清晰写作
初一 散文 8341字 52人浏览 大白杨树75

13 Steps to Writing Clearly

Writing clearly is a worthwhile goal for any scientist, at least any scientist who expects to be published in a major journal.

写作清晰对任何一个科学家来说是一个值得做的目标,至少是对那些期望在主要期刊上发表文章的科学家。

Writing well means presenting your argument and evidence in a clear, logical, and creative way. An interesting argument hidden in flowery prose is of no use to anyone.

写作好就是用清晰,合理和创造性的方式呈现你的文章和证据。 Clear writing takes effort. Besides requiring knowledge of basic grammar and syntax, it requires a good ear, a sense of proportion, and an ability to critique oneself.

清晰写作要努力。而且需要基础语法和句法知识,它还需要一个好的耳朵,主次观念,以及自我评价的能力。

Ultimately, anyone who wants to write clearly needs to develop a critical sense. You need to be able to judge your own writing objectively and, putting aside the brilliance of the content, honestly evaluate its ability to communicate.

最后,谁想要做到写作清晰就需要锻炼评判意识。你要能够客观的审理你自己写的东西,并且抛开内容的光辉,诚实的评价它传达信息的能力。

Below are a few tips useful to anyone writing for scientific journals. By critiquing your papers with the following ideas in mind, you’ll definitely sharpen 削尖尖锐 your writing and improve your odds of publication.

时刻记住用以下观点来批判你的文章,你会明确的sharpen 你的写作和提高文章被发表的几率。

1. Determine what you’re trying to say before writing it. Figure out precisely what you want to say. This may sound obvious, but many do not bother to do it. Knowing what you want to say beforehand maximizes the odds of producing an organized, persuasive paper.

在写之前确定你想要说什么。精确指出你想要说的。这听起来可能很明显,但许多人懒得去做。明白预先你要说的,最大限度地提高产生有组织,有说服力的文件的可能性。

2. Think in terms of an outline. To ensure a logical flow, start by making an outline (even if it’s in your head). Please see our newsletter “Eight Steps to Developing an Effective Outline”

计划大纲。确保一个合理的流程,以制作一个大纲开始(即使他在你的头脑里)。请关注我们的实时通讯“八步制定一个有效的大纲”。

3. Write direct sentences. Have only one idea or point per

sentence. Keep sentences simple and short. Use two sentences rather than joining them with “and”.

写直接的句子。每句只含一个想法或观点。保证句子简短。使用两个句子而不是用and 连接他们。

4. Be brief. Conciseness is important in writing research

papers. Learn to look for long phrases that can be shortened.

简洁。简明扼要对撰写研究论文至关重要。学习凝练长短语。

5. Organize your thoughts. Be sure that every paragraph has a clear topic sentence and that the paragraph content supports the topic. Remember, the goal is to report your findings and conclusions clearly, with as few words as necessary.

整理你的想法。确保每段有一个清晰的主旨句并且段落内容支持主题。记住,目的是用尽可能少的话清楚的表述你的发现和结论。

6. Substitute action verbs for "to be". "To be" is an important verb, but it weakens the text when used excessively. For example, think about changing "is a summary of" to "summarizes".

用行动动词替换"To be" 。"To be"是一个很重要的动词,但是当过分使用时它会使文章削弱。例如:把"is a summary of"换成 "summarizes" 。

7. Be sparing with adjectives & adverbs. Try to remove unspecific modifiers such as "very," "extremely," and "highly". When you do use modifiers, make them as specific as possible. For example, try changing "a very good response" to "the expected response".

少用形容词和副词。试着去除不具体的修饰如"very" 、 "extremely" 、 "highly" 。当你一定要用修饰词时,尽可能明确,例如:把"a very good response" 换成"the expected response".

8. Be as precise as possible. Avoid phrases such as "a number of" and "a quantity of". If you can, replace these with a word such as "many," "few," or "some," or, even better, the actual number.

尽可能精确。避免使用像"a number of" 、 "a quantity of". 的短语。如果可以的话,用"many," "few," or "some,"代替,最好是实际数字。

9. Avoid unnecessary constructions and prepositions. Phrases such as "It is clear that" and "The fact is that" are empty

verbiage. Assuming you believe what you are about to say, just say it.

避免不必要的结构和介词。短语像"It is clear that" 和 "The fact is that" 是空洞的废话。假设你相信你所说的,那就说出来。

The same is true for prepositional phrases such as "In order to" or "In an attempt to." "In order to understand this reactions, we . . . " is better said as "To understand this reaction, we. . . ."

同样,介词短语像"In order to" 、 "In an attempt to." 、"In order to understand this reactions, we . . . "最好说成"To understand this reaction, we. . . ."。

10. Look for omissions. Did you forget an essential sentence or two in your conclusion that explains your thought processes to someone who doesn’t think about these issues every day?

查漏。对于那些每天不考虑这些问题的人来说,你是否在你的结论中忘记一两个解释你的思维过程的基本句子?

11. Look for repetitions. When you see the same word used

repeatedly, consider using synonyms. Although repeating a word or phrase is sometimes effective rhetorically, it can also make your sentence structure clumsy.

查重。当你看见同样的词反复被使用时,就要考虑用同义词。虽然重复词或短语有时候在修辞上是有效的,但是它也让你的句子结构笨拙。

12. Write as you speak. Wherever possible, use words you

ordinarily speak and hear. If you can't hear yourself saying it, then don't see yourself writing it.

像你说话一样书写。只要有可能,使用你通常说的和听到的词。如果你不能听自己在说什么,那么就不知道自己在写什么。

13. Leave it alone for a while. Of course, there’s not always time, but do this whenever you can. You will be surprised how many flaws will appear in your manuscript when you put it aside for a while.

把它放置一段时间。当然,你不总是有时间,但是尽量这么做。当你把它放一段时间后你将会惊讶的发现有多少缺陷在你的原稿中。

Developing an Effective Title

San Francisco Edit

www.sfedit.net

The title defines the contents of your manuscript in as few words as possible. An effective title “sells” your manuscript to the reader immediately and influences whether or not a reader will read the manuscript.

标题规定你原稿的内容要尽可能少的文字。一个有效的标题能使你的原稿快速“卖”向读者,并且影响读者是否需要阅读你的文章。

The title is essential in bringing your manuscript to the readers'

attention, especially where the database being searched does not include the abstract of the article. It should include all essential words in the right order so the topic of the manuscript is accurately and fully conveyed. An excellent title is the key to ensuring your article will be found. An improperly titled paper may be lost and never reach its intended audience.

标题必须要使你的原稿能引起读者地注意,特别是对不包括摘要和正文的数据库搜索。它应该包括所有必要文字以正确的顺序来使文章主题准确充分的传达。

Your title will be read by many more people than the rest of your manuscript. Indexing services will use the title to categorize your paper. Authors who cite your paper will include the title in their list of references, which, in turn, will be read by thousands of readers.

你的标题相比于文章正文会被更多的人阅读。索引服务会使用标题来将你的文章分类。那些引用你文章的作者会将标题列入他们的文献列表中,从而将会被成千上万的读者阅读。

1. Write the title early in the writing process and critique it the same as any other section of the manuscript.

在撰写文章之前拟好标题并且与原稿的其他部分一样评审它。

2. A title should be the fewest possible words that accurately describe the content of the paper (the recommended length is 10 - 12 words).

一个标题应该以最少的文字准确的描述文章的内容(建议长度为10-12字)。

3. The golden rule is: Express only one idea or subject in your title. 指导原则:在你的标题中只表达一个观点或主题。

4. Put an important word first in the title.

首先把重要的语句放在标题里。

5. Use key words which highlight the main content of your manuscript and can be understood, indexed, and retrieved by a database search.

使用能突出你文章主要内容的关键词,以便被理解、检索和编入数据库搜索。

6. Be concise. Omit all waste words such as "A study of ...", "Investigations of ...", "Observations on ...".

要简明,省略所有的废话如"A study of ...", "Investigations of ...", "Observations on ..."

7. Eliminate redundant words such as verbs and articles so the title functions as a label rather than a sentence.

去除多余的词比如动词和冠词,标题的功能是作为一个标签而不是一个句子。

8. Use simple word orders and common word combinations.

使用简单语序和常用词组。

9. Be as descriptive as possible and use specific rather than general terms: for instance, include the specific drug name rather than just the class of drug. 尽可能描述性的并且使用具体词汇而不是统称,例如,包含具体药物名称而不是药物的种类。

10. Write scientific names in full, for instance Escherichia coli rather than E. coli.

科学名称要写全,例如Escherichia coli 而不是E. coli.(大肠杆菌)

11. Avoid using abbreviations and acronyms; they could have different meanings: for instance "Ca" for calcium could be mistaken for "CA", which means cancer.

避免使用缩略语和首字缩略词;他们可能含有不同意思:例如“Ca ”钙可能会误认为是“CA ”癌症cancer

12. Refer to chemicals by their common or generic name instead of their formulas.

涉及化学品,用常用名和俗名代替他们的化学式。

13. Avoid the use of Roman numerals in the title as they can be interpreted differently: for instance, part III could be mistaken for factor III.

避免在标题中使用罗马数字因为他们可能有不同的解读:例如,part III可能被误认为是factor III。

14. Do not use words such as “significant”重大的有效的, which are

considered too strong, state your conclusion too boldly, and trivialize your manuscript by reducing it to a one-liner.

不要使用像“significant”这样被认为很强烈的词,陈述你的结论太过大胆,

15. Make certain that your title and abstract match the final version of your article.

确实你的标题和摘要与最终版本相匹配。