新托福写作提分“魔板”提炼的要素
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新托福写作提分“魔板”提炼的要素

大家都知道,我们中国人其实在英语的听说读写四个环节上最薄弱的就是输出的两个能力:说和写; 而最强的就是输入的两个能力:读和听。而如果我们想在出国的道路上成为佼佼者,那么在保持传统强项的同时是否应该特别加强一下我们的口语和写作能力呢?

而根据我考TSE(TEST OF SPOKEN ENGLISH)的经验,其实口语考试分数的高低(注意这里仅仅是指考试分数) 几乎完全取决于你到底背了多少段落。因为口语的TOPIC 是覆盖面非常广泛的:教育、文化、历史、生物、科技、艺术等等,所以这就从客观上决定了考生必须背大量的段落,而实际上背的过程中也就是把不涉及过于具体内容的话背下来,到考试的时候再把听到或看到题目要求的具体内容往里面加。一定要注意是从背具体的段落到提炼抽象的魔板最后再回到具体的段落:

·具体

·抽象

·具体

下面我就分别以新TOFEL 的综合部分和GRE/ GMAT 作文的“阿狗”部分为例分别给大家分享一下我个人对于满分的一些理解。

TOEFL iBT

其实新 托福 加了综合部分以后,我个人认为是降低了难度。因为原来老托福的作文作为 新托福 作文的独立部分并没有什么太大的改变,而且大家都知道作文水平的提高不是一朝一夕的事情,那么我刚才说的不能盲目就是指大家不能在这个需要体现真正写作水平的部分去背段落,因为这个是会被认为是舞弊行为的。那么在综合、独立各占15分的时候,我们如果能把握住任何一个部分的高分实际上平均下来的分数就不会低。而综合部分由于是先读一篇文章,再听一段录音,然后让我们谈文章与录音的相互关系,而不用发表自己的观点这一题目本身的客观要求就决定了它是可以背由固定标准语句组成的“魔板”的。这正如研究生入学考试英语写作的小作文和 雅思 写作的小作文一样是有固定套路的。比如录音讲座要么就是质疑或者反驳了阅读段落; 要么就是支持或者加强了阅读段落,所以只需要把相关描述质疑或者反驳与描述支持或者加强的固定语句背下来就可以得到一个相对较高的分数,如果考生同时又把相关要点表达准确和清楚了的话,那么满分是完全可能的。当综合部分有15分在手的时候,独立部分只要及格那么就能至少获得24分的作文高分!

比如以下两个“魔板“是分别描述质疑或者反驳以及支持或者加强的:

Integrated Writing Task

How the Integrated Writing Task is phrased:

If the lecture challenges the information in the reading passage, the writing task will usually be phrased in one of the following ways:

?Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they cast doubt on specific points made in the reading passage.

?Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they challenge specific claims/arguments made in the reading passage.

?Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to specifically explain how they answer the problems raised in the reading passage.

Showing Challenge

In the lecture, the professor made several points about______________. The professor argues

that__________________.

However, the reading contends that________________.

The professor’s lecture casts doubts on the reading by using a number of points that are contrary

to___________________________.

The first point that the professor uses to cast doubt on the reading is that_________________.

According to the professor,________________________________.

_______________ differs from the reading in that the reading states _______________________________.

The point made by the professor casts doubt on the reading because_______________________.

Another point that the professor uses to casts doubt on the reading is ___________________________________.

The professor claims that______________________________________.

However, the reading states _____________________________________.

This point is contradicted by_____________________________________.

Finally, the professor stated that, on the contrary of the reading, _____________________________________.

In other words,______________________________________.

This directly contradicts what the reading passage indicates, because___________________________.

In conclusion, the points made in the lecture contradict the reading.

_________________and_______________ demonstrate that ___________is in doubt.

If the lecture supports or strengthens the information in the reading passage, the writing task will usually be phrased

in one of the following ways:

?Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to specifically explain how they support the explanations in the reading passage.

?Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to specifically explain how they strengthen specific points made in the reading passage.

Showing support

In the lecture, the professor made several points about_______________.

The professor argues that______________________________.

The points made by the professor agree with________________.

In fact, the examples used by the professor support_________________.

The first point that the professor uses to support the reading is that_______________________.

According to the professor,_____________________________.

_______________________supports the reading, which holds that_______________________.

The point made by the professor supports the reading because_____________________.

Furthermore, the professor bolsters the reading by stating that_______________.

The professor claims that_________________________________.

This point agrees with the reading, which contends that______________.

__________________ shows the truth of the reading because___________.

Finally, the professor stated that, in support of the reading, ______________________________.

Specifically,__________________________________________.

This perfectly reinforced what the reading passage indicates, because___________________________.

In conclusion, the points made in the lecture support the reading.

________________ and ________________________demonstrate that ________________________is invalid.

接下来,我将以如下例子来告诉大家如果提炼“魔板”:

Getting the Templates

The first point the professor makes that casts doubt on the reading is his point about the behavior of stags. The professor shows how the actions of animal can be interpreted in different ways. For example, some people interpret the stag’s actions as being for the “good of the species,” but the professor shows that the stag is actually acting in self-interest. This casts doubt on the reading because it appears that the crickets’ behavior can be interpreted as helping only individual crickets and not the group as a whole. The professor then talks about the results of the experiment, which seems to indicate the crickets are acting only in self-interest.

Another point the professor makes that casts doubt on the reading is his point about the intelligence of animals and insects. As he states, it would seem to require a lot of intelligence to evaluate how a behavior will affect an entire species. This makes the explanation in the reading seem less likely; a cricket is probably unable to think of the

consequences of its actions. It is more likely that the cricket is only acting out of self-preservation, as the professor indicates.

The first point the professor makes that casts doubt on the reading is his point

about__________________________________.

The professor shows that_____________________________________.

For example, ______________________________, but the professor shows

that_______________________________________.

This casts doubt on the reading because it appears that_________________________________.

The professor then talks about_________________________, which seems to indicate

that___________________________.

Another point the professor makes that casts doubt on the reading is his point

about__________________________________.

As he states, it would seem to___________________________.

This makes the explanation in the reading seem less likely;_____________________________________.

It is more likely that________________________, ad the professor indicates.

实际上,大家从上面这个例子就可以发现“魔板”的提取过程就是这样的:

·先认真读完一篇满分范文来源:

·再用笔划掉其中涉及题目具体内容的部分

·最后把余下来的部分抄写下来即可

但“魔板”做出来后只是做了一小半工作,大家还必须学会如何往里面填空,实际上最简单的方法就是看着题目把具体内容自己填进去,然后跟范文对比,找出填空的精华技巧所在,因为在后半部分的GRE/GMAT中我还

会详细讲解,所以这里只是先告诉大家这样一个简单方法。

大家如果想在今后新托福的考试中作文部分有所突破,那么就应该按照我这个提炼“魔板”的方法,去至少提炼20篇左右的满分范文,再加以有机排列组合成自己独特的考试“魔板”,最后进行集中填空,那么新托福作文25分将不再是神话。

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