GRE作文
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Issue 作文文类----社会类

2 Competition is ultimately more beneficial than detrimental to society

关键词:competition

分析论证:

竞争是生物界和人类社会的普遍规律。积极的,良性的竞争是应当肯定的。

竞争是充分发挥自己的才能,追求成功,并力求超过他人,并成为先进者。在正当的目的,手段和方式下的竞争,能使每个人的智慧,才能和人格得到充分的发展和表现,从而实现人生理想,目标。在竞争中自立,自强的个体所组成的群体,才能有整体的活力和创造力,没有竞争组成的群体,是缺乏生命力和创造力的。竞争是群体发展和富有创造力的根本机制。

但是,个人的竞争性要能正常发挥,必须发展群体意识,积极与他人协作,互助。在竞争中,竞争者一方面要不怕强者,不怕嫉妒,敢于争强,力求争先;另一方面,又需要善于同他人协作,互助,增长群体情感和合作精神。事实上,竞争本身就需要互助,信息交流,友谊鼓励和支持,在交际和协作中,得到知识,增长经验,提高取得成功的能力。正是竞争激发着人们强烈的协作愿望和行动。

在人生过程中,正确的对待竞争,必须注意同他人的联合和协作,在联合和协作过程中,既要有“敢为天下先”的勇气,又要注意把个人的作用同群体的力量结合起来。要竞争,要克服自卑心理,嫉妒心理。当然,不示弱,也要根据实际对比力量,不能盲目自信,盲目轻慢对手,以致做毫无把握的竞争。竞争本质上是一种竞赛,既要有求胜,成功的强烈愿望,又要搞好协作,协调,以正当的手段和方式进行竞争,以利于共同进步和共同事业的发展。 提纲:

A 社会是又个体组成,首先竞争是个体进步的动力。任何人都希望做的更好,甚至最好,由此竞争的关系产生了。

Individuals compose society, and competition is the essential driving force of each

individuals.

Knowledge and skills acquired in the process will remain for future matches.Naturally,the heavier the pressure of competition,the greater the subsequent improvement.

B 竞争可以促进整个社会的进步并且提高整个社会的效率。正是竞争促进新技术的产生,也是竞争促使更优秀的服务。

Society likewise benefits from such competition,whether it be among

individuals ,teams,companies,groups or political parties.

Consequently.

Individuals and companies alike,for the sake of survival in competition ,must continue to improve their services and products,and as a result,the entire society prospers, at least

economically.

American people do not allow their government to operate any business as they believe that the government-run business will be ineffective due to lack of competition.China has certainly experienced the vitality of this competitiveness in the past decade since her adoption of the "Reform and Opening Up"policy.

C 但是在强调竞争带给社会好处的同时,我们也不能忽略竞争带来的负面影响。因此,我们要对竞争加以限制,引导有利的竞争规避不利的竞争。规范竞争如同规范自由一样有必要。商人和生产商的“货物售出概不负责”的自由被法律所限制,其目的是为了保护弱者。

The nature of modern competition is rather to win than to defeat.

So it is crucial for competitors to keep in mind that the ultimate outcome of competition is

self-improvement.

Regulation is essential to the preservation of competition and to its best development just as regulation is necessary to the preservation and development of civil or political liberty.

The right of competition must be similarity limited,for excesses of competition lead to

monopoly just as excesses of liberty have led to despotism.It is another case where the extremes meet.

论据素材

竞争的好处:

当许多公司销售同一产品时,竞争使得产品的价格处于最低水平。当市中心缺少竞争时,销售商可以随意定价。

The structure of the American economic system is based on the belief that ,generally,competition is the best regulator of the marketplace.

According to this theory....

To preserve competition in the marketplace, federal laws make it illegal foe business to

monopolize,restrain trade, or fix prices.The federal Trade Commission and the U.S.Department of Justice share the responsibility for enforcing these laws.

完美竞争的概念

产生最大效率的经济条件被称之为完美竞争

The theoretical ideal developed by economists to establish the conditions under which competition would achieve maximum effectiveness is known as "perfect" competition.

Although rarely possible ,perfect competition ,as a concept ,provides a useful benchmark for evaluating performance in actual markets.

Under conditions of perfect competition ,economists contend,goods and services would be produced as efficiently as possible----that is,at the lowest possible price and cost ----and consumers would get the maximum amount of the goods and services they desire.

3 It is more important to allocate money for immediate,existing social problems than to spend it on long-term research that might help future generations.

关键词:existing social problems long-term research

提纲:

A 一些长期研究虽然在短时间内可能没有什么明显的收益,但却是一件非常必要的事情。这些问题是否能够处理得好关系到后代的生存问题。“我们一生应该这样地生活和劳动,使给予我们种子能再下一代开花,使给予我们的花朵能再下一代结果,这就是我们所说的进步的意义。”----比彻

“We should so live and labor in our time that what came to us as seed may go to the next

generation as blossom,and what came to us blossom may go to them as fruit.This is what we mean by progress.."----H.W.Beecher

B 当前的问题也很重要,如果不能及时处理好,可能会使问题恶化,产生更为严重的后果。环境问题和种族问题这些迫在眉睫的问题对于社会的可持续发展和长期稳定至关重要。 C 只要政府调节好这两者的关系,那么我们的社会将向着良好的方向发展。例如,英国政府于1975年成立了ACAS ,其宗旨是避免和调解工业纠纷,处理工人利益与国家长期经济规

划之间的关系。

These two facets of budgeting and potential are not mutually exclusive.

论据素材:

科研机构面临的两难境地:

In a rapidly changing world environment shaped by globalization,economic research centres are confronted with a dilemma.

Globalization demands increasingly complex and multi-disciplinary research,which most research centres were not set up to handle.

As a result,the type of research they undertake is not rooted in the concerns of the population.This widens the gap between researchers and their own people,which in turn means that the research is of no great benefit to national decision-makers looking to make appropriate policies for the population.

基础研究和紧急研究项目的投资资金分配。

增加社会财富,并不一定要把所有可用科研资金都拨给紧急研究项目。研究项目的紧急性也需要重新审定。也存在这样地可能性:在一些领域会有意料不到的结果。因此,需要长远角度来考虑。

Needless to say ,it is important to be able to accurately gauge the needs of the nation and society and to promote research activities which prioritize these needs.

On the other hand.

Consequently, it is necessary to adopt a long-term perspective,while at the same time continuing to support research which cannot be expected to yield immediate results.

The second Basic Plan foe Science and Technology makes a firm commitment to the promotion of basis research.

Needless to say ,basis research cannot be exempted from the requirement of proper evaluation and accountability.

A very difficult question that remains is how allocate research funds between basis research and priority areas.

9 Academic disciplines have become so specialized in recent years that scholars' ideas reach only a narrow audience.Until scholars can reach a wilder audience,their ideas will have little use. 关键词:specialized narrow audience

提纲:

A 专业细分的过程是随着知识爆炸和社会飞速发展而发展起来的,现在像亚里士多德和达芬奇这样地全才越来越少,而大多数学者只能关注于某一个领域。这样也使每个人的能力能充分发挥出来。

B 但是这种专业化的目的是要更好地推动整个社会的发展。从表面上看,各个学科之间似乎没有太大的关系,其实各个学科之间有很强的相关性,任一学科的发展都会为其他学科带来活力。类比论证:就好比生产线的生产过程,虽然每个工人的工作不同,但最终的目标都是生产出完整的产品。而整个过程中的每个步骤之间是有关系的。

C 对于学者来说,如果自己选择了这个学科,就不应该考虑到自己所研究的理念是否被大多数人接受,如果过多关注这些,可能使大家放弃一些看似冷门但实际上很重要的学科。 论据素材:

学科的本质是一致的

看起来很难处理得差异,不如人文学科和自然学科间的差异,道德规范和科学间的差异,都只是表面现象。

In our attempts to chart the transdisciplinary space,we realize that essential things are one and the same,and all the differences between things are only appearance at the superficial level.Seemingly untractable differences , such as those between the humanistic and scientific disciplines,or

between ethics and science,are thus only superficial ,and deep down things are one and the same . At one time one may fix on a particular conceptual scheme,but one may change to another,totally different scheme the next moment,or dispense with all schemes altogether and perceive reality as it really as---totally devoid of all conceptualization and dualities.

学科细化的原因及优点

知识快速增长使学科细化,学科细化带来很多优点

It is indeed the case that the proliferation of knowledge in the last century has produced a plethora of academic specializations each aiming at taking care of an ever smaller chunk of putative reality and developing ever more refined tool to do it .

It is obvious how.....

With limited time and resources,it is not possible to excel ....

It seems that in order to .....

学科细化的缺点

学科细化无法再满足人们和社会的需求,学科细化使学者彼此失去联系。

However,it is has been increasingly evident that this way of academic specialization is no longer able to answer to the needs of people and societies any longer.

It is necessary that...

17 There are two types of laws:just and unjust.Every individual in a society has a responsibility to obey just laws and ,even more importantly,to disobey and resist unjust laws.

关键词:obey just laws disobey and resist unjust laws

提纲:

法律的公正与不公正是由人来判断的,而任何的一条法律都可能有它的两方面:对一部分人的公平,对另一部分人的不公平。法律的公正性不是也不能使客观公正性。所以,法律的公平与否不应该由人们自己来判断,否则法律就会失去其目的。

Without fast and hard rules of laws,a society cannot be excepted to be able to comply with those laws.Certain standards for enforcement and judgment must of course be followed,but with a certain amount of discretion allowed to make sure that,although justice is blind,it is not stupid. 既然是法律就应该遵守,就好比在军队中,军人和士兵所要做的就是服从命令,如果士兵在战场上只服从那些他们认为正确的命令而不服从她们认为不正确的命令,那么这个军队就肯定会不堪一击。法律也一样,如果法律不能得到很好的贯彻,有人执行。有人不执行,那么法律就会失去尊严而形同虚设。

The very function of law is to bring stability and order to the group of people that the laws are enforced upon.For a legal system to work for a society ,the laws must be knowable ,fair and implemented equally among the population.

如果现行的法律中有明显的错误,那么也应该通过立法机关来修改。同时对于不同的地区,不同的时间也要适时的调整法律的条款,让法律在严厉统一中也存在灵活性。

However ,in reality ,the law is adaptable and flexible in certain situation,places and

times.Although the written rules of law must be fixed and seldom changed,the people that enforce the laws ,as well as those who judge those who break the laws,have a certain amount of built-in discretion to see that justice is done.