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2. Do you believe that humans can conquer nature completely? Give reasons for your judgement.

3. Nowadays many people are in favor of a return to nature. Think of some reasons why nature holds a great attraction for people.



4. People cannot live apart from nature; that is the first principle of the conservationists. And yet, people can not live in a nature without changing it. But this is true of all creatures: they depend upon nature, and they change it. What we call nature is, in a sense, the sum of the changes made by all the various creatures and nature forces in their intricate actions and influences upon each other and upon their places. Because of the woodpeckers, nature is different from what it would be without them. It is different also because of the borers and ants that live in tree trunks, and because of the bacteria that live in the soil under the trees. The making of these differences is the making of the world.


6. In nature we know that wild creatures sometimes exhaust their vital sources and suffer the natural remedy: drastic population reductions. If lynxes eat too many snowshoe rabbits---which they are said to do repeatedly---then the lynxes starve down to the carrying capacity of their habitat. It is the carrying capacity of the lynx’s habitat, not the carrying capacity of the lynx’s stomach, that determines the prosperity of lynxes. Similarly, if humans use up too much soil---which they have often done and are doing---then they will starve down to the carrying capacity of their habitat. This is nature’s “indifferent” justice. As Spenser saw in the sixteenth century, and as we must learn to see now, there is no appeal from this justice. In the future, the Lord may forgive our wrongs against nature, but on earth, so far as we know , He does not

overturn her decisions.


7. One of the differences between humans and lynxes is that humans can see that the principle of balance operates between lynxes and snowshoe rabbits, as between humans and topsoil another difference, we hope, is that humans have the sense to act on their understanding. We can see, too, that a stable balance is preferable to a balance that tilts back and forth like a seesaw, dumping a surplus of creatures alternately from either end. To say this is to renew the question of whether or not the human relationship with nature is necessarily an adversary relationship, and it is to suggest that the answer is not simple.


8. But in dealing with this question and in trying to do justice to the presumed complexity of the answer, we are up against an American convention of simple opposition to nature that is deeply established both in our minds and in our ways. We have opposed the primeval forests of the East and the primeval prairies and deserts of the West, we have opposed man-eating beasts and crop-eating insects, sheep-eating wolves and chicken-eating hawks. In our lawns and gardens and fields, we oppose what we call weeds. And yet more and more of us are beginning to see that this opposition is ultimately destructive even of ourselves, that it does not explain many things that need explaining---in short, that it is untrue.



10. The world may not yet be a village, but surely out sense of neighborhood must expand. When drought ravages the Sahara, when war in Indo-China creates refugees, neither our compassion nor our analytic intelligence can be bounded by a dotted line on a political map. We are beginning to understand that hunger and human rights affect alliances as decisively as weapons and treaties. Dwarfing all other concerns, the mushroom cloud hangs ominously over our world consciousness. These realities and the obligations they impose must be understood by every student.


11. But during our study we found on campus a disturbing lack of knowledge and even at times a climate of indifference about our world. Refugees flow from one country to another, but woo few students can point to these great migrations on a map or talk about the famines, wars, or poverty that caused them. Philosophers, statesmen, inventors, and artists from around the world enrich our lives, but such individuals and their contributions are largely unknown or unremembered.


15. Throughout our study we were impressed that what todays’s college is teaching most successfully is competence---competence in meeting schedules, in gathering information, in responding well on tests, in mastering the details of a special field. Today the capacity to deal successfully with discrete problems is highly prized. And when we asked students about their education, they almost without exception, spoke about the credits they had earned or the courses they still needed to complete.


17. Students come to campus at a time of high expectancy. And yet, all too often they become enmeshed in routines that are deadening and distracting. As we talked with teachers and students, we often had the uncomfortable feeling that the most vital issues of life---the nature of society, the roots of social injustice, indeed the very prospects for human survival---are the ones with which the undergraduate college is least equipped to deal.


19. But in the end, students must be inspired by a larger vision, using the knowledge they have acquired to discover pattern, form values, and advance the common good. The undergraduate experience at its best will move the student from competence to commitment.


22. This imperative does not replace the need for rigorous study in the disciplines, but neither must specialization become an excuse to suspend judgment or diminish the search for purposeful life objectives.


注:作文第一题忘了记下来,翻译的中文部分是google 翻译翻的,很不准确,我自己懒得翻了。