狼和羊的故事
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PSYCHOLOGY 第5章 学习

LEARNING Introduction to Psychology Depart. Psycho. Peking University Garcia et al 1985

狼和羊的故事 含氯化锂的羊肉汉堡包==恶心 羊进入狼的地盘 约一小时之内,狼尝试多次,但无攻击 什么改变了狼的天性? 本能行为 通过遗传获得,不学就会的行为。 母鸡孵蛋、蜜蜂酿蜜、婴儿吸奶 药物 操作(手脚) 学习!----习得行为 人----习得行为和本能行为的混合体 Outlines What is learning? Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Cognitive-Social Theory 1 What is learning? 1.1 Definition Learning refers to any enduring change in the way an organism responds based on its experience. 因为经验而使有机体的反应方式产生持久 的改变 疲劳、药物、疾病和损伤不属于学习范畴 Key Elements of Learning A change in behavior or behavioral potential A relatively permanent change Based on experience 1.2 Why is learning important? The environment does not stand still 分辨食物与生存环境 天性有限(小孩喜欢甜味) The environment varies Age, place, culture 袒胸露臂与迷你裙 老实厚道与无能 Human being--Social animal 认知、情感、态度、人格、价值信仰等 1.3 Sharing assumptions Experience shapes behavior 经验塑造行为 Learning is adaptive 学习是适应 Experimental research on the laws of learning 学习可以用实验法进行研究 2 Classical Conditioning 巴甫洛夫(Ivan Pavlov)(1849-1936) 研究狗的消化系统(Nobel winner ) 唾液分泌(Salivation ) 反射(reflex ) 华生(Watson ) 动物和人类适用同样的学习法则 2.1 Pavlov Model Conditioning & Unconditioned reflex 学习是一种联系的建立(获得) The organism learns to associate CS with UCS UCS, UCR CR, CR NS,中性刺激,与UCS 多次重复出现... Classical conditioning 2.2 Conditioned Emotional Responses 触景生情 一朝被蛇咬,十年怕井绳 秋天的悲沧和凄凉 歌曲 月亮代表我的心 爱在深秋 把悲伤</B>留给自己 心太软 Watson & Rayner 1920

Little Albert 狗、兔子、白鼠、面具(圣诞老人) NS 身后敲击金属棒

UCS 跳起来、趴下、呜咽 UCR 两月之后,小孩怕狗等(泛化) 结论:情绪也是习得的 2.3 Conditioned Social Behavior 解释普遍存在的现象 望梅止渴 大鼠(胰岛素、葡萄糖)休克 癌症化疗病人(食物、护士、医院) 免疫能力(糖精水) 家庭、单位 广告 环境 2.4 Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination 新刺激越接近原刺激,越可能唤起反应 这种对类似刺激的反应就是泛化。 分化 discrimination ,是对刺激差异的反应。 2.5 Extinction CS不再与UCS 一起出现,条件反应会减 弱,这就是消退。 即刻恢复 spontaneous recovery 泛化、分化和消退的进化适应意义

2.6 Factors that Affect Classical Conditioning Time schedule for CS & UCS Forward conditioning Simultaneous conditioning Backward conditioning The Individual Learning History Higher-order conditioning Blocking effect Kamin, 1969 Preparedness to Learn (进化的角度) 电击 避光、声,不避味道 X光 不避光、声,避味道 Garcia & Koelling, 1966 3 Operant Conditioning Edward L. Thorndike: Law of Effect S-R connection 尝试-错误机制 blind trial-error 行为倾向取决于该行为产生的环境效果 Law of effect Instrumental conditioning B.F. Skinner: Operant Conditioning 学习是一种反应概率上的变化,而强化是增强反应概率的手段。 3.1 Operants and Consequence Operants: Emitted/Elicited Instrumental conditioning Thorndike Consequence Reinforcement Punishment 3.2 Reinforcement Making the response more likely to recur Two kinds of Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement 提供奖赏 Negative Reinforcement 终止一个负面刺激(负面强化物) 3.3 Punishment Decreases the probability that a response will recur Positive & Negative Punishment Common Problem in Using Punishment 惩罚效果差的原因 惩罚与操作难以对号 对惩罚人而非受罚行为害怕 存在其他奖励 惩罚受(领导)长辈的情绪所左右 (一致性差) 攻击性惩罚导致更多的攻击行为 建议:惩罚+说理(或强化) 3.4 Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous reinforcement schedule Partial or Intermittent schedules Ratio schedules Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Interval schedules Fixed Interval Variable Interval 3.5 Factors Affecting Operant

Conditioning 操作与奖惩之间的联系的偶然性 Skinner 1948 鸽子的迷信行为 操作与后果之间的间隔 特异刺激的呈现: stimulus control 学习某种行为的准备性 学习者的特点: antisocial personality 3.6 Why is reinforcer reinforcing? Reinforcers as Drive Reducers C.Hull 1943 : Drive-reduction theory Primary and Secondary Reinforcers Conditioned reinforcers D. Premack 1965 :Premack Principle preferred activity as Reinforcement The Role of Feelings Emotion/sensory experiences The behavioral approach system pleasure The behavioral inhibition system anxiety 注意:强化物的针对性和有效性。 3.7 The Reciprocity of Social Interactions 因果链 相互操作 3.8 The Relation between Classical and Operant Conditioning 应答行为

工具性行为 诱发反应 自发反应 刺激在先 反应在先 特定的刺激 无特定刺激 自主NS 躯体NS 3.9 The application of Operant Conditioning N. Miller 1978 : Biofeedback training Behavior shaping and Chaining Programmed Instruction The Procedure for Behavior shaping and Chaining Reinforcing closer and closer approximations to the desired response. A sequence of already-established behaviors is reinforced step by step. 行为塑造的要领 确定最终目