高考英语不同文体的写作
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高考英语不同文体的写作

书面表达旨在测试学生的英语书面表达能力。高考的书面表达是一种指导性写作。试题对写作的目的,对象,体裁及字数等都有明确的规定。提供给学生的材料形式为文字,图画或图表。试题要求学生根据所给的情景和要表达的意义,写出一篇 100 字左右的文章。高考中常见的文体为记叙文、说明文、议论文、应用文和图表作文等。

(一)记叙文:

记叙文是以叙述人物的经历或事物的发展变化过程为主的一种文体。它分为记人和记事两种。记叙文的几个要点为:

1. 时间、地点、人物、事件,这几个要素在写作时要交代清楚。

2. 人称:记叙文一般可以有第一人称和第三人称两种叙事方式:第一人称是作者以当事人的口吻,把文章中的事情以“我”

的所见所闻的方式来叙述,第三人称是写作者从旁观者的角度来叙述,反映事件中的不同人的感受和见解。

3. 记叙文的线索一般为时间,即按照事件的发展顺序来写。以可以按照地点的线索来写,即以地点的转移为顺序。

4. 重点突出,层次分明,详略得当。

5. 注意文章的完整性。

6. 所用的时态通常为一般过去时。

例: NMET 2004 辽宁卷

下面四幅图片描述的是星期天上午在中山公园里发生的一件事。请根据图片所提供的信息用英语为你校的“英语园地”写一篇文章。

注意:1. 短文必须包括所有图片的主要内容,短文的内容要连贯,完整。

2. 短文单词数 100左右。

3. 参考词汇:货摊 stand 抢夺 snatch 逮捕 arrest

写作步骤:

1. 审题:理解图意,将几幅图连成一个完整的故事。

2. 列出要点:

地点:公园的冰激凌货摊旁。

人物:一名年轻妇女,一个小偷和一个老人。

事件:年轻妇女的包被抢,人们追赶,老人用伞将其绊倒,警察逮捕抢劫者,妇女和人们感谢老人。

3. 将要点扩展成文,注意上下文的连接,用适当的连词,副词。

4. 通读一遍,改错。

Possible Version:

One Sunday morning, there were some people in Zhongshan Park. At a stand, a woman was buying an ice cream when a young man behind her snatched her handbag away. She shouted, “Stop the thief! He’s snatched my bag!” Hearing this, a few people began to run after him. There was an old man sitting quietly on a bench nearby. As the snatcher was running past him, the old man quickly picked up his umbrella and put it between the snatcher’s legs. The young man fell down on the ground hard. Soon two policemen came in a police car and arrested him. The woman thanked the old man, and the people around praised the old man for his cleverness.

(二)议论文:

在近几年的高考中,议论文的比重占得越来越多,议论文的出题形式可以多种多样,有看图写作、图表、表格、书信等各种类型,但文体实际上是议论文,而有时是夹叙的议论文。议论文的写作要点是:

1. 观点鲜明,文章一定有一个明确的中心论点。

2. 层次分明,一个中心论点通常有几个分论点支持,不同层次之间要分明,过渡清晰自然。

3. 最后一段一般要总结全文,得出一个符合逻辑的结论,突出中心思想。

4. 一般采用一般现在时。

5. 语言简洁有力,一般不采用口语。

例:2005年全国高考英语(福建卷)

目前,学校存在少数学生考试作弊现象。某英文杂志社拟对此现象向中学生征文,标题是“My opinion on Cheating in Examinations ”,请根据下列提示用英语写一篇征文稿。

内容要点如下:

1. 短文必须包括所有内容要点,可适当发挥;

2. 短文标题与开头已为你写好,不计入总词数;

3. 词数:100左右;

4. 参考词汇:作弊 cheat (v.)

写作思路:

1. 首先审题,确定要点——本文的中心论题是:My pinions on Cheating in Examinations ,所以首先要提出中心论题,点题。

2. 接下来从两方面来讨论这个问题,可以分做两段,现分析这种现象的产生原因, 然后很自然地过渡到自己的看法。在讲述自己看法时要有鲜明的观点及支持观点的论据。

3. 最后对自己的观点做简短的总结,点题。

Possible Version:

My opinions on Cheating in Examinations

It is known to us all that some students cheat in examinations at school.

As students, we often take examinations at school, but sometimes we have too many examinations which are too difficult for us. On the other hand, some of us are lazy and don’t work hard at their lessons. So when taking examinations, they sometimes cheat in order to get better results to please their parents and teachers.

In my opinions , it is wrong to cheat in examinations because it breaks the rules of schools. We students should be honest and try to get good results by studying hard instead of cheating in examinations. What’s more, we should improve our study methods and get well prepared for examinations.

In a word, it is wrong to cheat in examinations.

(三)说明文:

说明文是以简明的文字介绍事物的形状、性质、构造、变化、功用、特征等的文章。写好说明文的关键是抓住事物的特征,说明事物的顺序要有一定的逻辑性。

说明文常见的顺序有时间顺序、空间顺序、逻辑顺序等。

例:

NMET 2004 江苏

假设你是李晓华,住在江城。你的加拿大笔友Bob 来信谈到了你所居住的城市,并希望了解你家乡江城的情况。请你用英语写一封回信。回信必须包括下表中的内容:

1. 回信中不能使用“江城 ”以外的地名。

2. 词数:100左右。信的开头与结尾已为你写好,不计入词数。

3. 参考词汇:经济 economy n.

Dear Bob,

It’s very kind of you to write me and let me know about our beautiful city. Now I’d like to tell you something about my hometown Jiangcheng.

Yours,

Xiaohua

写作思路:

1. 首先确定这是一篇描述地方的说明文。

2. 确定写作要点:根据所给信息,大体可以分为三个部分——城市简介,可以按照地理位置、自然环境、城市面貌和变化发展这样的逻辑顺序写,接下来写你看到的问题,最后写你的一些看法和建议。

3. 各层次之间注意使用恰当的连词,让过渡自然,结构合理。比如: however, in my opinion 等。

Possible Version:

Dear Bob,

It’s very kind of you to write me and let me know about our beautiful city. Now I’d like to tell you something about my hometown Jiangcheng.

The city stands on the bank of the Changjiang river. It is a beautiful place for people to live in. Its economy has been developing rapidly in the past ten years. New factories, houses, and roads have been built. More schools and hospitals are available for its people. However, there are still some problems, such as water and air pollution and heavy traffic in rush hours. In my opinion, Jiangcheng should develop its economy scientifically. I would also think that the growth of its population should be brought under control so that we’ll have a better hometown in future.

Yours,

Xiaohua

(四)应用文:包括书信、通知、便条等。

(1)书信写作:在我们的日常生活中,我们经常给朋友、父母、亲戚等写信,这些信件都属于私人信件。私人书信是写给亲朋好友的,不仅是互通信息的工具,也是交流感情的渠道。书信写作是高考中经常出现的一种题型。写作时应注意以下要点:

1. 写好开头,提一提来信里谈到的各项事情,顺笔写来。

2. 一般先答复对方的问题,然后再谈自己想要说的话。

3. 结束信时要向对方表示友善或亲切的问候。

4. 语言要自然、平实、简洁。

Useful Expressions:

1. I’m very pleased to hear from you yesterday.

2. I’m sorry I’ve taken so long to answer your last letter.

3. We were all so pleased to hear you will be coming to visit us.

4. Look forward to hearing from you soon.

5. Please write back soon.

6. Do write to us when you have time.

7. We hope to hear from you soon.

8. Give my best wishes to the family.

例:

NMET 2005北京卷

美国中学生Jeff 将要来你所在的红星中学学习中文,经协商安排住在你家。假设你是李华,请给Jeff 写一封信,按照下图顺序介绍他来中国后的生活安排。

注意:1. 信的开头已为你写好。

2. 字数不少于60。

Dear Jeff,

I’m Li Hua from Beijing Hongxing School. I’m very happy to learn that you’re going to stay with my family while you’ re in Beijing.

写作要点:

1. 审清图意 信的内容包括以下几点:住宿、上学、就餐和课后活动。

2. 信可以分为三段来写,力求结构清晰,思路完整。

3. 注意语言亲切自然,避免使用过于书面的语言,比如过多的从句或过于华丽的词汇。

Possible Version:

Dear Jeff,

I’m Li Hua from Beijing Hongxing School . I’m very happy to learn that you’re going to stay with my family while you’re in Beijing.

While you are here, we’ll provide you with a room of your own with a bed, a desk, a couple of chairs and a TV. You’ll also have your own bathroom. Our school is quite close to our home, so we could go to school together by bike. At noon we’ll eat at the school dining hall. I’m sure you’ll like the delicious Chinese food there, and enjoy talking with friends over lunch. Classes in our school usually finish at 4:00 in the afternoon. You can then join other students in playing games or swimming. It will be a lot of fun.

If you have any questions or requests, please let me know. We’ll try our best to make your stay here in Beijing a pleasant experience.

Best wishes,

Li Hua

(2)通知的写作

通知是一种安排活动或布置工作时使用的文体,包括了口头通知和书面通知。口头通知是当面向有关人员口授有关活动的信息,而书面通知是以布告的形式把事情通知给有关人员。通知的要素是时间,地点,对象,事件具体内容,注意事项等。通知的语言应该是简洁明了,直截了当。还应该注意要有一定的逻辑顺序。

注意:

1)口头通知一般都会将下列词句放在开头

Ladies and gentlemen

Boys and girls

May I have your attention , please?

I have something important to tell you.

结尾时会以以下句子结束:That’s all. Thank you.

2)书面通知在正文之前的正中位置写Notice 字样,结尾要写明时间及发出通知的单位。

例:

广播通知:

你校学生会将为来访的美国朋友举办一个晚会,要在学校广播中宣布此事,并欢迎大家参加。为使美国朋友能听懂,请你用英语写一篇广播通知。

要点如下:

宗旨:欢迎来访的美国朋友

组织者:学生会

时间:7月13日(星期六)晚7:30

活动内容:音乐,跳舞,唱歌,游戏,交换小礼品(请包装好,签名并在包装外面写上几个祝愿词)

May I have your attention, please? I have an announcement to make. The Students’ Union is going to hold a party on Saturday evening, July 13, to welcome our friends from the United States. The party will be held in the roof garden of the Main Building. It will begin at 7:30 PM. There will be music, dancing, singing, games and exchange of gifts. You may bring along a small gift for this purpose. Remember to wrap it up, sign your name and write a few words of good wishes.

Don’t forget: 7:30, Saturday evening, roof garden, Main Building. It’s sure to be a lot of fun. Everybody is welcome.

(五).图表作文 图表分析作文就是将数据、图像所包含的信息,转化为表意的说明文字。图表分析作文通常比较复杂,学生不仅要弄清提示,还要看懂所给的图表和数据。由于这类试题提示内容少,信息点分散,审题时一定要领会作者的出题意图,弄清主题再动笔:1. 单纯描述解释图表信息,按图表所示内容如实表达,不加评论。2. 通过叙述图表(或图画) 中的内容和数字变化来分析原因,发表议论。

(一) 柱状图(BAR CHART)

人们日常生活中事物的变化情况通常可以用宽度相等的柱状图形来表示,柱状图的高度差别用来说明事物的动态发展趋势,同时要注意图例说明和坐标刻度所提示的信息。

例:你们班会的讨论主题是“上大学是高中生唯一的出路吗?”请你根据下面图表及汉语提示,写一篇短文,并阐述你的个人观点。

提示:1. 增长学识,提高素养,利于择业。

2. 成功的路不只一条。

3. 学费高,就业难。

要求:1. 词数:100~120左右。

2. 开头语已为你写好(不计入词数) 。

3. 参考词汇: tuition n.学费 qualities n.素养

【解题分析】

柱状图是高中英语课本中常见的图形,要求学生通过柱状图图中数据和提示内容写一短文,属于比较、对照类。也可根据提示写为议论文。通常我们采取三段式写法:

第一段:描述图表,得出结论。

第二段:紧扣主题,根据图表比较分析原因,论证结论。

第三段:发表议论,提出自己的看法。

【提炼要点】

分析柱状图数据信息。从图中可看出,黑色代表想上大学,占大多数,约60%;浅黑色代表无所谓,占约30%;白色代表不想上大学,占约10%。

One possible version

Is It The Only Way Out To Go To College?

We had a discussion about whether it is the only way out for senior students to go to college.Views vary from person to person.

The majority of us consider it very necessary to go to college.They think it can widen their knowledge and improve their qualities.Only in this way can they find better jobs after graduation.Very few students, that is about ten percent of the students, think it no use going university, because the tuition is too high for their family to afford.What's more, it's rather hard for college graduates to seek satisfactory jobs.Thirty percent of the students, however , believe “All roads lead to Rome.” Therefore it doesn't make any difference whether they go to college or not.

In my opinion, we can receive a better education at college so that we can serve our motherland.

【语言亮点】

①词汇。如:consider ,widen ,afford ,seek ,satisfactory 。

②句式。如:形式宾语:The majority of us consider it very necessary to go to college.

倒装:Only in this way can they find better jobs after graduation.

主语从句:it's rather hard for college graduates to seek satisfactory jobs.

谚语:All roads lead to Rome.

③过渡词。如:that is about ten percent of the students,what's more, however , in my opinion。

【技巧点拨】

1. 读懂柱状图坐标刻线及图例说明与文字,比较柱状高低和颜色表示内容及数据。

2. 学会看趋势、找规律,从整体看图表有何发展变化,找出特点、规律。

3. 引用图表包含信息,使你的文章“由图而发”,言之有据。

【常用句式】

1. As can be seen from the chart,... As is shown in the chart,...

2. The chart shows that about 60 percent of students want to go to college...

3. From the graph/data/results/information above, it can be seen/concluded/shown /estimated...

4.The graph shows the changes in the number of...over the period from...to...

5.Compared with...,the number of the students of...

实战演练

观察下列图表,请以“Changes in the Ownership of House”为主题,为校报写一篇短文。

注意:短文应包括以下内容:

1. 根据图示描述该市住房产权的变化。

2. 分析产生这些变化的原因。

3. 说明这些变化对个人和社会产生的影响。

要求:1. 首句已经为你写好。

2. 词数100左右。

One possible version

Ownership of Houses in a Big City in China

As can be seen from the chart, ownership of houses in a big city in China changed in the past ten years. In 1995, 75 percent of the houses were state-owned. Five years later , the rate of state-owned houses to private ones was 3 to 2. But from then on , the ownership of houses changed rapidly and so far 80 percent of houses have been private.

What caused the changes? There might have been two main reasons. First, from 1995 up to now, the people's living standards have been improving. Most of them can afford to buy the houses. Second, most people do not save a lot of money in the bank for their children as their parents did in the past. They want to have their own home and enjoy life.

Such changes have had a great effect on the development of society. It does good to both the citizens and the government. 真题体验

(2006湖北) 受某英文报的委托,你最近对高中生的英语阅读兴趣做了一次调查。请根据以下信息,用英语为该报写一篇100词左右的短文。短文的标题及首句已为你写好。

调查内容:在新闻、故事、科普、学习方法四种英文文章中,学生最喜欢哪一种

调查范围:湖北省的10所中学

调查对象:高中生

调查人数:1,000

调查方式:访谈

调查结果:(见下图)

One possible version

Reading Interests of Senior

Middle School Students

Recently , a survey has been done to find out the reading interests of senior middle school students. In this survey, one thousand senior middle school students from ten schools in Hubei Province were interviewed. They were asked which they liked reading most among the four categories of English articles, news , stories , popular science articles and articles about learning methods.

The survey shows that more than half of the students like to read news most. Twenty-six percent of the students say that English stories are their favorite. Only seven percent of the students are most interested in reading articles about learning methods. However, the number of students who enjoy reading popular science articles doubles that of those who prefer reading articles about learning

methods.

(二) 曲线图(LINE GRAPH)

曲线图常用来表示事物的变化趋势。常分为带时间参照和不带时间参照两种。曲线图的特点是信息集中,一目了然。

例:下面的曲线图是我国2006年不同月份汽车事故分布示意图,请以“The number of car accidents in 2006”为题写一篇文章。要求:

1. 描述不同月份汽车事故分布(distribution)及总趋势。

2. 描述汽车事故的可能原因和对策。

3. 参考词汇:peak 顶点,高峰。词数:100~120 。

【解题分析】

英语曲线图作文实际是一篇“解说词”,即通过曲线图提供的信息,分析图中数据,综合出文章的主题。可采取三段式写法:

第一段:用简短的几个句子简述图表。

第二段:根据图表分类,概括性地描述曲线内容。

第三段:对文章整体内容进行结论性总结。

【提炼要点】

分析曲线图数据信息。从图中可看出,曲线图的横轴代表2006年的不同的月份,纵轴代表交通事故的数量。从交通事故曲线图上可知,前八个月的交通事故的数量有升有降。曲线图在八月份升到了最高点(39),此后一直呈下降的趋势,十二月份降到了最低点(16)。可见,2006年的交通事故的数量总体上呈下降的趋势。

One possible version

The Number of Car Accidents in 2006

From the graph, we can see that there were two peaks of accidents in 2006. One was in Feb with the number of 32.The other was in August with the number of 39, which was the highest point of the distribution line. From August, the number of car accident had been decreasing till it reached the lowest point of the year in December. Two peaks occurred in spring and summer, the two seasons which had most of the year's rain. Driving tends to be more dangerous in rainy days. Maybe the weather is the most important reason for car accidents. Be careful, when you drive a car in rainy days.

【语言亮点】

①词汇。如:peak , point , distribution , decrease , reach , occur , tend to。

②句式。如:宾语从句:we can see that there were two peaks of accidents in 2006.

定语从句:which was the highest point of the distribution line.

状语从句:...till it reached the lowest point of the year in December.

...when you drive a car in rainy days.

【技巧点拨】

1. 认真观察坐标系信息,抓住曲线图变化趋势,结合提供的时间和数据参照寻求切入点。

2. 根据曲线图的变化过程,尽可能利用所给的文字信息进行分类,比较,总结。

3. 写作过程中不必要将图中全部数据信息加以描述,只需将典型内容作以分析。

4. 注意根据有无时间参照确定整篇文章时态。

【常用句式】

1.As can be seen from the graph, the line shows that...

2.According to the graph, we can see/conclude that...

3.This is a line graph which describes the trend of...

4.The number sharply went up to...

5.The percentage of...stayed the same between...

6.The figures reached the peaks/bottom...

实战演练

1. 根据下面曲线图,以Car Explosion in China 为题,描述我国近10年来私人拥有小汽车情况,说明人们生活的水平的变化和你的看法。短文开头已给出,不计入总词数 。词数:100左右。

One possible version

Car Explosion in China

As is vividly described in the table above, great changes in car ownership have taken place in China over past decade. The number of private cars has accordingly increased nearly 7 times from more than 2 million in 1996 to over 14 million in 2006. What's the reason?

There are two main factors for these changes. To begin with, development in economy plays a vital role in these years. The higher incomes results in Chinese people's owning private cars. What's more , in modern society, time means money, many Chinese need a car to do business on time.

In my view, however , the car explosion will constantly increase year by year, a large number of social problems such as traffic jams, among other things, are turning up nearly every city in China.

2. 自1970年至1990年,中国农民个人收入稳步增长,特别是改革开放政策大大促进了农村经济发展。请你根据下面图表及汉语提示,写一篇短文,描述其变化,并简述其原因。

提示:1. 根据图表,简析近20年农民平均个人收入情况。

2. 简析上述变化的原因。

3. 谈谈你的看法。

注意:1. 词数100左右。

2. 参考词汇: 图表 graph

改革开放reform and opening up

One possible version

According to the figures given by the graph, the Chinese farmers' personal income rose steadily from 1970 to 1990. In the middle of 1970's their income was rather low. Their annual personal income was about 180 yuan. But in 1980 the average personal income increased to 270 yuan. As is shown by the graph, in 1985 their income doubled up to 540 yuan. After that their income is growing sharply. In a word, during the period of 20 years the farmers' income had gone up rapidly.

There were many reasons for it. Mainly the Chinese government had been carrying out a reform and opening policy, which resulted in the steady growth of farmers' income.

I believe that with a series of agricultural policies being carried out, there is no doubt that the farmers' living standard will be

improved to the fullest.