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作文:

1.

2. Do you believe that humans can conquer nature completely? Give reasons for your judgement.

3. Nowadays many people are in favor of a return to nature. Think of some reasons why nature holds a great attraction for people.

翻译:

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4. People cannot live apart from nature; that is the first principle of the conservationists. And yet, people can not live in a nature without changing it. But this is true of all creatures: they depend upon nature, and they change it. What we call nature is, in a sense, the sum of the changes made by all the various creatures and nature forces in their intricate actions and influences upon each other and upon their places. Because of the woodpeckers, nature is different from what it would be without them. It is different also because of the borers and ants that live in tree trunks, and because of the bacteria that live in the soil under the trees. The making of these differences is the making of the world.

4。人不能分开居住,从自然保育这是第一个原则。然而,人不能生活在没有改变它的性质。但是,这是真实的,所有的动物:它们依赖于自然,他们也改变它。我们所说的性质,从某种意义上说,是的总和的变化所作出的各种动物和自然的力量,在其复杂的行动和影响力后,对方在他们的地方。由于啄木鸟的,性质是不同的,从没有他们会是什么感觉。这是不同的,也因为蛀虫和蚂蚁生活在树干上,因为在土壤中的细菌,生活在树底下。这些差异是世界作出的决策。

6. In nature we know that wild creatures sometimes exhaust their vital sources and suffer the natural remedy: drastic population reductions. If lynxes eat too many snowshoe rabbits---which they are said to do repeatedly---then the lynxes starve down to the carrying capacity of their habitat. It is the carrying capacity of the lynx’s habitat, not the carrying capacity of the lynx’s stomach, that determines the prosperity of lynxes. Similarly, if humans use up too much soil---which they have often done and are doing---then they will starve down to the carrying capacity of their habitat. This is nature’s “indifferent” justice. As Spenser saw in the sixteenth century, and as we must learn to see now, there is no appeal from this justice. In the future, the Lord may forgive our wrongs against nature, but on earth, so far as we know , He does not

overturn her decisions.

6。我们知道,在自然界中野生动物,有时会耗尽他们的重要来源和遭受自然的补救措施:人口急剧减少。如果猞猁吃了太多的雪鞋兔---他们说,反复地做---猞猁饿死的载重它们的栖息地。这是山猫的栖息地,而不是载重,决定了繁荣的猞猁猞猁的肚子,载重的。同样,如果人类使用太多的土壤---他们经常做的和正在做的事情---那么他们就会挨饿的承载能力,它们的栖息地。这是大自然的“无所谓”的正义。由于斯宾塞在16世纪看到的,因为我们必须学习,看看现在,有没有从这个正义的呼吁。在未来,主会原谅我们的过错,违背自然规律,但在地球上,据我们所知,他不推翻她的决定。

7. One of the differences between humans and lynxes is that humans can see that the principle of balance operates between lynxes and snowshoe rabbits, as between humans and topsoil another difference, we hope, is that humans have the sense to act on their understanding. We can see, too, that a stable balance is preferable to a balance that tilts back and forth like a seesaw, dumping a surplus of creatures alternately from either end. To say this is to renew the question of whether or not the human relationship with nature is necessarily an adversary relationship, and it is to suggest that the answer is not simple.

7。人类与猞猁之间的差异之一是,人类可以看到之间平衡的原则,猞猁和雪鞋兔,人与表土的另一个区别,我们希望的是,人类有意识,以自己的理解。我们可以看到,一个稳定的平衡,这是最好的平衡,像跷跷板一样来回倾斜,倾倒盈余从任何一端的生物交替。如果说,这是更新的问题,而不是人与自然的关系是否必然是对手的关系,这是建议,答案并不简单。

8. But in dealing with this question and in trying to do justice to the presumed complexity of the answer, we are up against an American convention of simple opposition to nature that is deeply established both in our minds and in our ways. We have opposed the primeval forests of the East and the primeval prairies and deserts of the West, we have opposed man-eating beasts and crop-eating insects, sheep-eating wolves and chicken-eating hawks. In our lawns and gardens and fields, we oppose what we call weeds. And yet more and more of us are beginning to see that this opposition is ultimately destructive even of ourselves, that it does not explain many things that need explaining---in short, that it is untrue.

8。但是,在处理这个问题,并在努力做正义的答案被假定的复杂性,我们是反对美国的惯例,简单的反对自然是深深建立在我们的思想和我们的方式。我们反对东方的原始森林和原始草原和沙漠西,我们反对吃人的野兽和农作物为食的昆虫,羊吃狼,鸡吃鹰派。在我们的草坪和花园和田野,我们反对的,就是我们所说的杂草。然而,越来越多的我们开始看到这种反对是最终的破坏性甚至是我们自己,它并不能解释很多事情需要说明的---总之,这是不真实的。

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10. The world may not yet be a village, but surely out sense of neighborhood must expand. When drought ravages the Sahara, when war in Indo-China creates refugees, neither our compassion nor our analytic intelligence can be bounded by a dotted line on a political map. We are beginning to understand that hunger and human rights affect alliances as decisively as weapons and treaties. Dwarfing all other concerns, the mushroom cloud hangs ominously over our world consciousness. These realities and the obligations they impose must be understood by every student.

10。世界上可能还没有一个小村庄,但肯定出和睦的邻里必须扩大。当干旱肆虐的撒哈拉大沙漠,中国在印度支那战争时创建难民,无论是我们的同情,也没有我们的分析智能界的政治地图上的虚线。我们开始认识到,饥饿和人权的影响联盟果断武器和条约。矮化所有其他的问题,的蘑菇云挂不祥的在我们的世界意识。这些现实和他们强加的义务,必须了解每一个学生。

11. But during our study we found on campus a disturbing lack of knowledge and even at times a climate of indifference about our world. Refugees flow from one country to another, but woo few students can point to these great migrations on a map or talk about the famines, wars, or poverty that caused them. Philosophers, statesmen, inventors, and artists from around the world enrich our lives, but such individuals and their contributions are largely unknown or unremembered.

11。但在我们的研究中,我们发现在校园内一个令人不安的认识不足,甚至在我们的世界冷漠的气氛。难民流从一个国家到另一个,但吴宇森少数学生能在地图上指出这些伟大的迁移,饥荒,战争,贫困,使他们谈谈。来自世界各地的哲学家,政治家,发明家和艺术家,丰富我们的生活,但这些个人和他们的贡献在很大程度上是未知的或忘却。

15. Throughout our study we were impressed that what todays’s college is teaching most successfully is competence---competence in meeting schedules, in gathering information, in responding well on tests, in mastering the details of a special field. Today the capacity to deal successfully with discrete problems is highly prized. And when we asked students about their education, they almost without exception, spoke about the credits they had earned or the courses they still needed to complete.

15。纵观我们的研究中,我们留下了深刻的印象,今天的大学教学最成功的能力---在会议日程的能力,收集信息,反应良好的测试,在掌握了细节的一个特殊领域。今天,成功地解决离散问题的能力是非常珍贵的。当我们要求学生对他们的教育,他们几乎无一例外地谈到他们赢得了他们仍然需要完成的课程的学分。

17. Students come to campus at a time of high expectancy. And yet, all too often they become enmeshed in routines that are deadening and distracting. As we talked with teachers and students, we often had the uncomfortable feeling that the most vital issues of life---the nature of society, the roots of social injustice, indeed the very prospects for human survival---are the ones with which the undergraduate college is least equipped to deal.

17。学生来学校一次的高预期。然而,他们往往会沉浸在例程,隔音和分散。当我们谈到教师和学生,我们经常有不舒服的感觉的生活---社会的性质的最重要的问题,社会不公的根源,确实是非常对人类的生存前景---是那些大学本科最不具备处理。

19. But in the end, students must be inspired by a larger vision, using the knowledge they have acquired to discover pattern, form values, and advance the common good. The undergraduate experience at its best will move the student from competence to commitment.

19。但最终,学生必须灵感来自于一个更大的视野,使用已获得的知识,他们发现的模式,形式和价值观,促进共同利益。在其最好的本科教育,将学生从竞争力的承诺。

22. This imperative does not replace the need for rigorous study in the disciplines, but neither must specialization become an excuse to suspend judgment or diminish the search for purposeful life objectives.

22。这必须不更换需要严谨的研究在学科,但也必须专业化的借口,暂停判断或减少搜索为目的的人生目标。

注:作文第一题忘了记下来,翻译的中文部分是google 翻译翻的,很不准确,我自己懒得翻了。