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21 The Origin of Sports

When did sport begin? If sport is, in essence, play, the claim might be made that sport is much older than humankind, for , as we all have observed, the beasts play. Dogs and cats wrestle and play ball games. Fishes and birds dance. The apes have simple, pleasurable games. Frolicking infants, school children playing tag, and adult arm wrestlers are demonstrating strong, transgenerational and transspecies bonds with the universe of animals – past, present, and future. Young animals, particularly, tumble, chase, run wrestle, mock, imitate, and laugh (or so it seems) to the point of delighted exhaustion. Their play, and ours, appears to serve no other purpose than to give pleasure to the players, and apparently, to remove us temporarily from the anguish of life in earnest.

Some philosophers have claimed that our playfulness is the most noble part of our basic nature. In their generous conceptions, play harmlessly and experimentally permits us to put our creative forces, fantasy, and

imagination into action. Play is release from the tedious battles against scarcity and decline which are the incessant, and inevitable, tragedies of life. This is a grand conception that excites and provokes. The holders of this view claim that the origins of our highest accomplishments ---- liturgy, literature, and law ---- can be traced to a play impulse which, paradoxically, we see most purely enjoyed by young beasts and children. Our sports, in this rather happy, nonfatalistic view of human nature, are more splendid creations of the nondatable, transspecies play impulse.

21体育的起源

体育运动开始于何时? 如果体育运动的本质就是游戏的话,我们就可以宣称体育运动比

人类古老,因为正如我们所观察到的,野兽也进行嬉戏。狗和猫会扭抱玩球,鱼和鸟翩翩起舞,猿类会进行一些简单的、愉快的游戏。雀跃的幼儿,捉迷藏的学童和成年摔跤者展示出人与动物界的有力的跨越世代与物种的永恒的联系--特别是幼兽,它们翻筋斗、追逐、奔跑、扭打、模仿、嬉笑(或者看

起来是) ,直到愉快地精疲力尽。他们的玩耍,同我们的一样,似乎并没有别的目的而只是给游戏者以愉悦,暂时把我们从严肃生活的痛苦中拉出来。

一些哲学家称我们的嬉戏是我们本质中最崇高的部分。依他们这些随意性很大的见解,游戏无害而且实验性地允许我们的创造力、幻想和想象发挥作用。游戏让人们从永不间断亦不可避免的生活悲剧-与乏匮和衰退进行的枯燥抗争中得到一种解脱。这是一个令人兴奋、给人启发的伟大见解。

这种见解的持有者宣称,我们的最高成就如宗教典礼、文学、法律的起源可以追溯到游戏的冲动。但令人不解的是我们看到只有幼兽和小孩子才最纯粹地享受着这种冲动。从这种比较豁达和非宿命的人性观来看,我们的运动是超时代、跨物种的辉煌的创造

X-Sports

Rick Stevenson, 16 years old, spends every minute he can on the mountain. He and his friends go snow-boarding every weekend. “It's incredible,” he says. “The winds are so strong, the boards go 50 miles

an hour. ” His friend Laura Fields agrees. “No one goe s skiing anymore,” she says.“That’s for the old folks.”

Rick and Laura are part of a new trend in sports. It has its own language, words such as “rage, ” “juice, ” and “energy. ” It has its own clothing, such as skin-tight bicycle suits in rainbow colors or baggy tops and pants. And it ’s not for the old or the easily frightened. Its philosophy is to get as close to the edge as possible. And more and more young athletes are taking part in these risky, daredevil activities called “extreme sports,” or “X-sports.”

In the past, young athletes would play hockey or baseball. Today, they want risk and excitement —the closer to the edge the better. They snowboard over cliffs and mountain-bike down steep mountains. They wind-surf near hurricanes, go white-water rafting through rapids, and bungy-jump from towers.Extreme sports started as an alternative to more expensive sports.

A city kid who didn’t have the money to buy expensive sports equipment could get a skateboard and have fun. But now it has become a whole new area of sports, with specialized equipment and high levels of skill.

There ’s even a special Olympics for extreme sports, called the Winter X-Games, which includes snow mountain biking and ice climbing. An Extreme Games competition is held each summer in Rhode Island. It features sports such as sky surfing, where people jump from airplanes with surfboards attached to their feet.

What makes extreme sports so popular?

“People love the thrill,” says Murray Nussbaum, who sells sports equipment. "City people want to be outdoors on the weekend and do something challenging. The new equipment is so much better that people can take more risks without getting hurt.” An athlete adds, “Sure there’s a risk, but that’s part of the appeal.

Once you go mountain biking or snowboarding, it’s impossible to go back to bike riding or skiing. It’s just too boring.”

Extreme sports are certainly not for everyone. Most people still prefer to play baseball or basketball or watch sports on TV. But extreme sports are definitely gaining in popularity. “These sports are fresh and exciting. It’s the wave of the future. The potential is huge,” says Nussbaum.

The Younger Generation In the Twenty-first Century

Good evening, ladies and gentlemen.

We always say ‘we are the future’. Indeed. We, the younger generation represents modern knowledge, new concepts, ambition and great desire for success. But, have you ever thought of this question: how can we be successful in the 21st century, which is full of great challenges and fierce competitions? In my opinion,

there are two important factors.

First, we have to catch the opportunities and face the challenges. China has successfully entered the World Trade Organization, Beijing has won the bid for the 2008 Olympic Games „ If we want to be successful, we have to seize these opportunities. SARS and AIDS, environmental pollution, growing population… We have no choice but to solve these problems with our own hands. Thus, catching the opportunities and trying our best to cope with the difficulties is necessary for us to succeed in the 21st century.

Secondly, we have to learn to cooperate and compete. Last year, when SARS was spreading rapidly in China, scientists all over the world cooperated with each other and prevented the disease from spreading in a short period of time. At the same time, they were also competing against each other to see who could conquer the disease first. By cooperating and competing, the world develops day by day. Therefore, we, the younger generation, must know how to cooperate and compete. How对应首句中的learn

Ladies and gentlemen, we are standing at the outset of a new century, we are at the gate of a new era.

Looking back, the 20th century is a century of great developments and remarkable changes. Looking forward, the 21st century is a century full of opportunities, challenges, cooperation and competition. I believe, if we can seize the opportunities, face the challenges, cooperate and compete, success in the 21st century belongs to him, to you and to me.

二十一世纪的新一代Children of poor health are very prone to colds in winter.两个OF 用法相同

女士们,先生们,晚上好。

我们常说:“我们就是未来”。的确。我们,年轻的一代代表着最新的知识和观念、壮志雄心和对成功的巨大渴望。但是,你是否想过这样一个问题:我们如何能够在充满巨大挑战和激烈竞争的21世纪中取得成功?在我看来,有两点是非常重要的。

首先,我们必须抓住机遇、直面挑战。中国已经成功加入了世界贸易组织,北京已经赢得了2008年奥运会的承办权„„如果我们想要成功,就必须抓住这些机遇。传染性非典型肺炎和艾滋病、环境污染、人口增长„„除了用我们的双手解决这些问题,我们别无选择。因此,抓住机遇并竭尽全力去对付困难对于我们在21世纪的成功是必不可少的。

第二,我们必须学会合作与竞争。去年,当传染性非典型肺炎在中国流行时,世界各地的科学家通力合作,在很短的时间内使疫情得到了控制。同时,他们也在相互竞争,看谁能够率先攻克这种疾病。在合作与竞争的过程中,世界不断进步。因此,我们,年轻的一代,必须知道如何合作与竞争。 女士们、先生们,我们正站在新世纪的起点,我们正处在一个伟大时代的开端。回顾过去,20世纪是一个发展迅速、充满巨大变化的世纪;展望未来,21世纪是一个充满机遇与挑战,合作与竞争的世纪。我相信,如果我们能够抓住机遇、直面挑战、相互合作、相互竞争,21世纪的成功属于他、属于你,也属于我。

Guys, want to look sexy and get the girl? Don't smile too much. Look brooding or show a bit of shame instead. Women, ignore that advice。

Women find happy men less sexually attractive than those with expressions that show pride or hint that

they have done wrong and know it, according to Canadian researchers。

The study published online Tuesday in the American Psychological Association journal Emotion showed pictures of the opposite sex to both men and women. Participants were then asked for their initial reactions on sexual attractiveness based on the expressions they saw。

"Men who smile were considered fairly unattractive by women," said Jessica Tracy, a University of British Columbia psychology professor who directed the study。

"So to the extent that men think that smiling is a good thing to do if they want to be found sexually attractive our findings suggest that's not the case," Tracy said。

The men's reaction was just the opposite。

"Women who smile are absolutely very attractive. That was by far the most attractive expression women showed," Tracy said in an interview。

The researchers admit they are not sure why men and women reacted differently to smiles. In a man, a big smile may make him appear too feminine or more desperate for sex。

The study also adds fuel to the notion that women are attracted to bad boys。

"Women are attracted to guys like James Dean, Edward the vampire. The guys who are flawed, but who know it and are tortured by it," Tracy said。

A slightly downcast expression of shame is an appeasement gesture that hints at a need for sympathy。

Men also found sexual attractiveness in women whose expressions and body language hinted at shame。

The researchers stressed they looked only at initial reactions of sexual attractiveness, and were not recommending men adopt a no-smile policy for a long-term relationship。

"When people want a long-term relationship they take much more into account than sexual attractiveness. How nice a person is, is a big thing," Tracy said。

"So we're not saying, don't be a nice guy," she said。

Women prefer taller men because they are better at fighting, scientists claimed May 18.

A study has shown men hit hardest when striking downwards and the blows of a taller man are more powerful than the thumps of a short man。

In evolutionary terms, that makes them more useful for women, said researcher David Carrier。

He added: "From the perspective of sexual selection theory, women are attracted to powerful males, not because powerful males can beat them up, but because powerful males can protect them and their children from other males."

"The results of this study are consistent with the hypothesis that our ancestors adopted bipedal posture

so that males would be better at beating and killing each other when competing for females," said Carrier。

Carrier studied the power of punches by male martial arts experts and boxers as they struck out in four directions – upwards, down, sideways and forwards。

Men hit with more force when they were standing – and could punch twice as hard when they were striking downwards, he found。

Some scientists have argued that women prefer tall men because their height indicates they have "good genes" 。

However, Carrier, of Utah University, disagrees. "If that were the whole story, I would expect that men would be attracted to tall women," he said. "But they're not. Men are attracted to women of average height

or even shorter."

From: http://www.hxen.com/englisharticle/yingyuyuedu/2011-05-20/144086.html

Graduates’ Pressure in Finding Jobs

Nowadays, more and more university graduates complain that graduation does(这为什么用does 因为后面使用的是动词equate ) not equate to employment. They experience great difficulties finding satisfactory jobs. What is the cause of this phenomenon?

In my opinion, there are four causes : 与上面的对应

First , graduates lack experience. They spend most of their time at school studying academic subjects

and lack relevant job training. Only after graduation do they realize it’s hard to find jobs. 自身

Second , competition among graduates grows more bitter and more bitter and bitter. The supply of university graduates exceeds social demand . This results in a decreased chance for any individual graduate to find a job. Among和between 用于同样的情景但不同的具体情况下find 可改为land 社会

Third , some students don’t study hard. Some of them skip classes just because they have no interest in certain 某些课程subjects. Some play computer games or pursue other interests. Some sleep in class or in the library. Then they leave the sheltered environment of the university campus, to discover they don’t have adequate knowledge to apply for many positions, which makes them feel lost and frustrated. 自身 Finally , some graduates are conceited. They lack experience but ask for a high salary, which is impractical. 自身 So , university students should try their best to change this situation. When they are in school, they should make the most of their time and put their heart into their studies. They can hold part-time jobs in their spare time to accumulate relevant work experience . They should take part in some social activities and

provide themselves with special training, if possible. When they graduate and apply for jobs, they should attach more importance to accumulating experience than to their starting salary. 起薪 两to 并列

On University Students’ Pressure in Finding Jobs

About a decade ago, university students could find satisfactory and enviable jobs after their graduation. But now, things are different. Today's university students usually have much pressure in finding fairly good jobs. They always say disappointedly that graduation means joblessness. Why nowadays university students have so much pressure in finding jobs?

In my opinion, this kind of pressure is mainly caused by three reasons.

Firstly, the government is enrolling more and more university students year by year. And the growth of the students' number has surpassed that of the need of the society. So, when so many students graduate at a time, the chance of finding jobs becomes tiny.

Secondly, today's university students, most of them are the "only-child", who are more mentally frail. Since they are indulged greatly at home and haven't been trained to do things on their own, once it is their turn to go out of the campus and find jobs by themselves and decide what kind of jobs to choose, they feel bewildered and don't know what to do. If their first try fails, they will be frustrated and think that it is really hard to find jobs.

Thirdly, some university students are not qualified for good and challenging jobs. After entering the university, they don't study as hard as they did in high schools. They begin to sleep during the class or even be absent for classes. Some are addicted to computer games or Jin Yong's novels, or step into the two-person-world too early. Because these things have taken up so much of their time and energy, their study is neglected. After four years of university life, they haven't gained the knowledge those fairly good jobs or certain positions require.

毕业生的求职压力

目前,越来越多的大学生抱怨说毕业和就业并不是一回事了。为了找一份满意的工作,他们经历了重重困难,而出现这种现象的原因又是什么呢?

以我看,原因有四:

首先,毕业生缺乏工作经验。他们在学校的大部分时间都在学习功课,缺乏相关的工作培训。可在他们大学毕业之后,却又发现他们很难找到工作。

其次,毕业生的求职竞争越来越激烈。大学毕业生的供应大于社会的需求,其结果就直接导致了每个毕业生的就业机会的大大减少。

再次,有些学生学习不努力。他们只是因为对某些科目不感兴趣,就旷课不上。有的玩计算机游戏,或者别的有意思的事情,还有的在上课时或在图 书馆睡觉。 然而,当他们离开这个与外界隔绝的大学校园环境之后,他们才发现他们没有足够的知识来申请许多职位,因此他们感到非常的失落与沮丧。

最后,就是一些毕业生非常的自负。他们缺乏工作经验,但却要求很高的工资,这个就有点不太现实了。

因此,大学生应该尽力来改变这种现状,在校时,应该用心多读点书,闲余时间可以做个兼职工作,以提高自己的工作经验;参加社会活动,如果有条件的话,还可以接受专业培训;毕业后找工作时,他们应该要重视工作经验的积累,而不是他们工作起薪的高低。

关于大学生的就业压力

大约在十年前,大学生毕业后就可以找到令自己满意和令别人羡慕的工作。然而,时至当今,情况发生的翻天覆地的变化。如果想找到一份不错的工作,今天的大学毕业生却要常常面对着极大的就业压力。因此,他 们总是很失望地说毕业意味着失业。为什么现在的大学生有如此大的就业压力呢?

我认为,就业压力的产生是以下三个原因所导致。

其一,政府每年都在扩招大学生,学生人数的增加远远超过了社会的需求。因此,每一次都有那么多的大学生毕业,他们找到工作的机会也就大大渺小了。

其二,今天的大学生绝大部分都是独生子女,而独生子女在思想意志上又比较脆弱,他们在家受到娇生惯养,也没有接受过要自己去做事情的那种训练素养,而一旦他们离开校园自己去找工作的话,他们就感到非常迷惑,不知道该做什么。如果他们第一次尝试失败的话,他们就会有挫败感,认为找工作确实很难。

其三,一些大学生还不合格,并不胜任那些很具挑战性的好工作。有些大学生考上大学后,学习就没有上高中时那么努力了。上课睡觉,甚者旷课;沉迷于计算机游戏,或者金庸小说;有的甚至过早地踏入二人世界的生活中。这些都需花费很多的时间和精力,因此他们的学习也就被忽视了;大学四年之后,他们并没有掌握到那些好工作或某一职位的知识能力要求。

From:

1. Life is not fair, get used to it.

2. The world won't care about your self-esteem. The world will expect you to accomplish something before you feel good about yourself.

3. You will not make 40 thousand dollars a year right out of high school. You won't be a vice president with a car, until you earn both.

4. If you think your teacher is tough, wait till you get a boss. He doesn't have tenure.

5. Flipping burgers is not beneath your dignity. Your grandparents had a different word for burger flipping; they called it opportunity.

6. If you mess up, it's not your parents' fault, so don't whine about your mistakes, learn from them.

7. Before you were born, your parents weren't as boring as they are now. They got that way from paying your bills, cleaning your clothes and listening to your talk about how cool you are. So before you save the rain forest from the parasites of your parents' generation, try "delousing" the closet in your own room.

8. Your school may have done away with winners and losers, but life has not. In some schools they

have abolished failing grades; they'll give you as many times as you want to get the right answer. This doesn't bear the slightest resemblance to anything in real life.

9. Life is not divided into semesters. You don't get summers off and very few employers are interested in helping you find yourself. Do that on your own time.

10. Television is NOT real life. In real life people actually have to leave the coffee shop and go to jobs. 参考译文:

1. 生活是不公平的,你要去适应它。

2. 这个世界并不会在意你的自尊,而是要求你在自我感觉良好之前先有所成就。

3. 刚从学校走出来的时候不可能一年挣4万美元,更不会成为哪家公司的副总裁,还拥有一部汽车,直到你将这些都挣到手的那一天。

4. 如果你认为学校里的老师过于严厉,那么等你有了老板再回头想一想。

5. 卖汉堡包并不会有损于你的尊严。你的祖父对卖汉堡包有着不同的理解,他们称之为“机遇”。

6. 如果你陷入困境,那不是你父母的过错,不要将你理应承担的责任转嫁给他人,而要学着从中吸取教训。

7. 在你出生之前,你的父母并不像现在这样乏味。他们变成今天这个样子是因为这些年来一直为你付账单,给你洗衣服,听你谈你有多酷。所以,在对父母喋喋不休之前,还是先去打扫一下你自己的屋子吧。

8. 你所在学校也许已经不再分优等生和劣等生,但生活并不如此。在某些学校已经有了“不及格”的概念,学校会不断地给你机会让你进步,然而现实生活完全不是这样的。

9. 走出学校后的生活不像在学校一样有学期之分,也没有暑假之说。没有几位老板乐于帮你发现自我,你必须依靠自己去完成。

10. 电视中的许多场景决不是真实的生活。在现实生活中,人们必须埋头做自己的工作,而并不像电视里演的那样天天泡在咖啡馆里。

From:

TEAMS Each soccer team has eleven players and three substitute, or reserve players. The team consists of a goalkeeper, defenders, midfield players, and forwards (or strikers). The object of the game is to get the ball into your opponent's goal.

球队 每支球队有11名场上队员和3名替补队员。球队包括守门员、防守队员、中场队员和前锋。比赛的目的就是要将足球踢人对方的球门。

THE MATCH A game of soccer is called a match and is split into two halves of 45 minutes each, with a 15-minute break at halftime. A referee and two assistants make sure that nobody cheats or breaks the rules.

比赛 足球比赛分为两个半场,每半场各45分钟,上下半场中间有15分钟的休息时间。比赛有一位

主裁判和两名助理裁判,他们的职责是监督是否有球员作弊或者是犯规。

GOALKEEPNG Goalkeeping is a special skill. While the rest of the team can afford to make mistakes, if the goalkeeper makes one, it usually results in a goal for the opposition. Above Your Head The best way to catch a ball above your head is by joining the thumbs and forefingers of your hands together so there is a small arch between your hands. Chest or Head Jump off one leg and cradle the ball comfortably to your chest. The ball should rest on your forearms, with your hands holding it from above. Left or Right Always try to get both hands behind the ball and hold on tight. As soon as you've caught it, bring the ball quickly into the safety of your body.

守门 守门是一项特殊的技能。队里的其他球员有失误问题还不太要紧,但守门员的失误就常常导致对方进球。 过顶球 处理过顶球的最佳方法是用大拇指和其他手指一起来接球,因为那样双手之间可形成一个拱形。胸前或眼前球 单脚跳起,把球自然地抱在怀里。用前臂夹住球,两手从前臂上方抱

住球。左侧球或右侧球 要尽量从球后方来牢牢地接住球,一旦接住了球,就要赶快把球抱住。 From:

Once upon a time the colors of the world started to quarrel.

All claimed that they were the best.

The most important.

The most useful.

The favorite.

Green said:

"Clearly I am the most important. I am the sign of life and of hope. I was chosen for grass, trees and leaves. Without me, all animals would die. Look over the countryside and you will see that I am in the majority."

Blue interrupted:

"You only think about the earth, but consider the sky and the sea. It is the water that is the basis of life and drawn up by the clouds from the deep sea. The sky gives space and peace and serenity. Without my peace, you would all be nothing."

Yellow chuckled:

"You are all so serious. I bring laughter, gaiety, and warmth into the world. The sun is yellow, the moon

is yellow, the stars are yellow. Every time you look at a sunflower, the whole world starts to smile. Without me there would be no fun."

Orange started next to blow her trumpet:

"I am the color of health and strength. I may be scarce, but I am precious for I serve the needs of human life. I carry the most important vitamins. Think of carrots, pumpkins, oranges, mangoes, and papayas. I don"t hang around all the time, but when I fill the sky at sunrise or sunset, my beauty is so striking that no one gives another thought to any of you."

Red could stand it no longer he shouted out:

"I am the ruler of all of you. I am blood - life"s blood! I am the color of danger and of bravery. I am

willing to fight for a cause. I bring fire into the blood. Without me, the earth would be as empty as the moon. I am the color of passion and of love, the red rose, the poinsettia and the poppy."

Purple rose up to his full height:

He was very tall and spoke with great pomp: "I am the color of royalty and power. Kings, chiefs, and bishops have always chosen me for I am the sign of authority and wisdom. People do not question me! They listen and obey."

Finally

Indigo spoke, much more quietly than all the others, but with just as much determination:

"Think of me. I am the color of silence. You hardly notice me, but without me you all become superficial. I represent thought and reflection, twilight and deep water. You need me for balance and contrast, for prayer and inner peace."

And so the colors went on boasting, each convinced of his or her own superiority. Their quarreling became louder and louder. Suddenly there was a startling flash of bright lightening thunder rolled and boomed. Rain started to pour down relentlessly. The colors crouched down in fear, drawing close to one another for comfort.

In the midst of the clamor,

rain began to speak:

"You foolish colors, fighting amongst yourselves, each trying to dominate the rest. Don"t you know that you were each made for a special purpose, unique and different? Join hands with one another and come to me."

Doing as they were told, the colors united and joined hands.

The rain continued:

"From now on, when it rains, each of you will stretch across the sky in a great bow of color as a reminder that you can all live in peace. The Rainbow is a sign of hope for tomorrow." And so, whenever a good rain washes the world, and a Rainbow appears in the sky, let us remember to appreciate one another From: http://www.hxen.com/englisharticle/yysw/2008-05-03/36024.html