英语图表作文(修改)
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1 07大学英语四六级讲义

第四节 题型分析

在本节中我们将以题型为依据进行分析讲解,以掌握各种题目的写作方法与技巧。下面就按照题型不同,分别进行讨论。

一、 图表图画题型 (Graphs/Tables and Cartoons/Pictures) 表格和图表题型

表格和图表题型是大学英语写作中较为常见的题型之一,也是难度较大的一种写作题型,故大家应对此类题型加强练习,熟练掌握。

表格和图表题型写作注意事项

● 仔细研究题目以及提示信息,看准、看清图表中的数字、线条、阴影等部分

的变化趋势和走向,然后根据图表所显示的中心信息确定内容层次以及主题句。

● 仔细观察分析图表所给出的大量信息,从中选取最重要,最有代表性,最核

心的信息,然后根据全文的主旨去组织运用所获取的关键信息, 切忌简单地罗列图表所给出的信息。

● 表格和图表题型写作一般采用一般现在时,但如果图表给出了具体时间参照,

则应对时态进行相应的调整。

● 表格和图表题型要求考生使用一些固定句型和表达法,大家应对此融会贯通。 ● 表格和图表题型可以细分为表格,曲线图、柱形图和圆形图。除了上述共同

要点,还应弄懂这四种图在写作方面的各自特点。

✓ 表格形式要求考生对表格中所给出的大量数字进行比较分析,从中找

出其变化规律。

✓ 曲线图形式要求考生认真观察坐标系所显示的数据信息,并且密切注

意交汇在坐标横轴和纵轴上的数字及单位。

✓ 柱形图形式要求考生通过宽度相等的柱形的高度或长度差别来判断

事物的动态发展趋势,故考生应密切关注坐标线上的刻度单位及图表

旁边的提示说明与文字。

✓ 圆形图形式旨在要求考生准确理解并阐述一个被分割成大小不等切

片的圆形图所传达的信息。考生应清楚掌握部分与整体,部分与部分

之间的相互关系,这种关系通常是以百分比的数字形式给出的。

● 列出各段的主题句。考生可以根据所给提纲或已知信息列出每段的主题句,

为全文的展开铺平道路。

● 严格围绕主题句展开段落。

● 检查与修改。表格与图表写作的检查与修改应着重检查文章中所列举的信息

是否与图表所显示的信息一致。

表格和图表题型写作中常用的核心句型归纳如下:

1. According to the figures given in the table,…

2 2. This chart shows that...

3. As is shown by the graph,...

4. It can be seen from the statistics (chart \diagram \table graph\ figures)that...

5. It is generally believed(accepted\ thought\ held) that …

6. There is slight (slow\ steady\ rapid)increase (decrease\ decline \reduction\fall\drop\rise) in demand(income.\population\prices\production).

7. be on the increase (decrease\ rise \decline)(... 在不断地增加,减少,上升,下降)

8. From the table (figures\data\results\information),it can be seen (concluded\shown\estimated\calculated\inferred) that…

9. During the period 1900—2000 (From 1900—2000\Since 1900\For a decade, from 1905—2005 )

其它常用表达Other Useful Expressions and Structures:

介绍图表

As is shown/described/illustrated/indicated/revealed in the cartoon/picture/graph/chart/table, ... As can be clearly seen from the cartoon…

What a vivid picture it is! It tells us that…

According to the table..., As can be seen from the table..., It can be seen from the table...

It is self-evident that…, It goes without saying that…, There is no denying the fact that…

统计数据的表达方法

increase/fall slightly/a little/sharply/dramatically/drastically from...to..., skyrocket/soar/rise/ decline/jump from…to…

remain steady at..., level off at…, peak at..., reach the climax at..., reach the low at…, account for...

twice/three... times as many/much as..., one fifth/a quarter/a third/a half of...

数据变化的表达方法

The number/amount of...increased/jumped/rose/decreased/dropped/fell/ suddenly/rapidly/ dramatically/ sharply/ steadily/ gradually/ slowly/slightly from...to...

There was a sudden/rapid/dramatic/significant/sharp/steady/gradual/slow/slight increase/jump/rise/ decrease/drop/fall in the number/amount of...from...to...

开头和结尾的常用句型

The two graphs describe the same thing seen in two different ways. The first diagram simply records…The second graph throws a new light on…

The key findings taken from the surveys are as follows:…

This table provides several important points of comparison between A and B.

一般图表作文的特征主要体现在第一段,该段的任务是描述图表同时点明图表所要表达的主题或说明的问题,如:

As is shown in the table (or in the picture)...dropped from... in 1994 to...in 1996.According to the figures given in the table, ...has great increased (or decreased ) in the past...years (or decades ), reaching...in 1996. From the table we can also see that there has been a sharp decline

3 (or rise) in...It is clear that

大家看下面的实例,注意体会图表作文的写作特点:

实例1----2002年6月真题

Directions: For this part you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic Student Use of Computers. You should write at least 120 words and base your composition on the chart and the outline given below

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199019952000

Year

Average number of hours a student spends on the computer per week

1. 上图所示为1990年、1995年、2002年某校大学生事业计算机的情况,请描述其变化;

2. 请说明发生这些变化的原因(可从计算机的用途、价格或社会发展等方面加以说明);

3. 你认为目前大学生在计算机使用中有什么困难或问题。

Model Composition the drop in prices of computers, more students could afford computers, were applied to wider and wider use and students had to take advantage of this modern invention. many students still have no computers of their own. (172 words)

实例2----1991年6月真题

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● Give possible reasons for the changes. ● Draw your own conclusion

Model Composition

, more expensive food with better nutrition owing to the increase of their income.

people’s living standard improved remarkably in the five years from 1986 to 1990. they will live more and more comfortably and healthily in the future. (128 words)

实例3

● 分析原因(高校扩招使毕业生供给大于需求,很多毕业生只愿留在大城

市,毕业生的专业不适合社会需要等) ● 给出解决问题的办法。

Model Composition

more and more college graduates are out of a job in our country, which is a serious problem to our economic development and social security. in 2002.

students has grown by more than 30% annually since 1998, more and more students are thrown do not want to work in medium-sized and small cities or towns they are most needed. the government should develop our national economy more rapidly, more job

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these ways can we hope to solve the problem. (201 words)

实例4

● Explain the reasons for the changes; ● Draw your conclusions.

图画作文

除了表格和图表题目,还有与其类似的图画题目。图画写作是较难的题型,虽然大学英语四级考试一直未曾采用,但近年来新题型频繁出现,象报告、公众演讲、导游解说都已考过,故防患于未然,该题型也是大家应该掌握的。 首先看一下图画题型写作注意事项:

● 详细查看图画。对图画进行全面而细致的研究,尤其注意图画中人或物(人与

物)的体貌表情特征和背景,确定人物之间,人物与背景之间的主要关系,以便正确掌握图画所传达的信息。

● 如果图画以系列形式(既两幅以上)出现,考生除了掌握每一幅图画的信息,

还应该对图画之间的相应联系有所理解,从而在整体上把握图画所传达的信息。

● 面对图画题型,应该展开合理而丰富的联想,用生动而恰当的言辞抒发自己对

图画的所思所想所感。

● 注意图画题型中的文字提示。文字提示非常重要,文字提示通常十分清楚地提

供一些写作要点。

● 草拟提纲,合理组织材料。根据图画内容的不同采用不同的段落发展方式。如

果画面内容是以描述为主,即按空间方位或时间先后顺序排列,可采用“开头——扩展——结尾”的写作方式。如果画面内容是以解释说明为主,写作时则先给出主题句,再围绕主题句完成各段落的写作,这是采用“主题句——扩展句——总结句”的写作方式。

● 系统且突出地展开段落。展开段落要根据画面内容进行,同时也要围绕每一段

的主题句进行。

● 检查与修改。重点检查图画内容是否准确地被表达出来,题目所给提示是否完

整地反映在文章之中。如果存在与画面不相符的内容,或未能完全涵盖题目所给提示,应对文章做出相应修订。

大家看下面的实例,注意体会图画作文的写作特点: 实例1

The Harmfulness of Smoking

1. Show your understanding of the symbolic meaning of the cartoon;

6 2. Give reasons why smoking is harmful; and

3. How we can solve the problem.

Model Composition the cigarette, the smoke becomes a monster (怪物) smoking does harm to people’s health. tens of billions of yuan is spent on cigarettes every year in our country, which is a huge waste. Northeastern China which caused serious damages to people’s lives and properties? (169 words)

实例2

The Tears of A Bird

7 ● Describe the cartoon and deduce the purpose of the drawer of the picture;

● State the harmful effects of the phenomenon;

● Give suggestions as to how to solve the problem.

Model Composition from its eyes. Because the bird will have no habitat. floods will happen more often in the future. there is only one earth. If the environment is destroyed, then we will have no place to live in.

should adopt the policy of “”,

实例3

Love

Among all the worthy feelings of mankind, love is probably the noblest, but everyone has his/her understanding of it.

There has been a discussion recently on the issue in a newspaper. Write an essay to the newspaper to

● show your understanding of the symbolic meaning of the picture below,

● give a specific example, and

● give your suggestion as to the best way to show love.

8 Model Composition , “love is a lamp which is brighter in darker places.” were laid off last year. The only child will have to drop out of school next semester. In order to help them, I donated all my money—300 yuan to pay the tuition. And I plan to call on others to donate more money.(11) Though I cannot do a lot, I have given love which is like a lamp in a dark place where light is most needed.

So to sum up, we should offer our help to all who are in need. We expect to get love from others and we also give love to others.

Follow-up Exercise

Homework

● Show your understanding of the symbolic meaning of the cartoon;

● State the negative effects of the phenomenon;

● Give your solutions to the problem.

(Clue: 麻将牌mahjong pieces, 打麻将play mahjong)