1750 was 50 by great poverty, and that industrialization certainly did not worsen and may have actually improved the conditions for the majority of the populace.

41. [A] admitted [B] believed [C] claimed [D] predicted

42. [A] plain [B] average [C] mean [D] normal

43. [A] momentary [B] prompt [C] instant [D] immediate

44. [A] bulk [B] host [C] gross [D] magnitude

45. [A] On [B] With [C] For [D] By

46. [A] broadly [B] thoroughly [C] generally [D] completely

47. [A] however [B] meanwhile [C] therefore [D] moreover

48. [A] at [B] in [C] about [D] for

49. [A] manifested [B] approved [C] shown [D] speculated

50. [A] noted [B] impressed [C] labeled [D] marked

同现举例

Cloze Test 3

Sleep is divided into periods of so-called REM sleep, characterized by rapid eye movements and dreaming, and longer periods of non-REM sleep. 41 kind of sleep is at all well-understood, but REM sleep is 42 to serve some restorative function of the brain. The purpose of non-REM sleep is even more 43 . The new experiments, such as these 44 for the first time at a recent meeting of the Society for Sleep Research in Minneapolis, suggest fascinating explanations 45 of non-REM sleep.

For example, it has long been known that total sleep 46 is 100 percent fatal to rats, yet, 47 examination of the dead bodies, the animals look completely normal. A research has now 48 the mystery of why the animals die. The rats 49 bacterial infections of the blood, 50 their immune systems-the self-protecting mechanism against diseases-had crashed.

41. [A] Either [B] Neither [C] Each [D] Any

42. [A] intended [B] required [C] assumed [D] inferred

43. [A] subtle [B] obvious [C] mysterious [D] doubtful

44. [A] maintained [B] described [C] settled [D] afforded

45. [A] in the light [B] by virtue [C] with the exception [D] for the purpose

46. [A] reduction [B] destruction [C] deprivation [D] restriction

47. [A] upon [B] by [C] through [D] with

48. [A] paid attention to [B] caught sight of [C] laid emphasis on [D] cast light on

49. [A] develop [B] produce [C] stimulate [D] induce

50. [A] if [B] as if [C] only if [D] if only

Cloze Test 5

Until recently most historians spoke very critically of the Industrial Revolution. They 41 that in the long run industrialization greatly raised the standard of living for the 42 man. But they insisted that its 43 results during the period from 1750 to 1850 were widespread poverty and misery for the 44 of the English population. 45 contrast, they saw in the preceding hundred years from 1650 to1750, when England was still a 46 agricultural country, a period of great abundance and prosperity.

The view, 47 , is generally thought to be wrong. Specialists 48 history and economics, have 49 two things: that the period from 1650 to 1750 was 50 by great poverty, and that industrialization certainly did not worsen and may have actually improved the conditions for the majority of the populace.

41. [A] admitted [B] believed [C] claimed [D] predicted

42. [A] plain [B] average [C] mean [D] normal

43. [A] momentary [B] prompt [C] instant [D] immediate

44. [A] bulk [B] host [C] gross [D] magnitude

45. [A] On [B] With [C] For [D] By

46. [A] broadly [B] thoroughly [C] generally [D] completely

47. [A] however [B] meanwhile [C] therefore [D] moreover

48. [A] at [B] in [C] about [D] for

49. [A] manifested [B] approved [C] shown [D] speculated

50. [A] noted [B] impressed [C] labeled [D] marked

关联举例

Cloze Test 6

Industrial safety does not just happen. Companies 41 low accident rates plan their safety programs, work hard to organize them, and continue working to keep them 42 and active. When the work is well done, a 43 of accident-free operations is established 44 time lost due to injuries is kept at a minimum.

Successful safety programs may 45 greatly in the emphasis placed on certain aspects of the program. Some place great emphasis on mechanical guarding. Others stress safe work practices by 46 rules or regulation. 47 others depend on an emotional appeal to the worker. But, there are certain basic ideas that must be used in every program if maximum results are to be obtained. There can be no question about the value of a safety program. From a financial standpoint alone, safe 48 . The fewer the injury 49 , the better the workman’s insurance rate. This may mean the difference between operating at 50 or at a loss.

41. [A] at [B] in [C] on [D] with

42. [A] alive [B] vivid [C] mobile [D] diverse

43. [A] regulation [B] climate [C] circumstance [D] requirement

44. [A] where [B] how [C] what [D] unless

45. [A] alter [B] differ [C] shift [D] distinguish

46. [A] constituting [B] aggravating [C] observing [D] justifying

47. [A] Some [B] Many [C] Even [D] Still

48. [A] comes off [B] turns up [C] pays off [D] holds up

49. [A] claims [B] reports [C] declarations[D] proclamations

50. [A] an advantage [B] a benefit [C] an interest [D] a profit

时间线索举例

Cloze Test 5

Until recently most historians spoke very critically of the Industrial Revolution. They 41 that in the long run industrialization greatly raised the standard of living for the 42 man. But they insisted that its 43 results during the period from 1750 to 1850 were widespread poverty and misery for the 44 of the English population. 45 contrast, they saw in the preceding hundred years from 1650 to1750, when England was still a 46 agricultural country, a period of great abundance and prosperity.

The view, 47 , is generally thought to be wrong. Specialists 48 history and economics, have 49 two things: that the period from 1650 to 1750 was 50 by great poverty, and that industrialization certainly did not worsen and may have actually improved the conditions for the majority of the populace.

41. [A] admitted [B] believed [C] claimed [D] predicted

42. [A] plain [B] average [C] mean [D] normal

43. [A] momentary [B] prompt [C] instant [D] immediate

44. [A] bulk [B] host [C] gross [D] magnitude

45. [A] On [B] With [C] For [D] By

46. [A] broadly [B] thoroughly [C] generally [D] completely

47. [A] however [B] meanwhile [C] therefore [D] moreover

48. [A] at [B] in [C] about [D] for

49. [A] manifested [B] approved [C] shown [D] speculated

50. [A] noted [B] impressed [C] labeled [D] marked

总分总结构举例

Cloze Test 3

Sleep is divided into periods of so-called REM sleep, characterized by rapid eye movements and dreaming, and longer periods of non-REM sleep. 41 kind of sleep is at all well-understood, but REM sleep is 42 to serve some restorative function of the brain. The purpose of non-REM sleep is even more 43 . The new experiments, such as these 44 for the first time at a recent meeting of the Society for Sleep Research in Minneapolis, suggest fascinating explanations 45 of non-REM sleep.

For example, it has long been known that total sleep 46 is 100 percent fatal to rats, yet, 47 examination of the dead bodies, the animals look completely normal. A research has now 48 the mystery of why the animals die. The rats 49 bacterial infections of the blood,

50 their immune systems-the self-protecting mechanism against diseases-had crashed.

41. [A] Either [B] Neither [C] Each [D] Any

42. [A] intended [B] required [C] assumed [D] inferred

43. [A] subtle [B] obvious [C] mysterious [D] doubtful

44. [A] maintained [B] described [C] settled [D] afforded

45. [A] in the light [B] by virtue [C] with the exception [D] for the purpose

46. [A] reduction [B] destruction [C] deprivation [D] restriction

47. [A] upon [B] by [C] through [D] with

48. [A] paid attention to [B] caught sight of [C] laid emphasis on [D] cast light on

49. [A] develop [B] produce [C] stimulate [D] induce

50. [A] if [B] as if [C] only if [D] if only

Cloze Test 5

Until recently most historians spoke very critically of the Industrial Revolution. They 41 that in the long run industrialization greatly raised the standard of living for the 42 man. But they insisted that its 43 results during the period from 1750 to 1850 were widespread poverty and misery for the 44 of the English population. 45 contrast, they saw in the preceding hundred years from 1650 to1750, when England was still a 46 agricultural country, a period of great abundance and prosperity.

The view, 47 , is generally thought to be wrong. Specialists 48 history and economics, have 49 two things: that the period from 1650 to 1750 was 50 by great poverty, and that industrialization certainly did not worsen and may have actually improved the conditions for the majority of the populace.

41. [A] admitted [B] believed [C] claimed [D] predicted

42. [A] plain [B] average [C] mean [D] normal

43. [A] momentary [B] prompt [C] instant [D] immediate

44. [A] bulk [B] host [C] gross [D] magnitude

45. [A] On [B] With [C] For [D] By

46. [A] broadly [B] thoroughly [C] generally [D] completely

47. [A] however [B] meanwhile [C] therefore [D] moreover

48. [A] at [B] in [C] about [D] for

49. [A] manifested [B] approved [C] shown [D] speculated

50. [A] noted [B] impressed [C] labeled [D] marked