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城市化

2011年是中国城市化进程中的历史性时刻,其城市人口首次超过农村人口。在未来20年里,预计约有3.5亿农村人口将移居到城市。如此规模的城市发张对城市交通来说既是挑战,也是机遇。中国政府一直提倡“以人为本”的发张理念。强调人们以公交而不是私家车出行。它还号召建设“资源节约和环境友好型”社会。有了这个明确的目标,中国城市就可以更好地规划其发展,并把大量投资转向安全、清洁和经济型交通系统的发展上。

2011 was a historic moment in the process of urbanization in China as its population exceeded the rural population for the first time. In the next 20 years, about 350 million rural population will move into the city. Such scale of urban development is both a challenge and an opportunity for urban transportation. The Chinese government has always advocated the idea that "people come first". It stresses that people shouldtake buses instead of private cars. It also calls for the construction of

"resource-saving and environment-friendly" society. With this clear goal, cities in China can better plan their development and turn a lot of investment to the safe, clean and economic transportationsystem.

汉朝是中国历史上最重要的朝代之一,汉朝统治期间有很多显著的成就。它最先向其他文化敞开大门,对外贸易兴旺。汉朝开拓的丝绸之路通向了中西亚乃至罗马。各类艺术一派繁荣,涌现了很多文学历史哲学巨著公元100年中国第一部字典编撰完成,收入9000个字,提供释义并列举不同的写法。期间科技方面也取得很大进步。发明纸张水中日晷sundials ,以及测量地震的仪器。汉朝经历了四百年,但统治者的腐败导致了它的灭亡。

The Han dynasty is one of the most important dynasties in Chinese history. There are a lot of remarkable achievements during the reign of this dynasty. It was the first dynasty to open the door to other cultures, and its foreign trade was also prosperous. The Han dynasty's

development of the Silk Road reached the West Asia and Rome.Various kinds of art thrived during the Han Dynasty, when many great works on literature, history and philosophy emerged. The first dictionary in China was compiled in 100 BC, embodying 9000 words. It provided meanings and displays different ways of characters. In the meanwhile, technology made great impact. Paper, sundials in water and instruments used to detect earthquake were invented. The Han Dynasty lasted 400 years. However, its rulers' corruption led to its dying out.

题目:在帮助国际社会于2030年前消除极端贫困过程中,中国正扮演着越来越重要的角色。自20世纪70年代末实施改革开放以来,中国已使多达四亿人摆脱了贫困。在未来五年中,中国将向其他发展中国家在减少贫困、发展教育、农业现代化、环境保护和医疗保健等方面提供援助。

中国在减少贫困方面取得了显著进步,并在促进经济增长方面做出了不懈努力,这将鼓励其他贫困国家应对自身发展中的挑战。在寻具有自身特色的发展道路时,这些国家可以借鉴中国的经验。

译文:In the process ofhelping global communities to terminate extreme poverty by 2030,the role China plays enjoys an increasing level of significance.400 million people have already gotten rid of poverty since the1970s, when the reforming and opening up policy started. In thefive years to come, China is going to provide the other

developingcountries with the help in terms of the elimination of poverty, thedevelopment of education, the modernization of

agriculture,environmental protection as well as medicalcare.

The progress made byChina in the elimination of poverty is obviously great and Chinahas been making persistent efforts in

promoting the economicgrowth, which serves as an example to inspire other developingcountries to confront with challenges in their own development. TheChinese experience could help a lot in the search of thedevelopment patterns with their own characters.

题目:最近,中国政府决定将其工业升级,中国现在涉足建造高速列车、远洋船舶、机器人,甚至飞机。不久前,中国获得了再印度尼西亚(Indonesia)建造一条高铁的合同; 中国还与马来西亚(Malaysia)签署了为其提供高速列车的合同。这证明人们信赖中国造产品。

中国造产品越来越受欢迎。中国为此付出了代价,但这确实有助于消除贫困,同时还为世界各地的人们提供了就业机会。这是一件好事,值得称赞。下次你去商店时,可能想看一看你所购商品的出产国名。很有可能这件商品是中国造的。 译文:The Chinese government has decided to upgrade the industrial structure recently。 The construction of high speed trains, ocean-going vessels , robots and even airplanes have been involved in and a contract on the construction of high-speed rail has been signed by China and Indonesia lately, which proved the fact that the product made in China enjoys a high level of reliability。

The “Made in China” have been widely spread around the world at a hefty cost。

However , with the elimination of poverty and the job opportunities provided for people around the world, the popularity of the “ Made in China ” deserves applause。 Therefore , you may want to check the original places of the product you have bought in stores because it is exceedingly possible that this product is made in China。

中国园林(the Chinese garden)是经过三千多年演变而成的独具一格的园林景观(landscape)。它既包括为皇室成员享乐而建造的大型花园,也包括学者、商人和卸任的政府官员为摆脱嘈杂的外部世界而建造的私家花园。这些花园构成了一种意在表达人与自然之间应有的和谐关系的微缩景观。典型的中国园林四周有围墙,园内有池塘、假山(rockwork)、树木、花草以及各种各样由蜿蜒的小路和走廊连接的建筑。漫步在花园中,人们可以看到一系列精心设计的景现犹如山水画卷(scroll)一般展现在面前。

参考答案

The Chinese garden has become a landscape of unique style after an evolution for more than 3000 years. It includes not only the large

gardens built as entertainment venues for the royal family, but also the private gardens built as secluded retreats for scholars, merchants and retired government officials. These gardens have constituted a miniature designed to express the harmonious relationship between man and nature. A typical Chinese garden is surrounded by walls, and in the garden there are ponds, rockwork, trees, flowers and all kinds of buildings linked by winding trails and corridors. Wandering in the

gardens, people may feel that a series of well-designed scenery spreads out before us like a landscape roll.

中国将努力确保到2015年就业者接受过平均13.3年的教育。如果这一目标得以实现,今后大部分进入劳动力市场的人都需获得大学文凭。

在未来几年,中国将着力增加职业学院的招生人数:除了关注高等教育外,还将寻找新的突破以确保教育制度更加公平。中国正在努力最佳地利用教育资源,这样农村和欠发达地区将获得更多的支持。

教育部还决定改善欠发达地区学生的营养,并为外来务工人员的子女提供在城市接受教育的同等机会。

China will endeavor to ensure every employee to have average 13.3 years of education. If the goal is achieved, a majority of people entering the labor market will be having Bachelor’s degree.

In the next few years, China will increase the number of people in vocational college. Except focusing on the higher education, the government will find a breakthrough point to ensure the justice of education. China is trying to optimize education resources and,

accordingly, the countryside as well as the less developed areas will receive more support.

In addition, the education ministry decides to improve the nutrition of students in less developed areas and provides equal opportunities for the children of workers from out of town to receive education in the city.

反应在艺术和文学中的乡村生活理想是中国文明的重要特征。这在很大程度上归功于道家对自然的感情。传统中国画有两个最受青睐的主题,一是家庭生活的各种幸福场景,画中往往有老人在下棋饮茶,男人在耕耘收割,妇女在织布缝衣,小孩在户外玩耍。另一个则是乡村生活的种种乐趣,画有渔夫在湖上打渔,农夫在山上砍柴采药,或是书生坐在松树下吟诗作画。这两个主题可以分别代表儒家和道家的生活理想。

The ideal rural lifestyle reflected in the art and literature is a great characteristic in Chinese civilization. It is largely attributed to the Taoism affection to nature.

There are two most preferred topics in traditional Chinese paintings. One kind depicts various happy scenes of family life in which the elderly play chess and drink tea, young men farm and harvest in the field, women weave or sew clothes and kids play in the outside. The other depicts the recreations of rural life. In these paintings, fishermen fish on the lake, famers hew or collect herbs on the hills and scholars compose poems or paintings under pine trees. These two themes respectively represent the ideal life of Confucianism and Taoism.

自从1978年启动改革以来,中国已从计划经济转为以市场为基础的经济,经历了经济和社会的快速发展。平均10%的GDP 增长已使五亿多人脱贫。联合国的“千年(millennium)发展目标”在中国均已达到或即将达到。目前,中国的第十二个五年规划强调发展服务业和解决环境及社会不平衡的问题。政府已设定目标减少污染,提高能源效率,改善得到教育和医保的机会,并扩大社会保障。中国现在7%的经济年增长目标表明政府是在重视生活质量而不是增长速度。 Since the reform in 1978, with the rapid development of economy and society, Chinese economy has transferred into market economy from command economy. The average 10% growth of GDP has lifted more than 500 million people out of poverty. The Millennium Goal of the U.N. has been fully or partially achieved throughout China. At present, the 12th Five-year Plan in China emphasizes the development of service industry and the solution of imbalance of environment and society. The government has set goals to reduce pollution, enhance energy efficiency, improve educational opportunities and medical insurance and expand social security. The 7% growth annual goal demonstrates that the

government is concentrating on the quality of life rather than the speed of growth.

一、 分析原因常用句型

The reasons can be listed as follows. For one thing…For another… What has contributed to this problem? In the first place…In the second place…

It is no easy to identify the reason for… which involve several complicated factors.

A number of factors could account for/lead to/contribute to/result in/be conductive to…

The explanation for this phenomenon involves many complex reasons …

二、提出解决方案的常用句型

The first key factor to solve this problem…Another key factor is… Faced with…we should take a series of effective measures to cope with the situation.

No effective/simple solution can be at hand/tackle the problem of… But the general first step in the right direction.

开篇句型

1.The human race has entered a completely new stage in its history, along with the advance of the society and the increasingly rapid

economic globalization and urbanization, more problems are brought to our attention,one of which is that……

人类进入了一个历史的崭新的阶段,随着科技发展和经济快速增长、经济全球化、都市化的速度不断加快,随之给我们带来了很多问题,其中之一便是……

2.Recently the phenomenon has aroused wide concern, some people are in alarm that....

最近,这种现象引起了人们的广泛关注,有人开始担心______________。

3....... plays such an important role that it un de niably (无可厚非的)becomes a wide-spread concern of the present world, there comes a question, is it a blessing or a curse?"

_______显得非常重要而成为当今世界所关注的最大的问题,这是无可厚非的。不过,问题是:" 我们该如何抉择?"

4.As society develops, There are a wide-spread concern over…… 随着社会的发展,人们开始关注............

In the process of modern urban development, we often find ourselves in a dilemma.

在都市的发展中,我们往往会陷入困境。

More and more people become appreciating the convenience of mobile phone.

更多人对……的方便而受到吸引

Many nations have been faced with the problem of …

Recently the phenomenon has become a heated topic.

Recently the issue has aroused great concern among …

结尾句型

In summary, if we continue to ignore the above-mentioned issue, more problems will crop up.

With the efforts of all parts concerned, the problem will be solved thoroughly.

We might do more than identify the cause ; it is important to take actions to …

Taking all these factors into consideration, we naturally come to the conclusion that…

把所有这些因素加以考虑, 我们自然会得出结论…

Taking into account all these factors, we may reasonably come to the conclusion that…

考虑所有这些因素, 我们可能会得出合理的结论…

There is no doubt that (job-hopping) has its drawbacks as well as merits.

毫无疑问, 跳槽有优点也有缺点.

All in all, we cannot live without… But at the same time we must try to find out new ways to cope with the problems that would arise. 总之, 我们没有…是无法生活的. 但同时, 我们必须寻求新的解决办法来对付可能出现的新问题.

观点

As for my own idea about … I believe …

As far as I am concerned , I plan to …

But for me , I would rather …

In conclusion , I support the statement that …

As regards me , I tend to choose …

用于比较、阐述不同观点的常用句型

④Some people believe … Others maintain … Still others claim …

⑤Some people suggest … Others , however , hold the opposite opinion .

⑥On the one hand , people tend to … On the other hand , they feel …

强调

still, Indeed, apparently, oddly enough, after all, significantly,

interestingly, above all, surely, certainly, undoubtedly, in any case, anyway, above all, in fact, especially. Obviously, clearly.

比较

like, similarly, likewise, in the same way, in the same manner, equally. 对比

by contrast, on the contrary, while, whereas, on the other hand, unlike, instead, but, conversely, different from, however, nevertheless, otherwise, whereas, unlike, yet, in contrast.

转折

however, rather than, instead of, but, yet, on the other hand, unfortunately. Whereas

递进

What is more, in addition, and, besides, also, furthermore, too, moreover, furthermore, as well as, additionally, again.

1.Practice makes perfect.熟能生巧。

2.God helps those who help themselves.天助自助者。

3.Easier said than done.说起来容易做起来难。

4.Where there is a will,there is a way.有志者事竟成。

5.One false step will make a at difference.失之毫厘,谬之千里。

6.Slow and steady wins the race.稳扎稳打无往而不胜。

7.A fall into the pit,a gain in your wit.吃一堑,长一智。

8.Experience is the mother of wisdom.实践出真知。

9.All work and no play makes jack a dull boy.只工作不休息,聪明孩子也变傻。

10.Beauty without virtue is a rose without fragrance.无德之美犹如没有香味的玫瑰,徒有其表。

11.More hasty,less speed.欲速则不达。

12.It's never too old to learn.活到老,学到老。

13.All that glitters is not gold.闪光的未必都是金子。

14.A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step.千里之行始于足下。

15.Look before you leap.三思而后行。

16.Rome was not built in a day.伟业非一日之功。

17.Great minds think alike.英雄所见略同。

18.well begun,half done.好的开始等于成功的一半。

19.It is hard to please all.众口难调。

20.Out of sight,out of mind.眼不见,心不念。

21.Facts speak plainer than Words.事实胜于雄辩。

22.Call back white and white back.颠倒黑白。

23.First things first.凡事有轻重缓急。

24.Ill news travels fast.坏事传千里。

25.A friend in need is a friend indeed.患难见真情。

26.live not to eat,but eat to live.活着不是为了吃饭,吃饭为了活着。

27.Action speaks louder than words.行动胜过语言。

28.East or west,home is the best.金窝银窝不如自家草窝。

29.It's not the gay coat that makes the gentleman.君子在德不在衣。

30.Beauty will buy no beef.漂亮不能当饭吃。

31.Like and like make good friends.趣味相投。

32.The older, the wiser.姜是老的辣。

33.Do as Romans do in Rome.入乡随俗。

34.An idle youth,a needy age.少壮不努力,老大徒伤悲。

35.AS the tree,so the fruit.种瓜得瓜,种豆得豆。

36.To live is to learn,to learn is to better live.活着为了学习,学习为了更好的活着。