大学英语四级讲义--词汇作文
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第一部分:分类词性,突破语法

一、分类句中词性,突破相关语法

动词部分

1、谓语动词

1)关于时态

A 、一般现在时代替一般将来时:

a. 在时间状语从句、条件状语从句或让步状语从句中

e.g. Even if she doesn’t come this Saturday, I’ll go fishing by myself.

b. 少数表示动作起止的动词有时也可用一般现在时代替一般将来时,表示一个按规定、计划或安排要求发生的动作。

e.g. The plane for Beijing takes off at 10:30 a.m..

B 、在时间、条件或让步状语从句中:

a. 用一般过去时代替过去将来时

e.g. He said he would not go out if it rained.

b. 用现在完成时代替将来完成时,强调从句的动作先于主句的动作。

e.g. Don’t get off the bus until it has stopped.

C 、在下列句型中常用一般现在时:

a. 用现在时代替现在进行时。

e.g. There he comes! Here comes the bus!

b. It is +(多久的时间)+ since …的句型可用is 代替现在完成时:

e.g. It is five years since I moved here.

D 、现在完成时:

a. 现在完成时表示动作过去已经完成,但对现在仍有影响,常与for 或since 短语连用。 e.g. He has been in China since his graduation (for a decade).

b. 由终止性动词等构成的完成时不能与for 或since 引起的时间状语连用。但终止性动词等构成的完成时的否定式却可以和for 或since 引导的时间状语连用。

e.g. I haven’t seen him for three years.

c. 现在完成时可用在表示时间或条件的状语从句中,表示将来某时间将已完成的动作。 e.g. When you have learned English, you’ll find it a bridge to so much knowledge. d. 在下列句型中常用现在完成时。

e.g. This is the first time I have met him.

// This is the best film I have ever seen.

// This is the only book he has written.

E 、英语中通常有四类动词不宜用进行式。

a. 表示心理状态、情感的动词:如love, hate, know...

b. 表示存在的状态:如appear, exist, lie(位于), remain, stand(位于), seem, belong to...

c. 表示一时性动作的动词:accept, complete, decide, refuse, promise...

d. 表示感官的动词:see, hear, notice, feel, sound...

F 、一般过去时与现在完成时的区别

a. just now用于过去时,just 用于现在完成时。

b. ago用过去时,before 用于现在完成时,ago 不能单独使用,前面要加类似于a few days这样的时间表达,而before 可以单独使用。

c. since +过去点时间,for +一段时间;皆用现在完成时,表示到目前的结果。

G 、前后时态的呼应

a. 在一些名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句)中,如果主句谓语是现在时(包括一般现在时、现在进行时、现在完成时或现在完成进行时)或将来时,则从句的谓语动词可以用任何时态;若主句谓语动词用过去时(包括一般过去时、过去进行时、过去完成时或过去完成进行时),则从句中的谓语时态要作相应的调整。

b. 但是,当从句所表述的内容是个普遍存在的真理时不必考虑该呼应。

H 、过去完成时

a. No sooner + had +主语+过去分词+ than +主语+一般过去时

Hardly + had +主语+过去分词+ when +主语+一般过去时

Scarcely + had +主语+过去分词+ when +主语+一般过去时

b. 常用hope, expect, think, intend, want, suppose等动词的过去完成时来表示未实现的希望、打算或意图。e.g. We had expected that you would be able to win the match. I 、现在完成进行时

用来表示从过去某一时刻开始一直持续到现在(或今后还要继续下去)的动作 e.g. He has been doing the maths problems since 8:00.

J 、将来完成时

用来表示在将来某个时刻(前)将完成的动作。常和by 短语,when, before引起的时间状语连用。e.g. We will have finished this task by the end of this year. K 、时态考点分析

(1)——Can I join your club, dad?

——You can when you______a bit older.

A.get

B.will get

C.are getting

D.will have got

233网校解析:“You can”是将来意义,when 引导的时间状语从句要用一般现在时表将来,所以此题答案为A.

(2)——Oh, it’s you! I______ you.

——I ’ve just had my hair cut and I’m wearing new glasses.

A.didn ’t recognize

B.hadn ’t recognized

C.haven ’t recognized

D.don ’t recognize

233网校解析:从“Oh,it ’s you!”可知说话时已认出对方。“没有认出”是在此之前,为过去情况,所以应选A.

(3)I don’t think Jim saw me;he______into space.

A.just stared

B.was just staring

C.has just stared

D.had just stared

233网校解析:在空白处应选一个与“saw ”相配,能解释Jim didn’t see me 这一原因的选项,只有着眼于A 、B 。若选A 不能体观他“当时正在做”某事,故排除A 而选B 。这样因为“他正在望宇宙天空”所以“未看到我”。

(4)——______my glasses?

——Yes,I saw them on your bed a minute ago.

A.Do you see

B.Had you seen

C.Would you see

D.Have you seen

233网校解析:现在完成时可表过去发生的事情对现在产生的影响或结果,问话人以这样的时态发问可表现焦急的心情。故答案为D 。

(5)——Do you know our town at all?

——No,this is the first time I______here.

A.was

B.have been

C.came

D.am going

233网校解析:根据this/it is the first/second/…time sb. has done sth.句型,可定答案为B 。

2)关于语态

A 、做客观说明时,常用下列被动结构:

(1) It is said that … 据说……

(2) It is reported that … 据报道……

(3) It is hoped that … 大家希望……

(4) It is believed that … 人们相信……

(5) It is (well) known that … 众所周知……

(6) It has been decided that … 大家决定……

(7) It is supposed that … 大家认为……

(8) It is suggested that … 据建议……

(9) It must be remembered that … 务必记住……

B 、有些系动词,如feel ,smell ,taste ,sound ,prove 等,用主动形式表示被动意义。 有些不及物动词(其主语大多指物)的主动形式可以表达被动意义,这种不及物动词有下列几种。

(1)某些可用来表示主语内在品质或性能的不及物动词,如shut ,open ,sell ,read ,wash ,cut ,write 等。

(2)不及物动词或短语,如happen ,take place,belong to,break out,last ,go out,run out,cost ,spread 等。

(3)某些可用于“主语+谓语+补语”结构中的不及物动词,如wear ,blow 等。 e.g. This material has worn thin. 这种布料已经穿薄了。

// This door blew open. 门给吹开了。

C 、与介词合成的及物动词,在改为被动语态时,要保留其介词。如:

look after, call on, pay attention to, take care of, look forward to

D 、动词不定式在动词make ,let 以及感官动词后作补语,常省略to ,但转换成被动语态时,一定要还原to 。

E 、感官动词的主动形式表示被动含义:taste ,feel ,smell ,sound ,look 等。

F 、be + worth+ v-ing表示被动含义;need (want, require) + v-ing表示被动含义。 G 、过去分词作宾语补足语,与宾语形成局部的被动关系,主要表现在宾语补足语中。have a tooth pulled, make oneself understood

H 、特别注意seat 的主动和被动语态的两种形式。

seat oneself表示动作,be seated表示状态。

I 、容易误用被动语态的情况:

(1)I teach myself French.不可变为Myself is taught French.因为反身代词不可作主语。

(2)We help each other/one another.不可变为Each other/One another is helped by us. 因为相互代词不可作主语。

(3)He lost heart.不可变为Heart was lost by him.因为lose heart, keep silence这类动宾结构的固定短语只能用于主动式,不能用被动式。

(4) She took part in the sports meeting.不能变为The sports meeting was taken part in by her.因为take part in, belong to 等表状态动词没有被动语态。

J 、被动语态考点分析

(1)I need one more stamp before my collection______.

A.has completed

B.completes

C.has been completed

D.is completed

233网校解析:complete 是及物动词,“邮集”是被人完成的,须从表被动意的C 、D 中选择。又因before 等引导的时间状语从句中谓语要用一般现在时表将来,所以此题答案为D 。

(2)——Do you like the material?

——Yes, it______very soft.

A.is feeling

B.felt

C.feels

D.is felt

233网校解析:观察题干,空白线后无宾语,可知feel 是不及物动词,表“(某物)摸起来…”意思, 是连系动词,不能用于被动句式,也不用进行时。根据此题对话情景,是指某种材料的常规特性,要用一般现在时,不能用过去时,故答案为C 。feel 作“感觉”、“认为”、“摸”等意思时是及物动词,可带宾语,有时态,语态等变化。

(3)Great changes______in the city,and a lot of factories______.

A.have been taken place…have been set up

B.have taken place…have been set up

C.have taken place…have set up

D.were taken place…were set up

233网校解析:take place(发生)是不及物动词,不可用于被动语态,于是可排除A 、D ,又因set up(建造) 是及物动词,在此题中应该用被动式,故排除C ,答案为B 。

(4)Most of the artists______to the party were from South Africa.

A.invited

B.to invite

C.has been invited

D.had been invited

233网校解析:首先可排除B 。因为它不表示“被邀请”。又因C 、D 项少引导词who ,也应排除。A 项=who were invited,故答案为A 。

(5)If city noises______from increasing,people____shout to be heard even at the dinner table 20 years from now.

A.are not kept…will have to

B.are not kept…have to

C.do not keep…will have to

D.do not keep…have to

233网校解析:观察题干,第一处必须用被动式,答案只能在A 、B 中选一。条件句用一般现在时,主句应为一般将来时,故答案为A 。

3)关于语气

A 、在错综条件句子中,虚拟条件从句和主句动作发生的时间不一致,因此,主句和从句的谓语动词应根据所指的时间选用适当的虚拟语气形式。

(1)If I were you,I wouldn't have missed the film last night.

如果我是你,我就不会错过昨天晚上的那部电影。

(从句与现在事实相反,主句与过去事实相反。)

(2)If he had followed the doctor's advice,he would recover already. 如果他遵照医生的劝告,现在病就好了。

(从句与过去事实相反,主句与现在事实相反。)

B 、在if 虚拟条件句中,有时可把连词省去,采用倒装语序把谓语动词were 或助动词had ,should 移到句首构成非真实条件从句的另一种句型,其意思不变。

(1)Had we time to spare,we would be glad to go to the park.

如果能抽出时间,我们很乐意逛公园。

(2)Were it not for the discovery of electricity,the modern world would experience great inconvenience.

假如没有发现电,现代世界将很不方便。

C 、有时假设的情况不用if 引导虚拟条件从句来表述,而用介词(如without ,but for等)引出的短语、分词(如supposing 等)引出的短语、并列连词(如or ,otherwise ,but ,though 等)、由动词suppose 引出的祈使句或通过上下文的意思来表达。此时句中谓语动词仍采用虚拟语气的相应形式。

(1)But for your advice,I would not be able to do this work.

要不是你的劝告,我是不会做这份工作的。

(2)Victor obviously doesn't know what's happened,otherwise he wouldn't have made such a stupid remark.

显然,维克多不知道发生了什么事情。不然的话,他就不会说这样愚蠢的话了。

D 、在一些表示愿望、建议、请求、命令等含义的动词后面的宾语从句中,谓语动词用动词原形或"should +动词原形" 表示虚拟语气。这类动词有ask ,demand , insist,order ,propose ,desire ,require 等。

(1)They demanded that the aggressor troops(should )be withdrawn immediately. 他们要求立即撤出侵略军。

(2)I proposed that he(should )be discharged for his serious mistake. 我提议,由于他犯有严重错误,应解除他的职务。

E 、在"would (had )rather (would sooner,would as soon)+宾语从句" 句型中,要求后面的宾语从句用虚拟语气。但这种虚拟语气表示的不是与事实相反的假设,而是一种尚未实现的愿望,其从句谓语动词用一般过去时。

(1)I would rather you came next Friday.

我希望你下周五来。

(2)I'd just as soon you didn't speak rudely to her.我真希望你别对她那么粗鲁地讲话。

F 、在和idea ,necessity ,plan ,motion ,order ,proposal ,recommendation ,suggestion ,under- standing等词有关的同位语或表语从句中,谓语动词用动词原形或"should +动词原形" ,表示虚拟语气。

(1)My idea is that the group(should )hold another session to discuss the problem .

我的意见是小组召开另一次会议来讨论这个问题。

(2)Emphasis is laid on the necessity that all the objectives to be attained be taken into account before starting a new project.

我们强调在开始制定一个新的计划之前,必须把要达到的所有目标都考虑进去。

G 、在某些"It is+形容词+that …" 句型中,如"It is important(necessary ,essential ,natural ,desirable ,unusual ,pity ,strange )that …" ,that 所引导的主语从句中谓语动词均用动词原形或"should +动词原形" 来表示虚拟语气。

(1)It is highly desirable that a new president be appointed for this college. 人们迫切地希望能给这个学院派一个新院长。

(2)It is strange that the girl(should )be so arrogant.

真奇怪,这个女孩竟会如此傲慢。

H 、在"It is ordered(suggested ,demanded ,planned 等)+that …" 这个句型中,that 引导的主语从句要用虚拟语气形式,谓语动词用动词原形或"should +动词原形" 。

(1)It is demanded that Lucy give a performance at the party.

有人要求露茜在晚会上表演一个节目。

(2)It was suggested that more teachers(should )be sent there to help them. 有人建议派更多的老师去那里帮助他们。

I 、as if/though 可以引出一个状语从句也可以引出一个表语从句。当as if/though 跟在be ,feel ,look ,seem ,sound 等系动词之后时,引导的是表语从句;如果主句的谓语动词不是系动词be 等,as if/though 引导的则是方式状语从句。无论是哪种类型的从句,只要从句的内容是不真实的,都必须用虚拟语气。当从句表示与现在的事实相反,谓语动词用一般过去时;表示与过去事实相反要用"had +过去分词" ;表示与将来可能相反的则用"would (could ,might )+动词原形" 。

(1)I feel as if I were going to faint.

我感到我像要昏过去似的。(与现在事实相反的表语从句)

(2)She cried as if her heart could be broken.

她哭的好像心都要碎了。(状语从句)

J 、在It is(about /high )time …引导的定语从句中,也可以根据需要使用虚拟语气,用以表示" (此刻)该做...... 而没有做" 的意思,其谓语动词用过去时或"should +动词原形(用should 时,不能将其省略)" 。

(1)It is time I should leave.我该走了。

(2)It is about time that you got//should get dressed.你该穿衣服了。

K 、if only引导的是省略了表示结果的主句的虚拟结构,现在已成为习惯用法,表达愿望。从句用过去时表示现在没有实现的愿望;对过去没有实现或不能实现的愿望,从句就用过去完成时。这类句型表示一种不真实的条件,常译成“要是...... 就好了!”

(1)If only I had taken mother's advice.我要是听取妈妈的建议就好了。

(2)If only I could speak several foreign languages.我要是能讲几种外语就好了。 L 、在以in order that,so that,lest 引导的目的状语从句中,谓语动词一般用虚拟语气。从句中的谓语动词用"may (might )+动词原形" 或"should +动词原形" 。在以lest 引导的从句中,谓语动词用"should +动词原形" 。

(1)She stayed at home for a few days so that she might take care of her sick mother .

她在家里呆了好几天,以便能照顾生病的母亲。

(2)The teacher explained the sentences again and again in order that the students could understand them clearly.

老师一再解释这些句子,以便学生能够清楚地理解。

2、非谓语动词

1)不定式的时态和语态

A. 不定式的主动态

(1)不定式主动态的一般式:

The students hoped to do business after graduation.

(2)不定式主动态的进行式:

They seem to be talking about something important.

(3)不定式主动态的完成式:

I hoped to have seen her.

B. 不定式的被动态

(1)不定式被动态的一般式:

The problem remains to be solved.

(2)不定式被动态的完成式:

He is said to have been hurt in the accident.

(3)rather than/ other than

No one could do other than admire him.

C. 不定式的用法

(1)作主语

It is wrong to tell lies.

To tell lies is wrong.

(2)作宾语

He agreed to keep it a secret.

(3)作表语

The important thing is to save money.

(4)作宾语的定语

They are waiting for the train to come.

(5)作主语的定语

The next train to arrive was from Beijing.

(6)作目的状语

I ’ll write down his post code so as not to forget it.

2)动名词的时态和语态

A. 动名词的主动态

(1)动名词主动态的一般式:

Would you mind my closing the door?

(2)动名词主动态的完成式:

He denied having been there.

B. 动名词的被动态

(1)动名词被动态的一般式:

He came to our party without being asked.

(2)动名词被动态的完成式:

I do not remember having been given such a book.

(3)动名词的否定式:

He prided himself on having never been beaten.

C. 动名词用法

(1)作主语

Watching English TV programs is a good way.

(2)作表语

Her job is looking after children.

(3)作定语

It is a very good swimming pool.

(4)动名词的复合结构:名词所有格或者物主代词后加动名词构成动名词的复合结构,通常这个名词所有格或这个物主代词是动名词表示动作的逻辑主语。

I don’t like your saying that.

3)分词的时态和语态

A. 分词的主动态与被动态

(1)现在分词主动态的一般式:

The book is boring.

(2)现在分词主动态的完成式:

Having finished the course, we had an exam.

(3)现在分词被动态的一般式:

The house being built will be seven stories high.

(4)及物动词的过去分词在时态上表示完成意义,在语态上表示被动意义:

The water is boiled.//He was injured.

B. 分词的用法:

(1)作定语

The amusing story set us laughing.

(2)作表语

The film is very moving.

(3)作宾语补足语

I felt the house shaking.

(4)作状语

While waiting for bus, we met them.

(5)分词独立结构:分词可以有其独立的逻辑主语,这种主语常常是名词或者代词主格,放置于分词之前,两者构成一种分词独立结构,常用作状语。也称独立主格结构。 Weather permitting, we shall have picnic.

C. 非谓语动词综合辨析

(1)一般来说,不定式和动名词语法成分相同时,动名词表示习惯性经常性的抽象行为,而不定式则往往表示一次性的具体行为。

Playing with fire is dangerous.

//To play with fire will be dangerous.

(2)在某些动词之后只能用动名词,而一些动词之后只能用不定式。

不定式常见于:afford to \agree \aim \ask \claim \choose \decline \desire \dare \determine \expect \fail \help \long \elect \manage \offer \plan \promise \refuse \pretend \prepare\ wish

接动名词的有:acknowledge \ admit \ avoid \ consider \ delay \ deny \ dislike \ enjoy \ escape \ fancy \ finish \ imagine \ include \ keep \ mind \ miss \ postpone \ practise \ permit \ excuse \ recall \ resist \ stop \ suggest

接动名词的短语有:give up \ put off \ look forward to \ feel like \ insist on \ object to \ set about \ can’t help \ be used to

(3)动名词作定语与现在分词作定语有所不同:动名词和它所修饰的名词在逻辑上没有主谓关系,前者不是后者发出的动作。动名词表示的多是被修饰名词的功能、用途。而现在分词作定语时,现在分词和它所修饰的名词在逻辑上有主谓关系,前者是后者发出的动作。 working method // singing girl

(4)want \need \require后接动名词表示被动意义。翻译成“需要、该……” 。 These plants want watering.

形容词与副词

1、形容词的用法

A. 作补足语

The room was found empty.

B. 名词化形容词

The poor are very happy.

C. 作定语

There is a tall wall in front of the house.

D. 前置形容词的排列顺序为:

冠词(物主代词、指示代词、名词所有格)+ 描述性的定语(数量、大小、性质、颜色、年龄)+ 本质性的定语 + 被修饰的名词

some big red apples

// a pretty purple silk dress

2、副词的分类与用法

A. 副词的分类

1)时间副词(today\ then\ yet\ just\ soon\ first)

2)地点副词(here\ somewhere\ above \ back)

3)方式副词(hard \ loudly\ softly\ gently\ kindly)

4)程度副词 (very\ too\ fairly\ rather\ quite\ still\ almost\ nearly)

5)频度副词 (seldom\ hardly\ rarely\ ever\ never\ often)

2、副词的分类与用法

A. 副词的分类

6)疑问副词(where\ when\ why\ how)

7)关系副词:用来引导定语从句(where\ when\ why\how)

8)连接副词:用来引导名词性从句

B. 副词的用法

1) 作状语

They always spend their holidays in mountains.

2)“enough ”的用法:用在形容词、副词的后面。

The boy is old enough to go to school.

3、有些形容词和副词由于其意义而不可能有比较等级形式:

empty\ right\ excellent\ true\ final\ atomic\ monthly\ nuclear\ molecular

4、比较对象要相呼应,相比内容必须相同,相比对象可以用one \ that \ those代替 The price of meat is higher than that of rice.

The students of our class are much more than those of your class.

5、有些形容词本身具有比较级含义,用这些形容词进行比较时,不能使用连词than ,而使用to 。

Only one manager is superior to me now.

6、“most+原级的形容词”结构中,前面用不定冠词a an或不用冠词,most 是“非常”的含义。

The Summer Palace is a most beautiful park in Beijing, and Beihai Park is a most one, too.

7、“the +比较级的形容词或副词…, the+比较级的形容词或副词…”

The more haste, the less speed.

8、“no+比较级的形容词或副词+than、not +比较级的形容词或副词+than…”

a. no more than 意为“和……一样不……”,指前后两者都差;not more than意为“并不比……更……”,not 只否定前者,表示前者不如后者。

His English is no better than mine.

// His English is not better than mine.

b. 后接数字时,no more than 意为“只不过”,而not more than意为“不超过”。 There are no more than ten second-class tickets left.

There are not more than ten second-class tickets left.

9、“no less than,not less than”

a. no less …than 后接形容词或者副词含有肯定意义,意为“与……一样”;not less…than 意为“不比……更……”,表示从程度上前者不差于后者。

He is no less quick at figures than I.

He is not less quick at figures than I.

b. no less than后接数字表示“多达……”,not less than表示“不少于,至少”。 We have learned no less than 1,900 new words this semester.

We have learned not less than 1,900 new words this semester.

10、次数、倍数、分数、百分数的比较原则是:大于或小于的数量必须前置(放在比较结构前) 。

We have produced 30% more cars than last year.

// Asia is 3 times larger than Europe.

代词

1、代词的分类

1)人称代词:

主格 I you he she it we they

宾格 me you him her it us them

2)物主代词:

形容词性:my your his her its our their

名词性:mine yours his hers its ours theirs

3)反身代词:myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves themselves oneself yourselves

4)指示代词:this that these those such

5)疑问代词:what who (whose) which

6)不定代词:some/no/any/every + thing/body/one all some

7)关系代词:as who (whose) which that

8)相互代词:one another= each other

9)连接代词:what which who that

二、句句珠玑话结构,灵活运用是关键

名词性从句

1、主语从句:

What he said was true.

It was true what he said.

2、表语从句:

The question is where my husband is.

The fact is that I have lost my key.

3、宾语从句:

I hope (that) you will enjoy your stay here.

She asked what foreign language I was studying then.

4、同位语从句

Where did you get the idea that I could not come?

We know the fact that students should be honest.

5、名词性从句的用法

1)作主语

Is it possible for us that we apply for a patent for the new type of product?

2)作宾语

I found nothing wrong in what he said.

形容词性从句

1、定语从句

1)关系代词和关系副词的选择:

a. The supermarket that was opened last week is a very modern one. b. the+n.+of+which(whom)

He lives in the room, the door of which is green.

The girl, the father of whom is a teacher, studies very well.

2)关系代词和关系副词用法:

只能用which 引导定语从句的情况:

a. Bamboo is hollow, which makes it very light.

The room in which my family live used to be a garage.

That which you told him about is what we want to know.

b. 只能用that 引导的定语从句的情况:

(1)当定语从句前的先行词被形容词最高级或者序数词修饰时,只能用that 引导。

The best place//the first place that we visited was the Great Wall.

(2)当先行词前有only 、 few、 little、 just、 right、 any、 all、 one修饰时,只能使用that 引导。

There is little time that we can use.// The only furniture that he had in the room was a chair.

(3)当先行词本身为不定代词时:

some 、 all、 anything、 little、 much、 something、 everything、nothing 、none... That is all that I want to say.

// Is there anything that I can do for you?

c. 只能用who 引导的定语从句的情况:

Those who want to go there raised your hands.

There is a young man outside who asks for you.

2、状语从句

1)原因状语从句:because 、as 、since 、(for 引导的叫并列句)

They feel happy, for they are satisfied with their lives.

2)条件状语从句:if 、unless 、as (so) long as、in case

Unless it rains, do not expect me.

3)方式状语从句:as 、as if = as though

She closed her eyes as if she were tired.

4)结果、目的状语从句:that 、so that、so …that …、such … that…

such a +形容词+名词+that

= so +形容词+a+名词+that

I had such a good experience that I would always remember it.

I had so good an experience that I would always remember it.

5)比较状语从句:than 、as …as 、not so…as …

No one can be so fit as he.

6) 让步状语从句:although 、though 、even if = even though、while 、whatever = no matter what 、however = no matter how、wherever 、whoever 、whether …or … Whatever may happen, I will be calm.

However you go there, you will enjoy your trip.

主谓一致、倒装句、强调句

1、主谓一致:

1)语法一致原则,即在语法形式上取得一致。例如,主语是单数形式,谓语动词也采取单数形式;主语是复数形式,谓语动词也采取复数形式。

例如:The students are very young.

// This picture looks beautiful.

2)意义一致原则,即从意义着眼处理一致关系。例如,主语形式虽是单数但意义是复数,谓语动词也采取复数形式;而有些主语形式虽是复数但意义上看作单数,谓语动词也采取单数形式。

例如:The crowd deeply respect their leader.// Three years in a strange land seems a long time.

3)就近原则,即谓语动词的单数或复数形式取决于最靠近它的词语。

例如:Neither he nor I am going to see the film tonight.//There is a pen, and several

books on the desk.// Either you or she is to go.// Here is a pen, a few envelops and some paper for you.

4)谓语动词与前面的主语一致:当主语后面跟有with, together with, like, except, but, no less than, as well as等词引起的短语时,谓语动词与前面的主语一致。

例如:The teacher together with some students is visiting the factory. // He as well as I wants to go boating.

5)谓语需用单数:

(1)代词each 和由every, some, no, any等构成的复合代词作主语,或主语中含有each, every, 谓语需用单数。

例如:Each of us has a car.

(2)当主语是一本书或一条格言时,谓语动词常用单数。

例如:The Arabian Night is a book known to lovers of English.

(3)表示金钱,时间,价格或度量衡的复合名词作主语时,通常把这些名词看作一个整体,谓语一般用单数。(用复数也可,意思不变。)

例如:Three weeks was allowed for making the necessary preparations. // Ten yuan is enough.

6)指代意义决定谓语的单复数:

(1)在代词what, which, who, none, some, any, more, most, all等词的后面,谓语单复数由其指代的词的单复数决定。

例如:All is right. (一切顺利。) // All are present. (所有人都到齐了。)

(2)集体名词作主语时,谓语的数要根据主语的意思来决定。

例如:family, audience, crew, crowd, class, company, committee等词后,谓语用复数

形式时,意为这个集体中的各个成员,用单数时表示该个集体。

例如:His family isn't very large. 他家不是一个大家庭。// His family are music lovers. 他的家人都是音乐爱好者。但集合名词people, police, cattle, poultry等在任何情况下都用复数形式。

例如:Are there any police around?

(3)有些名词,如variety, number, population, proportion, majority等有时看作单数,有时看作复数。 A number of+名词复数+复数动词。 The number of+名词复数+单数动词。

例如:A number of boys have new shoes. // The majority of the students like English.

7)与后接名词或代词保持一致:

(1)用half of, part of, most of, a portion of等词引起主语时,动词通常与of 后面的名词,代词保持一致。

例如:Most of his money is spent on books. // Most of the students are taking an active part in sports.

(2)在一些短语,如many a或more than one所修饰的词作主语时,谓语动词多用单数形式。

但由more than…of 作主语时,动词应与其后的名词或代词保持一致。

例如:Many a person has read the novel. 许多人都读过这本书。// More than 60 percent of the students are from the city. 百分之六十多的学生都来自这个城市。

8)当everyone ,everybody ,no one,nobody ,anyone ,anybody ,someone ,somebody ,everything ,anything ,something ,nothing 等用作主语时,其相应的代

词一般用单数形式。

例如:If anybody calls, tell him that I'm out. // Something strange happened, didn't it?

9)人称代词与名词的呼应:人称代词I(me),he(him),she(her),it(it) 都是代替前面的单数名词,而they(them),we(us)则是代替复数名词的,you 既可以代表单数,也可以代表复数。但表示泛指的时候,用he 或one 来表示。

例如:If a young person enters a classical music field only for money, he is in the wrong profession.

10)物主代词与名词的呼应:my ,our ,his ,her ,its ,their 要与代替的名词在数上一致。 例如:The welfare department,as well as the other social services,will have its budget cut.

11)反身代词与其所代成分间的呼应。

例如:Many primitive people believed that by eating an animal they could get some of the good qualities of that animal for themselves.

12)指示代词与所代名词间的呼应:this 和that 指代单数名词或不可数名词,these 和those 指代复数名词(those还可以用作先行词,引导定语从句,表示“那些人”) 。

例如:She invited all those who had been her former colleagues.

13)much 和much of后接不可数名词,而many 和many of后接可数名词的复数。 例如:There is not much coal left. // A great many of the houses were knocked down by the earthquake.

14)表示量的词后面有的接可数名词,有的接不可数名词。

接可数名词的有:a number of,a range of,a series of十复数名词; 接不可数名词的有:a great deal of,an amount of十不可数名词; 既可接可数又可接不可数名词的有:a lot of,a variety of。

例如:

The government attached a great deal of importance to education. // Quite a number of women applied for this job.//

The college library has a variety of books.//

An apple is a variety of fruit.

2、倒装:

1)全部倒装

Seated on the grass are a group of students.

How goes the time!

On the back wall hung a huge oil painting.

2)部分倒装

Hardly any sound could we hear.

So cold was the weather that we couldn’t sleep outdoors.

3)倒装的原因

(1)句子语法结构的需要

Are you from here?

May you be happy!

Were he here he would come to our help.

(2)强调某一句子成分的需要

Short as he was, he played the best in his team.

No sooner had he arrived than went away again.

Only when he came back did she go to bed.

4)倒装句的基本用法

(1)由here 、there 、now 、then 、out 、in 、on 、up 、down 、away 、from 、over 、off 等词汇引导。

Here comes the bus.

//Here goes the bell.

//Then followed three days of rain.

//Up went the rocket.

//Down fall the leaves.

(2)表语或状语位于句首表示强调意义时,句子采用完全倒装:

In the distance was a small boat.

// Such were his last words.

// At the foot of the mountain lies a blue lake.

// In the center of the square stands a high monument.

// Just near our university locates a railway station.

(3)直接引语在前,后面主语是名词时,常用倒装结构;若主语是代词,不用倒装结构 “What have you done?” asked the teacher.//“Is he your brother?” said the boy.//“Where is it?” he asked.

(4)only 修饰状语位于句首时,后面引起部分倒装,但修饰其他句子成分时不引起倒装

Only in this way can we succeed.

//Only then did I realize that I was wrong.

(5)否定意义的副词、词组放在句首,句子使用部分倒装not only\ never\ hardly\ not until\ rarely\ scarcely\ in no way\ at no time\ so\ little\ few\ in no case \ by no means \ under no circumstances \ seldom等。

Seldom have I met her recently. //Hardly had I reached the bus stop when the bus started. //Not a single mistake did he make in the test.

(6)so \ neither \ nor 放在句首,表示后者与前者情况相同时,句子使用部分倒装

It you can do it, so can I. //If you do not go, neither shall I.//I do not know, nor do I care.//

So loudly did he speak that everyone in the room could hear him clearly. 注意:

so 表示重复前边的意思、或者认可前边的意思时,不倒装

---- It was cold yesterday.

---- So is it today.

---- So it was.

(7)频率副词放在句首时,句子使用部分倒装

Once lived a king who was kind to his people.// Often do I tell him about my life here.

(8)表示祝愿的祈使句中可以用倒装结构

May you be healthy and happy forever!

(9)were \ had \ should放在句首的虚拟语气中,使用倒装

Had he been in your position, He would probably have done the same.// Should it rain tomorrow, we would put off the sports meeting.

(10)as 引起的让步状语从句中,可以使用倒装

Try as you may, you will never succeed.//Child as he is, he can do a lot of things.//Hard as I worked, the boss was not satisfied with me.

3、强调句:

It is //was + 被强调部分 + that//who + 句子其他部分

第二部分:

斟酌用词,积累精彩

(本部分带你通过句子记核心词汇)

SAMPLE TEST 1

1. Niagara Falls is a great tourist ______ drawing millions of visitors every year.

A) attention

B) attraction

C) appointment

D) arrangement

2. The hopes,goals ,fears and desires _______ widely between men and women,between the rich and the poor.

A) alter

B) shift

C) transfer

D) vary

3. Some diseases are _____ by certain water animals.

A) transplanted

B) transformed

C) transported

D) transmitted

4. The words of his old teacher left a _____ impression on his mind. He is still influenced by them.

A) long

B) lively

C) lasting

D) liberal

5. He is ______ about his chances of winning a gold medal in the Olympics next year.

A) optimistic

B) optional

C) outstanding

D) obvious

233网校答案:

1. B 2. D 3. D 4. C 5. A

SAMPLE TEST 2

1. As we can no longer wait for the delivery of our order, we have to _______it.

A) postpone

B) refuse

C) delay

D) cancel

2. Young people are not _______ to stand and look at works of art; they want art they can participate in.

A) conservative

B) content

C) confident

D) generous

3. Most broadcasters maintain that TV has been unfairly criticized and argue that the power of the medium is _______.

A) granted

B) implied

C) exaggerated

D) remedied

4. The clothes a person wears may express his _______ or social position.

A) curiosity

B) status

C) determination

D) significance

5. In Africa, educational costs are very low for those who are _________ enough to get into universities.

A) ambitious

B) fortunate

C) aggressive

D) substantial

233网校答案:

1. D 2. B 3. C 4. B 5. B

SAMPLE TEST 3

1. I suggested he should _______ himself to his new conditions.

A) adapt

B) adopt

C) regulate

D) suit

2. Cancellation of the flight _______ many passengers to spend the night at the airport.

A) resulted

B) obliged

C) demanded

D) recommended

3. Without proper lessons, you could _______ a lot of bad habits when playing the piano.

A) keep up

B) pick up

C) draw up

D) catch up

4. Everything we eat and drink contains some salt; we can meet the body’s need for it from natural sources without turning ______ the salt bottle.

A) up

B) to

C) on

D) over

5. He always did well at school _______having to do part-time jobs every now and then.

A) in spite of

B) in terms of

C) on account of

D) in case of

233网校答案:

1. A 2. B 3. B 4. B 5. A

SAMPLE TEST 4

1. According to the American federal government, residents of Hawaii have the longest life :77.2 years.

A) rank

B) span

C) scale

D) scope 2. Our hopes and fell in the same instant.

A) arose

B) raised

C) rose

D) aroused

3. A season ticket _______the holder to make as many journeys as he wishes within the stated period of time.

A) entitles

B) grants

C) boomed

D) promises 4. Purchasing the new production line will be for the company.

A) forceful

B) favorite

C) tremendous

D) profitable

5. He wrote an article criticizing the Greek poet and won and a scholarship.

A) faith

B) status

C) fame

D) courage

233网校答案:

1. B 2. C 3. A 4. D 5. C

SAMPLE TEST 5

1.All her energies are __________ upon her children and she seems to have little time for anything else.

A) guided

B) aimed

C) directed

D) focused

2.Everyone should be ___________ to a decent standard of living and an opportunity to be educated.

A) attributed

B) entitled

C) identified

D) justified

3.Vitamins are complex ________ that the body requires in very small amounts .

A) matters

B) materials

C) particles

D) substances

4.We have planned an exciting publicity _______ with our advertisers.

A) struggle

B) battle

C) campaign

D) conflict

5.Owing to ________ competition among the airlines, travel expense have been reduced considerably.

A) fierce

B) strained

C) eager

D) critical

233网校答案:

1. D 2. B 3. D 4. C 5. A

SAMPLE TEST 6

1. You would be ______ a risk to let your child go to school by himself.

A) omitting

B) attaching

C) affording

D) running

2. He is always here; it’s ______ you’ve never met him.

A) unique

B) strange

C) rare

D) peculiar

3. We’d like to ______ a table for five for dinner this evening.

A) preserve

B) maintain

C) reserve

D) sustain

4. The European Union countries were once worried that they would not have ______ supplies of petroleum.

A) proficient

B) efficient

C) potential

D) sufficient

5. Britain has the highest ______ of road traffic in the world — over 60 cars for every mile of road.

A) popularity

B) density

C) intensity

D) prosperity

233网校答案:

1. D 2. B 3. C 4. D 5. B

第三部分:

紧扣得分点,彰显汉译英实力!

第三部分:紧扣得分点,彰显汉译英实力!

一、汉译英以句子为单位。

从意义上讲,句子能够表达一个完整的意思;

从功能上讲,句子表示陈述、疑问、祈使、感叹等语气;

从形态上讲,句子的末端有句号、问号或感叹号为标志。

这些都是句子在层级上高于词和词组之处。

二、必须注意的是,汉语句子只是语义相对完整的一个单位,它与相邻句子之间必然存在语义上的关联,这种关系以显性或隐性的方式衔接在一起,随语义的发展延伸而组成句群、段落、直至生成篇章。对一个句子功能和意义的正确理解与贴切表达,有赖于对相邻句子乃至篇章其他句子语义的理解与表达,不能孤立地看待句子,不能忽视句间的关系。

三、样题参考译文赏析

1、环境科学家们说,如果要使地球继续供养人类生存,保护野生生物是极为重要的。这些专家说,我们必须明白,在我们这个环境供养系统中我们自己与野生动植物之间的重要联系。他们指出,没有人有把握地知道这些动植物中的哪一种将来可能对我们有用。

【参考译文】Environmental scientists said that it was of great importance to

conserve wildlife if our human beings wanted the earth to continue to support our survival. These experts added that we must understand the important relation between ourselves and wild animals and plants in this environmental supplying

system. They indicated that nobody knows for sure which kind of these animals and plants will be useful for us in the future.

2、文化是不同国家的人们互相理解的最佳媒体。通过举办文化节,许多中国城市在世界上的知名度提高了。已经证明,对促进中国人民和世界其他地方人民之间的交流来说,这是最好的途径之一。这种交流不仅仅限于文化方面,还扩大到了经济和其他领域。

【参考译文】Culture is the best medium for different people from different countries to understand each other. Many cities in China have enhanced their fames in the world through holding cultural festivals. It has been proven that it is one of the best ways to promote the exchange between Chinese people and people in the rest of the world. And this exchange is not only limited to culture but has been expanded to economic and other fields.

3、过去50年其实并不是发明创新的黄金时期。从1900——1950年,改变人类生活的发明有汽车、飞机、电话、收音机、电视机——当然还有核武器和计算机。而近50年来,只有为数不多的发明。难道发明的源泉已经枯竭了吗?答案并非如此。事实上,发明的新时代刚刚开始。

【参考译文】 In fact,the past 50 years was not a golden period for invention and innovation. From 1900 to 1950,inventions that changed people’s life included automobile ,aircraft ,telephone radio,TV ,as well as nuclear weapons and computer. But the recent 50 years has witnessed only a small number of inventions. Has the source of invention dried up?The answer is not that so. In fact, the new era of invention has just begun.

4、在过去20年中,世界上没有任何一个国家的外贸发展速度像中国那么快。日本用了20多年时间才将其外贸总额翻了一番,而中国却翻了两番。中国现在已是全球第三大电器生产国,并且正在成为全球电器市场上的主角。中国还是世界上劳动密集型(labor-intensive )产品的主要生产国。

【参考译文】 In the past 20 years,no country has developed its foreign trade as quickly as China. Japan has spent 20 years only to double its foreign trade,but China quadrupled. China has already become the world’s third largest producer of electric appliances and is evolving into a leading role in the global electric appliance market. China is also a major producer of labor-intensive products.

5、为了成功举办2008年奥运会,北京计划投入230亿美元用于基础设施建设。据说一些外国公司已经注意到了这些商机。美国的一些公司打算在电信和信息技术方面提供产品和服务。英国的一些公司也正在围绕北京奥运会寻求商机,他们试图找到自己有优势的领域,如不污染环境的建筑技术等。

【参考译文】 In order to host the 2008 Olympic Games successfully, Beijing plans to invest 23 billion U.S. dollars in the construction of infrastructure. It is said that some foreign companies have noted these business opportunities. Some American companies plan to provide products and services in telecommunications and information and technology. Some British companies are also seeking business opportunities around the Olympic Games, they are trying to find their own advantages, such as pollution-free construction techniques.

四、真题我来练:

1. Directions:For this part you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from Chinese into English. You should write your answer on Answer Sheet 2.

据报道,今年中国快递服务( courier services)将递送大约120亿件包裹。这将使中国有可能超越美国成为世界上最大的快递市场。大多数包裹里装着网上订购的物品。中国给数百万在线零售商以极具竞争力的价格销售商品的机会。仅在11月11日,中国消费者就从国内最大的购物平台购买了价值90亿美元的商品。中国有不少这样的特殊购物日。因此,快递业在中国扩展就不足为奇了。

233网校译文:

It is reported that China’s courier services will deliver about 12 billion parcels this year, which would possibly render China to overtake the United States as the

world ’s largest courier market. Most parcels are packed with items ordered online. China offers millions of online retailers the opportunities to sell goods at highly competitive prices. It was on the day of November 11th alone that Chinese

consumers purchased $9 billion worth of goods on the biggest online shopping platform in China. There are so many such special shopping days in China. Therefore, the expansion of courier industry in China is not surprising at all.

2. Directions:For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from Chinese into English. You should write your answer on Answer Sheet 2.

中国是世界上最古老的文明之一。构成现代世界基础的许多元素都起源于中国。中国现在拥有世界上发展最快的经济,并正经历着一次新的工业革命。中国还启动了雄心勃勃的太空探索计划,其中包括到2020年建成一个太空站。目前,中国是世界最大的出口国之一,

并正在吸引大量外国投资。同时,它也在海外投资数十亿美元。2011年,中国超越日本成为世界第二大经济体。

233网校译文:

China is one of the oldest civilizations in the world. A number of elements that comprise the basis of modern world derive from China. Nowadays, China enjoys the world’s fastest-growing economy and is experiencing a new industrial

revolution. China also embarks on the ambitious space exploration program, which includes building a space station by 2020. Presently, as one of the largest exporters in the world, China is attracting massive foreign investment. Meanwhile, it has also invested billions of dollars overseas. In 2011, China overtook Japan to become the world ’s second-largest economy.

3. Directions:For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from Chinese into English. You should write your answer on Answer Sheet 2.

在西方人心目中,和中国联系最为密切的基本食物是大米。长期以来,大米在中国人的饮食中占据很重要的地位,以至于有谚语说“巧妇难为无米之炊”。中国南方大多种植水稻,人们通常以大米为主食;而华北大部分地区因为过于寒冷或过于干燥,无法种植水稻,那里的主要作物是小麦。在中国,有些人用面粉做面包,但大多数人用面粉做馒头和面条。 233网校译文:

As is known to the westerners, the staple food closest to Chinese people is rice. For a long time, rice has taken such a leading position in the diet of Chinese that there is a saying that “even a clever housewife cannot cook a meal without rice”. Rice is grown mostly in the south of China in which people usually take rice as their

staple food; while due to the extremes of coldness or dryness in most parts of

North China, instead of rice, wheat is the main crop. In China, flour is sometimes the main ingredient for bread but more often used to make steamed buns and noodles.

五、汉译英高频短语汇总

1. 迈出重要的一步

make an important step

2. 鼓励创建文明家庭

encourage the idea of Civilized Families

3. 拒绝生小孩

refuse to have a child

4. 倡导人力资源管理

advocate the management of human resources

5. 损害人类社会的道德观

damage the morality of human society

6. 开辟人类历史新纪元

start a new chapter in the history of human

7. 造福人类和科学

benefit mankind and science

8. 提高人口素质

improve the population quality

9. 优化人口结构

optimize the population structure

10. 尊重和保障人权

respect and guarantee human rights

11. 追求真理 seek the truth

12. 根除 (防止,消除)腐败

root out (prevent , eliminate) corruption

13. 响应号召 respond to the call

14. 进入新时期 enter a new period

15. 增强综合国力和国际竞争力

enhance comprehensive(overall ) national strength and international competitiveness

16. 进入世界先进行列

edge into the advanced ranks in the world

17. 吸收各国文明的先进成果

absorb what is advanced in other civilizations

18. 实现夙愿 fulfill the long-cherished wishes

19. 建立巩固的国防 build a strong national defense

20. 修改法律 amend the laws

21. 普及环保知识

popularize environmental protection knowledge

22. 增强环境意识

enhance the awareness (consciousness) of environmental protection

23. 加强水土保持

reinforce the conservation of water and soil

24. 提高环境管理水平

raise the environmental management level

25. 享受国家一级保护

enjoy first-class protection of the State

26. 为人类提供水和食物

supply water and food for human beings

27. 非常注重保护森林

pay great attention to the conservation of forest

28. 引发一系列的问题 result in a series of problems

29. 帮助减缓全球变暖速度

help slow down the pace of global warming

30. 完善城市基础设施建设

improve the construction of urban infrastructure

31. 促进城市可持续发展

promote the sustainable development of the city

32. 扩建管道网络 expand the pipe network

33. 淘汰或改造燃煤锅炉

eliminate or convert coal-burning boilers

34. 禁止露天焚烧 prohibit burning out in the open

35. 发展太阳能 develop solar energy

36. 减少机动车辆 reduce the number of vehicles

37. 实行严格的机动车排放标准

implement strict vehicle emission standards

38. 加大污染治理力度

strengthen pollution control

39. 崇尚绿色生活方式

pursue a “green ” life

40. 参加城市重建

participate in the reconstruction of the city

41. 抑制传染病的传播

restrain / prevent the spread of infectious diseases

42. 日益昌盛

become increasingly prosperous

43. 履行权利和义务

perform the responsibilities and obligations

44. 回顾奋斗历程

review the course of struggle

45. 展望伟大征程 look into the great journey

46. 充满信心和力量

be filled with confidence and strength

47. 主张各国政府采取行动

urge governments of all countries to take action

48. 经历两个不同时期

experience two different periods

49. 战胜无数的困难

overcome numerous difficulties

50. 赢得一个又一个胜利

win one victory after another