雅思小作文写作
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Writing Notes

Date: July, 9th , 2017

Task I

1. Three Types

i. Data: Bar Chart, Line Graph, Table, Pie Chart

◆ 图表类型:动态图、静态图

◆ 动态图:有两个或以上时间

◆ 重点

● 趋势

● 特殊值:起点、重点、最高点、最低点、交叉点

◆ 静态图:只有一个或者没有时间

● 比较描述对象:使用倍数、比较级

ii.

Process: Flow Chart iii. Map

◆ Describe the change

◆ Eg: Hospital is located to the west of car park

2. 评分标准

i. Task Achievement/ Task Response

◆ Cover the Requirements of the task

◆ No off topics

◆ 不能添加主观想法,只能描述

ii.

Coherence and Cohesive ◆ 使用路标性词汇:顺承和转折

iii. Lexical Resource

◆ 使用非高频词汇

◆ Use words and phrases naturally and appropriately

◆ Vocabulary diversity

◆ Accurate spelling words

iv. Grammatical Range and Accuracy

◆ Accurate grammar of sentences

◆ Use different ranges of sentences, structures to achiever grammatical

3. 写作方法

i. 开头段

◆ 图表词改写

● The chart : bar chart, line chart, pie chart, table, diagram

◆ 动词shows 改写

● 注意时态

● Shows: illustrates, gives information about, compares, indicates, demonstrates ◆ 关键词(一定要改写)

● 数量改写

⏹ The number of + 可数

⏹ The amount of + 不可数

⏹ The quantity of + 可/不可数

⏹ The figure for + 可/不可数

● 百分比改写

⏹ The percentage of : the proportion of

● 句式变化

⏹ Compares + 不同事物 + in terms of + 相同事物

● 名词变化

⏹ Expending : expenditure

◆ 地点(可以不改写)

◆ 时间可以改写

● From 1980 to 2000: between 1980 and 2000, during the period from 1980 to 2000, over

the period of 20 years, over a 20-year period

◆ EG: The bar charts compares three types of telephone calls in terms of the amount of time

spent in the UK between 1995 and 2002.

ii. 主段写法

◆ 第一段: 起点数值对比 + 部分趋势

◆ 第二段:剩下趋势 + 终点值对比

◆ 数字三种表述方法

● 数值放在句首

⏹ EG: 60 million tonnes of goods were transported by road in the UK.

● 数值放在句末

⏹ Stand at = be; stood at = was = totalled

⏹ EG: The amount of goods transported by road in the UK was 60 million tonnes. ● There Be 句型

⏹ EG: There were 60 billion tonnes of goods transported by road in the UK.

◆ 比较句的写法 Comparisons

● “ compared to”, “ compared with”, “ in comparison with” + 短语

⏹ EG: 6% of single aged person lived in poverty, compared to only 4% of aged couple ● “while”, “ whereas” + 句子

⏹ EG :6% of single aged person lived in poverty, while the proportion of aged couple

living in poverty was 4%.

◆ 3个数值的对比写法

● 第一个数值 the percentage at the start

● 第二个数值 add a comparison

● 第三个数值 the figure for

● EG: 1999, 35% of British people went abroad for their holidays, compared to 28% of

Australians spent their holidays in a different country. The figure for the USA stood at 31%.

● 若有3个以上的数值, 可以用the figure for 数值C and 数值D were X and X respectively. ◆ 趋势的写法

● 时间过渡短语

⏹ Over the following ____ years

● 动态图词汇

⏹ 缓慢上升: increase/ rise (rose)/ grow (grew)/ go up (went up)/ an upward trend +

gradually/ gently/ slightly/ moderately/ steadily

⏹ 急速上升:+ sharply/dramatically/ rapidly/ substantially/ significantly

◆ 慎用: soar/ surge/ leap/ stood up

⏹ 缓慢下降: decrease/ drop/ fall/ decline/ go down/ a downward trend + gradually/

gently/ slighted/ moderately/ steadily

⏹ 急速下降: + sharply/ dramatically/ rapidly/ substantially/ significantly

◆ 慎用: plunge/ slump/ plummet

⏹ 达到顶峰: reach a peak/ peak at

⏹ 持平: remain constant ( unchanged ) / level off / stabilize

⏹ 达到最低点: reach a bottom at / bottom out (at)

⏹ 波动上升或下降: fluctuate with an overall upward trend ( downward trend) / increase

(decrease) with a few fluctuations

⏹ 顺承:similarly/ and/ likewise/ also/ besides ( 均为副词,前面加句号)

⏹ 转折: on the other hand/ however/ by contrast/ in contrast (副词,前面加句号) ; but

(conj.)

⏹ 接下来: then/ afterwards ( adv.)

⏹ 尽管: although/ despite

⏹ 约数

◆ 以上:just above/ over / more than

◆ 以下:just below/ almost/ nearly

◆ 左右:about/ around/ approximately

⏹ 超过:outnumber/ overtake

◆ EG: The consumption of chicken overtook/ outnumbered that of ( the figure for)

beef in 2000.

⏹ 介词: with, of, to ,by, at

◆ With: 有的含义,后面加短语

● EG : Obama won the election with 52% of the vote

◆ AT: 用在加在句尾的数字,at 接数字

● EG : The percentage of votes for Obama was highest, at 52%.

◆ In: a rise IN

◆ 动态图句式

● 基本句型 ( 主句 + 动词 + 副词)

⏹ EG: The number of divorces rose gently from 20 million to 35 million from 2000 to

2010.

● There be 句型

⏹ EG : There was a gentle rise from 20 million to 35 million in the number of divorces

between 2000 and 2010.

● 被动态

⏹ EG : A gentle rise from 20 million to 35 million can be noticed/ seen in the number

of divorces during the period from 2000 to 2010.

● Witness 句式: 主语为时间

⏹ The period from 2000 to 2010 witness/ saw a gentle rise from 20 million to 25 million

in the number of divorces.

● Underwent/ Experienced 句式

⏹ The number of divorces underwent/ experienced a gentle rise from 20 million to 35

million from 2000 to 2010.

● 分词结构

⏹ The number of divorces was 20 million, rising to 35 million.

◆ 时间的表达

● From 时间 on wards 从... 时间以后

● Looking into the future

◆ 将来的表达

● Be expected to

● Predicted

● Projected

● Anticipated

◆ 当线超过4根及以上时

● 第一段:起点数值对比

● 第二段:整个趋势 + 终点描述

⏹ 先写不变的先,再写变化最大的线,最后写剩余的线

⏹ EG: Over the following 4 years, there was relatively little change in the figures for

the top three mobile phone features. However , the percentage of people using their phones to access the internet jumped to 41% in 2008 and then to 73% in 2010. There was also a significant rise in the use of mobiles to play games and record video, with figures reaching 41% and 35% respectively. + 剩余终点值对比

iii. 结尾写法

◆ 1-2句, 不需要提及数字

◆ 最高线、最低线

◆ 趋势对比

◆ 变化率对比

◆ 段首连接词: the summarize/ it is noticeable that/ it is clear that

Date: July, 23rd , 2017

Task I

1. 静态图

1. 开头段与动态图类似,注意改写

◆ 两个数值的对比:倍数、比较级、compare, while

◆ EG: domestic water use = consumption of residential water

◆ EG: account for the majority/minority = the largest proportion in

◆ EG: expenditure = spending on

◆ EG: to be more specific, according to the chart/graph

◆ EG: people aged from 26 to 29 = 26-29 year olds

2. 主段

◆ 原则

● 不要以国家或地区作为分类描述对象

● 维度相同时,描述对象可以选择,先做概括,在看数值

● 没有国家或地区,按照维度小的作为描述对象

● 多余12个数值需要筛选来描述

⏹ 最高值

⏹ 第二高值

⏹ 最低值

⏹ 类比差异(比例)最大的值

◆ 句式

● 最高级、最低级

⏹ The number(数量)/percentage of A is largest/highest/maximal/

Lowest/smallest

⏹ EG: The proportion of sole parents living in poverty was highest, 21%.

● 比较级

⏹ Be higher/ larger than that

⏹ A is considerably higher than B. 超过很多

⏹ A is marginally higher than B. 超过一点点

⏹ EG: The proportion of single aged person living in poverty (6%) was higher than that

of aged couple (4%)

⏹ EG: The consumption of chicken was higher than that of beef/the figure for beef. ● 倍数

⏹ A is less than/ more than twice/three times B. (A =B*2)

a) EG: The consumption of chicken was twice that of beef.

b) EG: The proportion of the elderly in 2005 was three times the figure in 1995.

(15% versus 5%)

⏹ Double/ triple/ quadruple

a) EG: Rent as a percentage of the household expenditure more than doubled

between 1975 and 1985.

⏹ Twofold/threefold 用于动态图 adj & adv

a) EG: The consumption of chicken increased twofold from 1990 to 1995 (adv) b) EG: There was a twofold increase in retail sales. (adj)

c) EG: The rent on average increased threefold in the past five years.

⏹ Twice/ three times as ... as/ compared to

a) EG: Television was twice as popular as washing machine in 1999.

b) EG :The consumption of chicken was twice as much (可数用many) as that of beef. ● 占据

⏹ Account for = constitute= take up = occupy

◆ 多重数值比较

● 最高值(最高级)-次高值(比较级)-最低值(倍数)-同级比较剩余数值

⏹ EG :The percentage of spending on food was highest in Turkey (32.14%) around 3%

higher than that (后面是地名可以省略) in Ireland (28.91%) and more than twice the figure for Sweden (15.77%). The figures for another two countries were similar, 16.36% in Italy and 18.80% in Spain.

● Rank 排名

⏹ A ranked first (%) followed by B in 类别, while the figures for C and D were

remarkably lower at (%) and (%) respectively.

a) EG: Italy ranked first at 9% followed by Spain in clothing/footwear.

⏹ A ranked second, ahead of/ behind 对象in 类别

a) EG :In 1999, Australia ranked second behind the USA in domestic waste

generation.

● 对比 while/ compared to / in contrast

⏹ 最高值(最高级)-中间数值(对比写法+原级)-剩余数值/较低值/最低数值(对比+比较级)

a) EG: Italy has the highest proportion of expenditure on clothing and footwear

(9%). In contrast, these items constituted/occupied/ accounted for around 6%

of expenditure in Ireland, Spain and Turkey, while the figure was even smaller

in Sweden (5.4%).

⏹ 最高值(比较级)-中间数值(对比+比较级)-剩余数值/较低值/最低数值(对比+比较级)

a) EG: Turkey had higher proportion of expenditure than other countries on leisure

and education. The percentage of spending was lower in Italy and Sweden

(roughly 3.2%), compared to the lowest figure in Spain (1.98%).

● 动态点起点数值比较(与动态图一致)

◆ 不同对象描述之间的过渡

● 趋势不同

⏹ The opposite trend can be noticed/seen, when looking at the figure for

● 趋势相同

⏹ The similar trend can be noticed/ seen, when looking at the figure for

3. 总结

◆ 最值

● EG : Overall, we can see that playing computer games is marginally more popular than

◆ 归纳对象的共同点和其他对象的不同点

● EG :It is noticeable that the largest proportion of consumer spending in each country

went on food, drinks and tobacco. On the other hand, the leisure/education category has the lowest percentage in the table shown.

2. 地图题

i. 原则

◆ 方位描述(第一张图)

◆ 变化描述(第二张图)

ii. 句式

◆ 三种方位

● A is/lies/stands/is located/ is situated in (包含)/ on (内部相邻)/ to (分开) the west of

B

⏹ EG : The hospital is located in the south of the school.

● There be + 定语从句

⏹ EG: There is a hospital which lies in the south of the school.

● 倒装

⏹ EG: In the south of the school lies a new hospital.

◆ 表达

● 距离: A lies 100 km to the north of B

● 邻近: A is adjacent to/ is just off/ is next to / is close to/ in the vicinity of B.

● 对面: A is on the opposite side of B = A is opposite to B

● 包围: A is surrounded by B.

● 代替: the original/ previous/ former

● (路) 连接: lead to/ connect to

● 尺寸: enlarge/ extend/ doubled/ tripled/increased four-fold/halved/reduced

⏹ EG: The size of the library is planned to be enlarged two-fold.

● 消失: remove/no longer exist/ be demolished (不用disappear )

● 新添

⏹ A will be established/ built/ constructed in

⏹ A newly-built/a newly-established/ a newly-constructed will be seen

● 原有事务改为

⏹ Be transformed/ reconstructed/ redeveloped/ converted to B

⏹ A be replaced/ substituted by B

⏹ A gives ways to make room for B

iii. 主段

◆ Turning to the next map, the east part of the island nearly remains constant, but there are

significant changes after developing tourism. First, two accommodation areas are established in the west as well as in the middle of the island with footpaths linking each house. Between them, there is a restaurant in the north and a reception in the south, both of which are connected by vehicle tracks directly to the pier where sailing boats are parked. Additionally, swimming is available for tourists now probably due to the newly-built footpaths which link the west accommodation area with the beach.

iv. 总结

◆ To summarize, considerable changes take place on the island after the development of

various tourist facilities.

3. 大作文 Task II

i. 要求

◆ 时间:40 min

◆ 字数:280 words (>250 words)

◆ 题型:议论类、报告类、混合类

◆ 占分比例:2/3

ii. 评分标准(与小作文的区别)

◆ 不偏题

◆ 观点清楚

◆ 每个问题都要回答

◆ 细节(不能想当然),解释清楚、充分展开

◆ 论证逻辑

● EG: Smoking puts health at great risk. It has associated with many serious diseases.

According to research, the likelihood for tobacco users to have heart problems is far greater that those who stay away from this habit. Indeed, the percentage of smokers’ getting heart attack and lung cancer is 10 times higher than that of nonsmokers’. ● EG:Criminals-offenders-prisons-lawbreakers-people

who broke laws-people committing crimes

● EG: Overworking, coupled with poor diet, leads to physical degeneration

iii. 原则

◆ On topic

◆ Details supporting your opinion

◆ 四段式或五段式

◆ 简单句和复杂句交错使用

◆ 词汇

● 词汇范围,使用less common 词汇,注意用词替换

⏹ 反向词汇

a) increase-alienation

b) demotivate-motivate

⏹ 同向词汇

a) Toxic gas = exhaust fumes

b) Alleviate=relieve=mitigate stress

✧ EG: Alleviate financial burden

✧ EG: Soil erosion was mitigated by planting tress

✧ EG: these measures are designed to alleviate the situation

c) Clear fuels = non-fossil fuels = renewable fuels

d) Support=advocate

e) Opponents=sceptics

● 语法没有错误

⏹ 常犯错误:一个句子出现多个谓语动词/句子成分残缺/词性错误/主谓不一致

⏹ 可数:pl. 或 a/the + n

⏹ 不可数: the + n (特指)/什么都不加

◆ Linking 明暗交错使用

● 明连接:firstly, secondly, thirdly

⏹ EG: There are several reasons why people believe that more money should be

allocated to encourage the use of bicycles in cities. they argue that bicycles are an environmentally friendly form of transport. Whereas motorized vehicles pollute the atmosphere with a whole host of toxic gases, bicycles produce and traffic congestion would therefore be significantly reduced if more people

regularly is not only good cardiovascular exercise for cyclist, but also a form of leisure that alleviates stress and helps people to relax.

● 暗连接

⏹ 关键词重复:art project/ work of art/ artworks/ status and sculpture

⏹ 代词

⏹ 语义

⏹ EG: Some are projects definitely require help from the state. In the UK, there

are many works of art in public spaces, such streets or squares in city centers. In Liverpool, for example, there are several new statues and sculptures in the dock area of the city, which has been redeveloped recently. These artworks represent culture, heritage and history. They serve to educate people about the city, and act as landmarks or talking points for visitors and tourists. Governments and local councils should pay creative artists to produce this kind of work, because without their funding our cities would be much less interesting and attractive.

iv. 题型:辩论&报告&混合(2014)

◆ 辩论:discuss both views and give your opinions

◆ 报告: give your reasons and suggestions/ effects

◆ 混合: reasons and opinions & opinions & measures

4. 辩论类大作为

i. 结构

◆ 五段式(拓展多)(一边倒):

● 介绍背景给出观点-

● 正方论据1-(扩展2-3)

● 正方论据2-

● 反方论据(给出一个并简单说明)

● 总结同意的那方的论据或提出建议

◆ 四段式(论居多):

● 开头-

● 正方原因(2-3个)-

● 反方原因(1-2个)-

● 观点+总结同意的那方的论据或提出建议

ii. 开头段

◆ 40-50 words

◆ 背景引入(话题有关)

● ... has been commonplace/ prevalent

● No doubt we are living in an era when ... changes every aspect of our lives ● 背景句的写法

⏹ The past century witnessed the increasingly important role of __ played in

people’s daily lives.

⏹ Nowadays, an increasing number of people are concerned about...

⏹ (Doing) sth has become commonplace/ prevalent

⏹ The past century witnessed the increasing/ decreasing number of _

⏹ Despite the fact that the world is undergoing various changes, ___remains one of

the most heatedly discussed issues, especially with advent of ___

⏹ There has long been controversy about negative affect of___

◆ 题目改写 (引入争论点)

◆ 我的观点

● Personally, I believe that there are more benefits and drawbacks.

● I support the latter more than the former

● From my perspective, ___ is beneficial (harmful) to us, despite its drawbacks

(benefits) ● I completely agree with the idea

● It could have both positive and negative consequences in equal measure.

Date: Aug, 06th , 2017

◆ 也可以背景和题目改写放在一起

● 板式:People have different views with regard to the question of whether A or B. ◆ 也可以改写和观点结合在一起

● 板式: While...(A)......, I believe B

◆ 开头段案例

● 题目:Nowadays, people can use computers to talk, learn and communicate without

leaving home. There is a danger that it will cause more alienation and a lack of communication among people. Do you agree or disagree?

● 开头段: A growing number of people are becoming aware of the convenience

brought about by technological advances especially the birth of computers.

despite all the benefits that computers have brought, many people that computers adversely affect the communication among people. ever before.

iii. 结尾段的写法

◆ 套用板式: In conclusion, although 反方论据(句子),I am still firmly convinced of the

benefits brought by 关键词 mainly because 正方论据1(短语)as well as 正方论据2(短语).

◆ 表示结果的词

● Lead to , contribute to, give rise to ,result in

◆ EG: To summarize, although addiction to computers may lead to disorder, I’m firmly

iv. 论据扩展的方法

◆ 推导后果

论据1: A推导B ;扩展结果:C 推导D

论据2:A 推导C ;扩展:原因B, 结果D

◆ 原因

● Because...../ It is because that.../ by which I mean.....

● 题目:看电视好还是坏

● 论据:看电视的坏处一是影响家庭关系

● First of all, watching too much TV tends to exert an unfavorable influence on the

family relationship.

● It is because that if they indulge themselves in watching television, they will not have

sufficient time to communicate with their family members, which obviously may give rise to the alienation among family members.

● 论据:经济的增长是国家最基本的一个目标(Economic growth if seen as a fundamental

goal for countries)

● 拓展: because a healthy economy results in job creation, a high level of employment

and better salaries for all citizens, which helps a country’s standing on the global stage, in terms of its political influence and trading power.

◆ 结果

● As a result, therefore, as a consequence, in other words, to put it in another way ◆ 具体化

● 题目:犯过罪的人是否是最佳人选与年轻人讨论犯罪的危险

● 论据:年轻人更容易接受有亲身经历的人的意见

● Teenagers are more likely to accept advice from someone who can speak from

experience.

● 扩展:It is because that reformed offenders can tell young people about how they

became involved in crime, the danger of a criminal lifestyle, and what life in prison is really like, thereby dispelling any ideas that teenagers may hive about criminals leading glamorous lives.

◆ 举例子

● For example.../For instance.../A case in point is that...../, which can be illustrated by

the example that...

● 题目:广告的好处多还是坏处多

● 论据:广告容易导致盲目消费

● The first drawback of advertising is that the various kinds of eye-catching

commercials may lead people to make purchases irrationally.

● 扩展:Currently, there exist some people who are willing to sell their own body organs

or even their virginity in order to pursue an extravagant way of life which they could not afford at the moment, which can be seen as an example of irrational consumption. ● 题目:自己住的好处多还是坏处多?

● 论据:自己住可以变得更加独立

● On an individual level, people who choose to live alone may become more independent

ant self-reliant than those who live with family members.

● 拓展:A young adult who lives alone, for example, will need to learn to cook, clean, pay

bills and manage his or her budget, all of which are valuable life skills; an increase in number of such individuals can certainly be seen as a positive development.

● 题目:大城市生活越来越糟糕

● 论据:政府应该鼓励公共交通以建设污染和交通拥堵

● Politicians have the power to ban vehicles from city centers and promote the use of

cleaner public transport, which would help to reduce both air pollution and traffic congestion.

● 扩展:In London, for example, the introduction of congestion charge for drivers has

helped to curb the traffic problem.

◆ 列数据

● According to the statistics provided by a research group../ As was revealed from a

recent report...

● 题目:环境污染的原因和解决办法

● 论据:原因之一是汽车尾气

● The first culprit of degrading environment might be the increasing amount of car

exhaust produced by vehicles.

● 扩展:As was revealed from a recent report, approximately 50,000 families in Beijing

own more than two private cars, which inevitably gives rise to a considerable amount of car exhaust.

◆ 过去与现在对比

● In the past, people used to....., but now we...

● 题目:高科技带来的好处多还是坏处多

● 论据:科技极大便利了人与人之间的交流

● First of all, technological advances have considerably contributed to the exchange of

ideas and information among people.

● 扩展:In the past, people used to write letters which usually took several months to

arrive at some distant destinations, but now instant communication has been realized through various kinds of communication tools, such as phones, video-chatting and social networking websites, which has substantially facilitated out daily lives.

◆ 对比

● Compared with/ in comparison with/ by contrast

● 题目:gap year 好与不好

● 论据:gar year的优点

● The reason for this trend may involve the recognition that a young adult who passes

directly from school to university is rather restricted in terms of general knowledge and experience of the world. By contrast, those who have spent some time earning a living or travelling to other places, have a broader view of life and better personal resources to draw on.

◆ 反面假设

● 采用虚拟语气:if + 主语 + 动词过去式,主句+would/ would not +动词原形

● 题目:大学生应不应该学电脑

● 论据:应该,因为电脑提供很多信息

● The first reason why studying computer skills is a must for college students is that

the Internet provides students with diversified types of information which is crucial to survival in this world.

● Conversely, if college students didn’t acquaint themselves with computer skills, they

would probably lag behind the times or even be in the danger of being a complete outsider since we have access to most of the current information through the Internet.

● 题目: 年轻人离开父母越早越好嘛?

● 论据:不是,父母可以为年轻的孩子提供及时的引导

● Initially, moral guidance could be offered by parents to ensure those youngsters to

refrain from misleading by inappropriate behaviors around them. After all, those who still stay with their parents might be informed of right ways of dealing with possible troubles.

● 扩展:Conversely, if young adolescents were exposed to temptations and evils of

society without their parents’ protection, they would more like to embark on criminal road that other cohorts.

5. 报告型 (Report)

i. 题目 ◆ Please give reasons and your suggestions. ◆ Please discuss the causes and possible solutions. ◆ Please discuss the causes and the possible effects on the society.

ii. 结构

◆ 开头介绍背景(如可能,提前概括原因;如不可能,则给出文章框架)

◆ 原因段(主题句+2-3个原因)

◆ 措施段/影响段(主题句+2-3个措施/影响)

◆ 概括措施/影响

iii. 开头段

◆ 二要素

● 介绍背景(1-2句)

● 提前概括原因,如( It seems to me that,....,.... and .... are the tree main causes that may

contribute to the problem)

● 或者给出文章框架 (在大陆考试慎用)

⏹ 板式: This essay will first analyze all the possible causes of the problem and then

come up with several feasible solutions that could be adopted in order to avoid the deterioration of the situation.

◆ 举例

● 题目:The quality of life in big cities becomes worse. Talk about causes of this problems and how to solve this problem.

● 开头段:the fact that technological advances have brought about may

conveniences to people’s daily lives, the quality of life h as not necessarily been and population explosion are the two main culprits.

● Culprit 罪魁祸首

iv. 主段写法

◆ 段落1

● 二或三要素

● 主题句,如(The main causes that my lead to this problem can be listed as follows) 注

意:如开头段第二句已经概括原因,这里可以没有主题句。

● 原因1+扩展

● 原因2+扩展

● 环境类词汇

⏹ 污染物:pollutant=contaminant=toxic waste

⏹ 恶化:degrade=deteriorate=exacerbate=aggravate=worsen

⏹ 居民:inhabitant=resident

⏹ 寿命:life span= life expectancy

⏹ 标准:criterion, standard

⏹ 新能源: renewable fuels, non-fossil fuels, promote the use of renewable fuels ⏹ 摆脱:breaking away from

⏹ 提升意识: raise the awareness of

⏹ 制定措施:enact rigid (strict) laws and regulations

⏹ 不可或缺、取代:indispensable, irreplaceable

⏹ 保障性住房:social housing

● EG :The first cause of degrading life quality might be the deteriorating environment.

In fact, as the economy is developing at an amazing speed, demands for electronic devices and various other kinds of consumer goods are soaring. Accordingly, factories have to be in full operation in order to satisfy the growing needs, which inevitably produces enormous industrial contaminants.

● Besides, the exploding population might be a second culprit for the lower life quality.

The past decades have witnessed considerable advances in medical science and medical instruments which have substantially increased people’s average life span. However, the increasing number of residents on the planet makes the limited living space even more limited, which may adversely affect people’s well-being.

◆ 段落2

● 三要素

● 主题句,如 ( Several actions must be taken in order to prevent the deterioration of the problem)

● 措施1+扩展

● 措施2+扩展

● 举例:Several methods could be adopted in order to solve the aggravating problem in

the hope of promoting the quality of life. First of all, it is the responsibility of the

government to enact rigid laws and regulations so as to deter people from polluting our

surroundings. And sufficient education regarding environmental protection is also

indispensable. Second, although the number of people is increasing every year, more

reasonable use of living space as well as the construction of high-rise buildings which

accommodate more residents can surely make the situation less intense.

◆ 总结

● 一要素

● 总结措施 ( Report类作文可以没有结尾)

● 举例:To summarize, in order to avoid the deterioration of the situation, issuing laws

and regulations and utilizing our living space more reasonably are the two solutions

that I came up with.

6. 混合型

i. 题干

◆ Reasons-positive/negative

◆ Agree/disagree-measures

◆ 辩论占更大比重

ii. 结构

◆ 四段式

◆ 介绍背景(若题目问元婴,则简单阐述原因2-3条),并给出自己的观点

◆ 论据1+扩展

◆ 论据2+扩展

◆ 重述自己的观点,并总结2个论据,或者如果问到措施,则给2-3条

总结

开头背景句

● There is no doubt that we now live in an era when changes every aspect of our daily

lives.

● Nowadays, an increasing number of people are concerned with the problem of . ● is becoming prevail/commonplace. ● The past century witnessed an increasingly important role playing in people’s life. 陈述自己的观点

● From my perspective, is beneficial depite/in spite of its several drawbacks.

● It could have both positive and negative consequences in an equal measure.

拓展方式和句型

● 正面推导: as a consequences / as a result / therefore / thanks to / contribute to / make

contribution to

● 具体化

● 举例: for example / for instance / a cast supporting this point is that

● 虚拟反面影响:Conversely ,从句过去时主句would /would not ● 列数据 ● 现在和从前对比: in the past, people used to , but now

报告型 开头段: 背景句+概括it seems to me that , and are the three main culprits(原因)/consequences (影响) I can come up with.

Body1 : 原因The first cause / Besides / additionally……

Body2 : 解决Several actions may help to deteriorate the problem ( of )

Body3 : 影响lead to / result in / as a consequences 提出观点 confirmly believe / think / support / insist(虚拟语气) / contend / argue that

refute / disagree

in favor of / support / hold / advocate the opinion that opponent / people competing it

advocate / supporter

其他

● 原因

because of / owing to / thanks to / result from / on account of + n

because / since

● 解决问题

tackle / deal with / curb / sovle / address / settle the problem

● 分点

firstly / the primary reason

besides / in addition / what’s more

last but not least

● 转折

while / however / whereas

by contrast / on the contrary / on the other than / rather than