大学英语四级考试作文指导
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大学英语四级考试作文指导

第一篇 四六级考试作文简介

1 基本要求

《大学英语教学大纲》规定:大学英语教学的目的之一是培养学生具有一定的英语写作能力。大学英语四级统考作文部分占15分, 要求学生, 根据规定的题目或提示,在30分钟内写出120字以上的短文。请参看下面四级写作评分原则和评分标准。

评分原则

四六级考试从内容和语言两方面对作文进行综合评估。内容和语言是一个统一体。内容要求思想正确,主题突出。内容要考虑是否用英语清楚而准确地表达思想,也就是要考虑语言上的错误是否造成理解上的障碍,用词和造句是否清楚而准确地表达思想。

达,则给0分。]

此外,为引起教师和学生对作文部分的重视,全国四级考试中心还实行作文最低分制度,最低为6分。如作文为0分,总分高于60分,成绩报导时一律报59分不及格处理;若作文分大于0分小于6分时,最后报导分=原计总分--6分+实得作文分。

2作文命题形式及常考题型分析

纵览历年的作文试题,我们可以发现论说文占绝大多数,但近年应用文有上升的势头(01.6、02.1是书信体,91.6、02.6是图表作文)。就话题而言,主要有三大类:社会热闹话题、校园话题和日常生活话题。以下是历年作文题的汇总与统计,建议大家研究一下它的出题规律并写写看。

一、 历年四级考试作文题统计

社会热门话题

(87.9) Women in Modern World

(90.6) Make Our Cities Greener

(91.1) Bicycle – An Important Means of Transport in China (91.6) Changes in People’s Diet

(94.1) The world Is Getting Smaller and Smaller.

(96.1) The Two-day Weekend

(96.6) Global Shortage of Fresh Water

(98.1) Harmfulness of Fake Commodities.

校园话题

(88.6) An Early Morning Walk (记叙文)

(92.6) How I overcome My Difficulties in Learning English

(94.6) My Ideal Job

(95.6) Advantage of Job Interview.

(97.6) Getting to Know the World Outside the Campus.

(99.6) Reading Selectively Or Extensively?

(00.1) How I Finance My College Education.

(00.6) Is A Test of Spoken English Necessary?

(01.1) How to Succeed in a Job Interview?

(01.6) A letter to a Schoolmate

(02.1) A Letter to the University President about the Canteen Service

on Campus.

(02.6) Student Use of Computers.

日常生活话题

(89. 1) The Tape Recorder

(90. 1) What Would Happen If There Were No Power

(92.1) Is Failure a Bad Thing?

(93.1)Positive and Negative Aspects of Sport.

(95.1)Can Money Buy Happiness?

(97.1) Practice Makes Perfect .

(98.6) Do "Lucky Numbers" Really Bring Good Luck?

(99.1)Don ' t Hesitate to Say "NO".

(03.1) It Pays to Be Honest

我们知道, 四六级考试是一项大规模的考试,为提高其客观性,以利评分,考试对作文的命题形式是这样限制的:给出题目作文、规定情景作文、给出段首句续写、书信作文、给出关键词作文、看图作文或根据所给文章写出摘要或大意等。下面分析主要的几种类型:

1)提纲作文

这类题型是四六级作文考试到目前为止最常见的。它给出作文的英文题目以及较为详细的提纲,提纲有时是英文的,但多数是用中文给出的。每段的提纲规定了文章每段的主旨,它要求考生围绕这个中心制

1999年6月全国四六级考试作文题同为一个提纲类作文,题目要求120字,六级为150字)。 Directions : For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic Reading Selectively or Extensively? You should write at least 120 (150) words, and base your composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below:

1 有人认为读书要有选择

2 有人认为应该博览群书

3 我的看法

2) 主题句作文

Introduction

This is the most common composition practiced in CET-4.Usually the title and the topic sentences of each paragraph are given.You are required to write exactly according to the title .You must use the given topic sentences .

作文题例:

Directions :For this part ,you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition about“Television ”in three paragraphs.

You are given the first sentence of each paragraph to develop the idea in completing the paragraph.Your composition should be about 120words,not including the words given.Remember to write clearly.

Television

1)Television presents a vivid world in front of us.

_______________________________________

2)Television can also play an educational role in our daily life .______________________________

_______________________________________

3)However ,television can also be harmful.

_______________________________________

3)图表作文

图表作文是四六级作文考试常考题型之一,也是考生觉得较难对付的作文形式。

图表形式:

图表题型主要分类:

(1)曲线图题型(Line chart); (2)饼状图题型(Pie chart); (3)柱状图题型(Bar chart); (4)表格图题型(Table)。

要求考生:

通常还给出作文的标题和一些提示(1)用文字来描述图表,客观解释图表中所传递的信息并找出某种规律或趋势;(2) 就图表中所反映出某种趋势或问题分析其原因或后果。(3) 根据前面的分析得出你的结论或发表你的看法。一般要求写成论说文。

年6月四级考试作文为统计表格题:

: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition about Changes in People’s Diet according to the following outline in three paragraphs. Your part of the composition should be no less than 120 words, not including the words given. Remember to write clearly. You should quote as few figures as possible.

Changes in People’s Diet

1 state the changes in people’s diet in the past five years

2 give possible reasons for the changes

3 draw your own conclusion

看图表作文一般可分三段写。第一段说明该图表反映的总情况,选择能充分说明主题的典型数据进行概述。第二段对数字进行仔细分析比较,归纳出增减速率,找出产生变化的原因。第三段写读图表后的想法或评论,得出自己的结论。

General introduction——Analysis ——Conclusion

概要介绍—分析图表和变化的原因—评论或总结

(Graph)作文题例:

Directions : For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition based on the following graph showing the growth of the world’s population. The opening sentence is given and you are required to develop it into a full composition. Your part of writing should be no less than 120 words. Some useful words and phrases are provided, but you do not have to include all of them.

Graph showing the growth of the world’s population. (Suggested words and phrases: birth control, death rate, population explosion, food shortage).

The Problem of Human Population

It has been estimated that a thousand years ago there were less than 400 million people on earth._________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

从曲线坐标图可以看到,过去人口增长速度的缓慢同现在人口的急剧增长形成了鲜明的对照。图中文字表明,Industrial and Agricultural Revolution 和Emergence of Modern Medicine 与人口的急剧增长不无关1000 2000

3000 4000 5000

6000

7000million

1000A.D 1500A.D 2000A.D

系。根据题目所提供的信息可制定以下提纲:

1) 人口增长的情况;

a. 过去人口增长的情况;

b 现在人口增长的情况;

c 未来人口增长情况的预测。

2) 人口爆炸的原因;

3) 人口爆炸带来的问题。

最后表达自己的看法。

4)情景作文

题中给定一个情景,要求考生在这个范围内充分发挥想象力,精心构思出一篇符合情景要求、意思连贯的短文。这类作文限定条件比较少,考生自由发挥程度较大,我们预测以后会考这类题型的作文。例如题中说某国大学生代表团要来你班交流联欢,请你写一篇欢迎辞在联欢

: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition of about 120 words. Your composition should be based on the following situation. Remember to write clearly.

Situation:

Imagine that you are required to write a Want Ad for the Dean (系主任). You are supposed to base this ad on the outline shown below:

Wanted: Student Consultant to the Dean

Duties: meeting with students; presenting oral and written reports;

attending sessions

Requirements: full-time student with one year of student experience; a

strong sense of duty

Salary: $3,000 an academic year

Time Commitment: 15 h. Weekly

Deadline: December 15, 2000; to Elmer Borden 800-2817

5) 标题作文

标题作文是一种常见的传统式命题作文。它只给出一个标题,不附带任何要求和说明,考生可取不同的角度确立主题并作阐述,文体类型也可根据自己审题和构思写成不同类型的作文。其优点是考生可以充分发挥想象,考出水平;其缺点是由于它没有限制,考生容易写成“千人千面”的作文,不利评分。写这类作文时首先要对标题进行审

视,限制写作范围,选取某一个面来写,再确定文章的体裁、主题和论述或描写的角度。

Directions :Write a composition on the topic “Should Firecracke rs Be Banned ?”Your composition should be at least 120words .Remember to support the main idea with details and make your conclusion.Coherence is also important.

6)关键词作文 Key Words Composition

In this kind of composition ,a series of key words are given together with the title.It requires students' imagination and association in connecting the words logically without going astray from the main topic.

范例:

指示:在30分钟内以“City and Countryside”为题,写一篇120词左右的短文,必需包括下列关键词及表达方式,要求使用正确、恰当。 Key Words and Expressions :

similarities differences environment

transportation education entertainment

colorful boring public health service

reduce the gap

1)The city and the countryside are similar in some ways.

2)But there still exist great differences in the fields of environment ,transportation ,public health service ,education and entertainment.

3)We will try to reduce the gap between The city and the countryside.

第二篇 四级作文对策

准备的三个阶段:

1)写好句子(练熟基本句型和常用句型,请看巅峰训练的58-60页

的写作常用句型和英语作文和翻译经典句型100句)。

2)写好一个段落(英语段落的扩展、衔接与连贯)

3)写好一篇完整四级作文(尽量利用巅峰训练的33-47页的各种作

文模板和范文)

在写四级作文的四个步骤:

1 审题和构思

审题有两个目的:1)确定写作要求,明确要表达的观点;2)确定用什么方式表达主题,是叙述文、描写文还是论说文? 审好题后,就要开始构思,精心选材。选材要典型、具体、生动、有趣,要有利于阐发主题。

2 列提纲

审题和构思完后,就要根据其结果列出提纲,它好象为你写作路上插上路标,以免丢掉要点。由于四六级考试时间仅30分钟,又是写一篇120/150字的短文,所以提纲应尽可能简单些,片言只语都行,以自己看得懂为准。

3. 选材

确定了文章的主题和轮廓之后,我们就开始考虑要选择哪些要点来阐明主题。选材一定要围绕主题句进行,同时要考虑到全面性。

4.动笔

列好提纲后,就可以开始动笔写作了。一般来说,首段为立意段,只要写出三四个句子来即可(大约40个单词),任务是亮出主题,不宜太过细,否则接下来的主体段再重复一次就多余了。接下来是全文的主体段,是这篇文章的精华段,一般写七八个句子为宜(大约60-70个单词)。最后为总结段,也以三四个句子为好(大约40个单词),总结重申一下主题思想或阐发自己的观点。在遣词造句方面,要尽可能用你有把握的词语和你熟悉的句型来表达思想。如果碰见单词不会拼写,意思不会用英语表达,应设法绕开,不要生拼硬凑。

修改

修改的主要任务是检查一下有无拼写和语法方面的错误,同时注意是

否用词有过多的重复。

第三篇 如何写好一个段落

一.英语段落的衔接与连贯

1. 内容上的连贯:

这里所说的连贯有两两层含义。一是指文章在内容上是连贯、统一的,文章中所有的句子都是为全文的中心服务的。就各段而言,其中的每一句话都要紧紧围绕着该段的主题句进行,不能说与主题句无关的东西。

(1) taking part in sports, ain almost all parts of our body. There is no doubt that properly balanced physical activities keep us physically fit. sports can enrich our life and maintain our psychological health. (3) Through participation, everyone can learn that on the playing field he not only competes for himself but also for his team. Sports teach us about consideration, cooperation and optimism, and how to cope with difficulties.

第一句是本段的主题句,接下来作者从体育运动对身体的好处说了两句,第四句讲述体育运动对心理方面的益处,第五句从团队的方面加以论述,最后一句既是论据,同时也是对前面三点的概括。全段没有一句话脱离主题句。

2. 各句子之间要有一定的衔接。 段落结构和句与句之间的衔接应遵照一定的顺序; 段落之间的连接也应符合逻辑。这样使文章连贯紧凑,自然流畅,层次分明,脉络清晰。

we had a high wind on the heat and wear winter coats. And it remained gloomy the weather cleared and the sun came out.Thursday as hot and humid as an August day. it began to rain and it looks as if we’ll l have a cold, steady wind for a few days. 时间上的连接(时间顺序)为蓝色部分引导;

表达上和意义上的连贯为红色部分引导。表达上的连贯常用代词或有意地重复手段和是使用关联词语(或叫语义连接语)或一些修辞上的手法(如排比句或比喻等) 。

二. 段落的展开方法 1. 列举法和举例法 列举事实或举出实例来说明中心思想, 是简单易行、具有说服力的写作方法。

if one of your family members is seriously ill at night, and you don’t know how to deal with it and where to find a doctor, what can you do? A telephone is the answer. Dial 120 and you will get services from the hospital very soon. 列举的模式通常是

主题句 ----example 1

----example 2 ----example 3 …

举例常用表达方式: for example, for instance, such as, like, as proof, thus, take „as a good example, a case in point is that …, to illustrate

列举: first(1y),second(1y),third(1y),then ,next ,last(1y),finally ,for one thing …for another 表示添加:and ,again ,also ,besides ,moreover ,furthermore, what’s more, in addition等词语.

Because — can arise between people from different culture if they misinterpret nonverbal signals. the differences in meaning of gesture very common in the United States: a circle made with the thumb and index finger 食指. To an American , it means that everything is ok. To a Japanese, it means that you are talking about money. In France , it means that something is worthless, and in Greece, it is an obscene gesture. Therefore , 2. 分类法 一般是在主题句之后,依次罗列段落指示词所表达的几个部分或几个方面。然后,选用丰富的事例对所罗列的各个部分或各个方面进行具

体地说明或解释。

books on all subjects, other languages. These books are organized according to subject, title, and author in a central file in the card catalog. Books can generally be checked out of the library and taken home for a period of two to four weeks. there are reference works. which include encyclopedias, dictionaries, bibliography, atlases, etc., and which generally must be used in the library itself. there are periodicals – magazines, newspapers, pamphlets – which are filed alphabetically in racks, or which have been filmed to conserve space. Like reference works, periodicals cannot usually be removed from the library. 分类常用表达方式:to begin with,to start with,first of all,first ,second ,third ,most of all,next ,moreover ,in addition,besides ,furthermore „来表达。 常用句型:

Generally/broadly speaking, there are three kinds/types of … Sth. can be classified according to/depending on … Sth. can be classified on the basis of … Sth. can be divided / further divided into … 3. 因果关系 在段落一开头,就用主题句点明其因果关系,然后选用有关材料,客观的罗列某些原因或结果,以证阐述的中心思想。

因果关系的模式通常是:

原因分析型:在主题句中先介绍某一事件,然后对该事件发生的1个或多个原因进行分析。

1) 主题句(结果) ---- 原因 1 ---- 原因 2 ---- 原因 3 结果分析型:在主题句中先点明所要讨论的事件,然后分析已经或将要发生的结果。

2) ---- 原因 1 ---- 原因 2 ---- 原因 3 → (结果)主题句 3) 原因(1)→ (结果1 / 原因2)→ (结果2 / 原因3) →(结果3)

4)原因 → 结果1

→ 结果2 → 结果3 原因(1)at night without fear of being raped, mugged, or murdered, 原因(2 do they see a way to escape the poisonous air of the cities. 原3)They maintain that American food has become increasingly dangerous to eat. they insist that they are sick of the pace of American life, a pace that leaves no time for relaxation or pleasure. 因果关系常用语汇: because of, so, owing to, thanks to, thus, as a result of, hence, for this reason, consequently, is caused by, lead to, result in 常用句型:

B results from A. B is the result of A. A results in B. A causes B. The causes of / reasons for B is the …

The reasons are as follows:

模式3)例证

因-果-因模式(Cause-Effect-Cause Pattern):

Smoking tobacco → nicotine in the blood streams →the blood vessels contract „„

4.比较法 主题句必须明确表明所要比较的对象和所要比较的范围,实际上就是罗列两个或两个以上比较对象的相同点。

两项相似事务逐一比较:

The PC and MAC are similar in several ways , even though users of either computer would rather die than admit even a small resemblance. Both machines will run graphics in much the same way. Each employs a mouse and a graphical interface(面) or Windows-like environment in a similar fashion to run programs such as Page Maker or Microsoft Word. The final likeness is that both the PC and the MAC incorporate(合并) technology that allows them to "talk" to each other. In just a few more years, the PC and MAC will become even more

alike , and users will be less adamant顽固的 about the unique qualities of their computers. 两项不同事务逐一比较:

The public transportation system in Paris consists of subways and buses. Paris has one of the best subway systems in the world. The subway, or metro, spans the entire city of Paris, linking one end of the city with another. Most people in Paris travel by metro because it is fast, economical, and convenient. The bus system in Paris is also quite good. For Parisians, having a car is a luxury, not a necessity. On the other hand, public transportation in American cities leaves a lot to be desired. Subways, can be expensive and inconvenient — inconvenient because only very small portion of a city are served. The bus remains the only true means of public transport in most cities , but one finds poor connections, indirect routes, and high prices. So a car in the United States is not a luxury. 类比法 (Analogy)

Example 1 Laying a solid foundation words, you should read and speak English every day. Memorizing new words and phrases is also helpful. Like building a house, learning English takes some time . So don’t be impatient. Remember, Rome wasn’t built in a day. 常用句型:

~ Like A, B is/v … ~ In contrast to A, B is/v ... ~ By comparison .... ~ In spite of their similarities/differences... ~ To compare to/with... ~ A is not exactly/entirely/quite/the same as... ~ A is totally different from B. ~ A is like B in... 常用表达方式::

表示相似或一样:similarly, similar to, the same as, accordingly, both show a degree of similarity, and„ too, in the same way, in a like manner

表示对比或转折:in contrast,by contrast,contrasted with,on one hand…on the other hand,on the contrary,but ,yet ,however ,

nevertheless ,instead ,meanwhile

5.叙述和描述法 Description 有些段落需要叙述一个事件或描写一个事务;基本上可以用按时间顺序、空间顺序和步骤顺序来进行叙述或描述。

I jumped off the bus before it stopped and began walking down the street. As I had arrived early, I decided to look at the shop windows before going home. The idea made me quite happy, but at the same time I had the unpleasant feeling that I had forgotten something. I stopped in the middle of the pavement and began searching my pockets. All of a sudden I remembered that I was without my briefcase! I had left it on the bus and it was full of important papers. The thought was enough to make me start running down the street, though, by now, the bus was out of sight.

表示时间和顺序:earlier ,later ,afterwards , meanwhile ,in the meantime ,shortly, soon ,presently ,currently ,recently ,at present ,in the future/past,

at first ,more/most important first of all ,in the first place ,to begin with,to start with,first ,then ,next ,last ,at last,finally

6.论证法 Argument

论证是通过摆事实、讲道理阐明观点,这是学术写作和大学英语写作中常用的方法。通常先研究关于某一论题已存在的各种观点,对不同的观点进行比较和对照,然后予以评价分析,最后提出自己的观点。

议论文有时结合归纳和演绎两种方法会更具有说服力。

I ,归纳法 induction

归纳法是一种逻辑推理方法。使用归纳法组织素材是从具体到抽象或从特殊到一般,由特定的事实到结论的思维过程。通常需借助具体事例得出结论,即把具体的内容置于段落的前面,然后根据这些事实引申出一个符合逻辑的结论。

There are four major ethnic groups in New York City :Whites ,Blacks ,Indians and Chicanos.In addition,some neighborhoods have large Japanese, Jewish, Chinese, Vietnamese or Korean population s. The city is a culturally diverse community.

这个段落的写作运用了归纳法逻辑推理。

2.演绎法 (Deduction)

演绎法是与归纳法相对的另外一种逻辑推理方法,是从抽象到具

体的思维过程,从一般到特殊。由结论到特定的事实的思维过程。在使用演绎法组织文章时,把带有普通性或概括性的句子置于段首,即段首主题句。然后以此为依据,通过具体事实加以说明和推理论证。 New York City is a culturally diverse community. There are four major ethnic groups: Whites, Blacks, Indians and Chicanos. In addition, some neighborhoods have large Japanese, Jewish, Chinese, Vietnamese or Korean populations.

此段落运用演绎法展开逻辑推理。

其它类别的关联词:

表示让步:after all, of course, certainly , naturally , no doubt, it is true

表示归纳和总结:in conclusion,to conclude,to summarize,to sum up,in short,in brief,in a word,all in all,on the whole,generally speaking

第四篇 运用作文模板写好一篇作文

三段作文法

作文一般包括引入段(introduction)、主体(body)和结尾段(conclusion)三个部分。在写这三部分时都有什么技巧可以使用呢? 1.引人段 四级作文引入段的写作通常包括以下方法: 1) 对立法:提出两种不同的观点,指明自己偏向于哪一种看法;或者指出——般的看法,然后说明自己的观点。如:

2) 现象法:引出现象或者问题,然后评论。如: 3) 比较法:通过对过去和现在两种不同的倾向、观点的比较,引出文章要讨论的观点。如:

4) 问题法:用设问引出观点。如: 2.主体 主体部分是文章的主要内容,可以用原因法、举例说明法、对比异同法、分类法等方法展开主体部分。

3.结尾段 结尾部分通常言简意赅地突出主题,并且提出解决方案或建议。

1) 总结中心句 2) 建议句结尾 3) 期望或者倡议或预测未来 表示对将来的展望,或期待读者投入行动,表示对未来情形的预测。

四级作文的结构与模式

四级作文从内容上大致可以分为阐述图表型、对立观点型、说明

利弊型、解释原因或理由型、解决问题型、解释现象型及应用短文七大类。

一.图表作文

图表作文是四六级作文考试常考题型之一,也是考生觉得较难对付的作文形式。

图表形式:

图表题型主要分类:

(1)曲线图题型(Line chart); (2)饼状图题型(Pie chart);

(3)柱状图题型(Bar chart); (4)表格图题型(Table)。

要求考生:

通常还给出作文的标题和一些提示(1)用文字来描述图表,客观解释图表中所传递的信息并找出某种规律或趋势;(2) 就图表中所反映出某种趋势或问题分析其原因或后果。(3) 根据前面的分析得出你的结论或发表你的看法。一般要求写成论说文。

年6月四级考试作文为统计表格题:

: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition about Changes in People’s Diet according to the following outline in three paragraphs. Your part of the composition should be no less than 120 words, not including the words given. Remember to write clearly. You should quote as few figures as possible.

Changes in People’s Diet 1 state the changes in people’s diet in the past five years

2 give possible reasons for the changes

3 draw your own conclusion

看图表作文一般可分三段写。第一段说明该图表反映的总情况,选择能充分说明主题的典型数据进行概述。第二段对数字进行仔细分析比较,归纳出增减速率,找出产生变化的原因。第三段写读图表后的想法或评论,得出自己的结论。

General introduction——Analysis ——Conclusion

概要介绍—分析图表和变化的原因—评论或总结

表示数量关系的常用句型

1)The chart shows there was slight/small/ steady/marked/ dramatic increase / rise/decline/ decrease / drop in the period from…to …..

2)There appeared a stable/ steady tendency to rise/ increase /drop/ fall/decrease in the period from…to ….

3) This year the products have been dropped to half /was cut in half/doubled/tripled (三倍)/ quadrupled (四倍)

4)As is twice/three times larger/higher/smaller than B.

As is twice/three times as large as B. As is twice/three times/half the size/height/ of B.

模板:

As can be seen from the table,/It is obvious in the chart that (1)描述数量变化趋势„„

W hy are there changes in „„? / What are the reasons for(2) 解释原因„„? (3) First/ First of all, 原因1 „„„„ (4)Second / Moreover/ More importantly 原因2„„„ (5) Finally 原因3 „„

From the above, we can see that(6)小结 „„„„„„ And we can also expect that (7) 趋势预测 „„„„„/ As far as I am concerned (7)或我的想法或评论 „„„„„

范文:

Changes in People’s Diet

As can be seen from the table, great changes have been taking place in people’s diet over the period from 1986 to 1990. The consumption of grain is decreasing year by year, while that of some high-energy food, such as milk and meat, is increasing steadily.

Why are there changes in people’s diet? There are two major reasons , I think. First , nowadays people can afford to buy much more expensive food with better nutrition. Second , people now pay more attention to the quality of it, because they know it is of great benefit to their health to diet in a scientific way. Therefore they try their best to improve the structure of their food.

From the above, we can see that people’s living level has been rising markedly in the past five years. And we can also expect that with the rapid development of China there will be more prosperous future waiting for us. 二. 问题解决型

1.出题形式 How I Finance My College Education 1.上大学的费用(tuition and fees)可以通过各种途径解决 2.哪种途径适合于我(说明理由) How to Succeed in a Job Interview? 1.面试在求职过程中的作用 2.取得面试成功的因素:仪表、举止、谈吐、能力、专业知识、自信、实事求是„

从以上的例子可见,解决问题型作文题主要有 出题形式可以总结为:

提出问题——原因——解决途径型 这种题型首先提出某(些) 需解决的问题/困难,然后要求我们解释出现这—— (些) 向题/困难的原因,最后要求我们提出问题/困难的解决途径。

2. 篇章结构 提出问题——原因——解决途径型: 第一段 引言:指出出现的问题或提出一种错误的观念 第二段 说明出现这一问题的原因或指出这一观念错误的原因 第三段 提出解决问题的各种途径

第四段 结论:表达我对问题能被妥善解决的信心或预测采取这些措施后的结果或我的打算。

写作模板

①指出需解决的问题(的现状) Nowadays ……… , which has aroused close public attention/great concern. It is widely assumed/believed that_………, they think_……… because………_. ②指出导致这一现状有多种原因 There are several/many factors that/which may contribute to/have led to ………. To begin with, ③原因一………. Besides, ④原因二……… Last but not least, ⑤原因三_………. ⑥指出有多种解决途径We can resort to various ways/There are different ways to tackle the problem/cope with the situation. Firstly, ⑦途径一………. Secondly , ⑧途径二_………. Finally/Lastly, ⑨途径三……….

⑩结论(表达对问题能被妥善解决的信心或预测采取这些措施后的结果) With ………, I believe _……… . Only in this way can we ………_

或⑩我的打算 As for me, I plan to …………..

4.段落发展方法 在写解决问题型作文时,主要可采用列举法来展开段落,列举引起某一问题的原因或应采取的解决问题的途径。

5.真题范文 Getting to Know the World outside the Campus 1.大学生了解社会的必要性 2.了解社会的途径(大众媒介、社会服务等) 3.我打算怎么做 It is widely believed that we are living in the information Age and nothing is more important than to keep pace with the fast-changing world for college students.Without knowledge of the outside world,it will be more difficult for us to secure an ideal job after graduation ,not to mention success in the future. How can we know the outside world ? By reading books? Or by surfing the internet? Yes ,we should be well informed about what is happening around us with the help “mass media :radios ,televisions ,newspapers ,the Internet,and so on.However ,another thing that can not be ignored is practical social services .By serving the society ,we can cultivate our social skills ,widen our eyesight and enrich our social experience . As for me,I plan to know the outside world in two aspects:first, study to have a good command of knowledge.Meanwhile ,I intend to hold a temporary job during the summer vacation to know more about the outside world. 三.阐述对立观点型

在四级考试中,我们常常会遇到要我们就两种对立的观点表明自己态度的题目。请看下面两个例子;

例1. Is a Test of Spoken English Necessary? 1.很多人认为有必要举行英语口语考试,理由是„ 2.也有人持不同意见 3.我的看法和打算 (2006年) 例2. Should the University Campus Be Open to Tourists? 如何看待大学校园成为旅游热点?

1.名校校园正成为旅游新热点 2.校园是否应对游客开放,人们看法不同 3.我认为„ (2005年) 2.中文提纲 阐述对立观点型作文的中文提纲则往往是这样的:

1.有(些) 人认为„ 2.也有(些) 人认为„ 3.我的看法/观点 3.篇章结构 第一段 引言:引出讨论的主题(X),提出A 方的观点,可略提理由

第二段 提出B 方的观点,可略提理由。 第三段 正文:表明自己的看法,阐述理由 第四段 结论:总结全文,重申自己的观点

这种篇章结构更接近原题的安排。 4.写作模板 模板

① 引出主题(X)When asked about X,different people will offer different opinions.Some people say /think /believe that ②A 方的观点 ……….

② But others hold /believe that ③B 方的观点…….

④自己的看法As far as l am concerned,I agree with the first/second view .The reasons are as followings .⑤阐述理由First ,理由一……… Secon d 理由二………. , Finally 理由三………..

⑧总结全文In conclusion,………. 这种篇章结构更接近原题的安排 5.段落发展方法可采用对比法引出主体,用举例法阐述自己的观点和理由。

6.真题范文„ Do "Lucky Numbers" Really Bring Good Luck? 1. 有人认为某些数字会带来好运 2. 也有人认为数字与运气无关 3.试说明你的看法 When it comes to lucky numbers, opinions vary. Some people are in favor of those numbers. They point out that lucky numbers like 8 and 6 will bring them good luck and great fortune. They would like to pay twice or many times more of the usual price for a "lucky" telephone number, or a car plate number. However, other people stand on a different ground. They consider it absurd and superstitious. The example they'd cite about Bill Gates can give the details of this argument: undoubtedly, the richest person in the world now has never driven a car with a number of 888 or 666.

I firmly stand on the second opinion that "Lucky Numbers" has nothing to do with one's luck or fortune. They are but symbols

indicating the names of certain things. In order to be wealthy, the only thing we need do is to work hard and honestly.

模板:

As can be seen from the table,/It is obvious in the chart that (1)描述数量变化趋势„„

W hy are there changes in / What are the reasons for(2) 解释原因„„? (3) First/ First of all,原因1 „„„„ (4)Second / Moreover/ More importantly原因2„„„ (5) Finally原因3 „„

From the above, we can see that(6)小结 „„„„„„ And we can also expect that (7) 趋势预测 „„„„„/ As far as I am concerned (7)我的想法或评论 „„„„„

这张表反映了1986年到1990年五年中人们饮食结构方面的变化情况。

1) 粮食(Grain)消费量在下降,五年间减少了四个百分点;

2) 奶牛(Milk)和肉食(Meat)的消费量在增加,分别增长三和四个百分点;

3) 水果和蔬菜(Fruit and Vegetable) 的消费量呈下降趋势。

以上数据显示一个总趋势:人们的饮食结构正在由以粮食为主向肉奶蛋高能量的方向转化。根据以上分析,写出以下范文:

Changes in People’s Diet

As can be seen from the table, great changes have been taking place in people’s diet over the period from 1986 to 1990. The consumption of grain is decreasing year by year, while that of some high-energy food, such as milk and meat, is increasing steadily.

Why are there changes in people’s diet? There are two major reasons , I think. First, nowadays people can afford to buy much more expensive food with better nutrition. Second, people now pay more attention to the quality of it, because they know it is of great benefit to their health to diet in a scientific way. Therefore they try their best to improve the structure of their food.

From the above, we can see that people’s living level has been rising markedly in the past five years. And we can also expect that there will be more prosperous future waiting for us. 由于时间关系,说明利弊型、解释原因或理由型、解释现象型及应用短文等的模板将今后再讲。或大家参考有关书籍。