考研基础写作1-4节
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● 考研基础写作教程

● By Izzie

● 大作文评分标准(20分制, 4分一档) ● 1分5分9分13分17分

● 大纲中17-20分的评分标准 ● 写作要求

● 内容完整性

● 文章的组织连贯性

● 句式、词汇多样性

● 语言的准确性

● 一、词汇替换

● 词汇替换攻略一:生米煮成熟饭

● 上义词、近义词、下义词

● 策略:

● 优先找近义词,退而上+下 ● Kiwi

● Chinese gooseberry

● A kind of fruit which is brown outside and green inside, and tastes sour and sweet.

● 近义词: 贴近原意

● 人山人海

● a large crowd of people

● a large number of people

● 丘壑遍布

● mountainous

● 火锅

● a traditional Chinese dish/meal

● in which you can see beef or lamb, luncheon meat, mushrooms, and a variety of vegetables cooked together

● 佛、梁祝、解构、人本、功夫、毕昇、儒、礼、后现代、老舍、莎士比亚、爱因斯坦、道、天鹅湖、启蒙、仁、京剧等

● 上义词

● Chinese culture and foreign culture

● 词汇替换攻略二:不食人间烟火

● 写作中十大高频词的替换

● many

● a great/good many of£¬an ocean of£¬an army of+N.

● An ocean of students attend the exam last year.

● 写作中十大高频词的替换

● an increasing/growing number of+N.

● an increasing/growing number of people

● Increasingly +adj.

● Increasingly popular

● people (persons)

● individuals£¬citizens£¬folks

● A growing number of mainland cities in China are suffering from

severe environmental pollution.

● 写作中十大高频词的替换

● different

● distinctive

● various/a variety of/diverse

● She has a distinctive appearance.

● 她的外貌与众不同。

● diverse/various cultures

● Practice

● In the modern society, a variety of digital products appear in our daily life.

● 写作中十大高频词的替换

● 认为:think

● believe, argue, assert,contend

● be convinced

● hold the opinion that,harbor the idea that

● Chinese residents are convinced that a growing number of

mainland cities are suffering from severe environmental pollution.

● 写作中十大高频词的替换

● very

● change dramatically

● be considerably constrained

● extremely helpful

● tremendously educational

● 写作中十大高频词的替换

● important

● significant£¬crucial£¬essential£¬vital

● like

● prefer/be crazy/enthusiastic about

● 写作中十大高频词的替换

● good

● positive/beneficial/desirable/advantageous

● bad

● negative/undesirable/discouraging/disadvantageous ● 高频词替换后的效果

● More and more people think health is very important.

● A dramatically increasing number of individuals contend that health is extraordinarily significant.

● 词汇替换攻略之三:惜字如金

● 1. 避免重复

● ①省略名词

● Bacon :Some books are to be tasted,others_to be swallowed,and some few_to be chewed and digested.

● 书有可浅尝者,有可尽食者,少数则需咀嚼消化。

● 他赞成第一个提议,反对第二个提议。

● He agreed on the first suggestion and was against the second suggestion .

● He agreed on the first suggestion and was against the second.

● 他们是优秀的老师,但胡老师是我见过的最好的老师。

● They are good teachers,but Mr. Hu is the best teacher I have ever seen.

● They are good teachers,but Mr. Hu is the best I have ever seen.

● ②省略动词

● 我知道一些你不知道的。

● I know something you do not know.

● I know something you do not.

● 其他人不必留下了,可是杨必须留下来。

● Others need not stay here,but Yang must stay here. ● Others need not stay here,but Yang must.

● ③省略形容词

● 考过研的人可能会后悔,但没考过研的人肯定会后悔。

● People who have taken the exam may be regretted,but people who have not taken the exam certainly will be regretted.

● People who have taken the exam may be regretted,but people who have not_certainly will be_.

● 词汇替换的攻略之四:以实代虚

● 我 走出房间:

● go out of the room

● walk out of the room

● 词汇替换攻略之四:

多说实词,少说虚词

● ±£»¤»·¾³ÈËÈËÓÐÔð¡£

● ● Protecting the environment is a duty every citizen should fulfill/is a cause everyone must devote himself to.

● 词汇替换攻略之五:移形转性

● 形容词<=>名词

● 作表语的adj. →of + 抽象名词

● significant

● →of significance

● meaningful

● →of rich meaning

● valuable

● →of great value

● 形容词的替代与变化

● 作表语的adj. →of + 抽象名词

● necessary

● →of necessity

● influential

● →of tremendous influence

● 形容词的替代与变化

● It is significant to bring a wallet to a restaurant with your girlfriend.

● It is of great significance to bring a wallet to a restaurant with your girlfriend.

● 副词:与词组的转化

● adv. →介宾短语:prep. +n.

● 最常见的prep. 是with

● easily

● →with ease

● confidently

● →with confidence

● conveniently

● →with convenience

● 副词:与词组的转化

● 还有一些固定搭配:

● accidentally

● →by accident

● additionally

● →in addition

● purposely

● →on purpose

● 副词:与词组的转化

● 表个人感情色彩的adv.

● →to+one’s+n. :“令某人…的是” ● surprisingly

● →to one’s surprise

● delightedly

● →to one’s delight

● 副词:与词组的转化

● regrettably

● →to one’s regret

● sorrowfully

● →to one’s sorrow

● shamefully

● →to one’s shame

● 副词:与词组的转化

● He won the girl’s love easily . ● He won the girl’s love with ease.

● Surprisingly ,he found that sun did not rise in the east. ● To his surprise,he found that sun did not rise in the east.

● 副词:与句子的转化

● 置于句首的adv. (修饰整个句子)

● →it+is +adj. +that +从句

● unfortunately

● →It is unfortunate that…

● significantly

● →It is significant that…

● undoubtedly

● →It is undoubted that…

● 副词:与句子的转化

● Undoubtedly this is the most tragic incident in the 21st century. ● It is undoubted that this is the most tragic incident in the 21st century.

● 句式

● 句式

● 1、句子结构的准确性;

● 结构完整

● 主谓一致

● 时态正确

● 句式:结构完整

● 主谓宾 I love writing.

● 主谓 He agrees.

● 主系表 I am happy.

● 句式:结构完整

● 1. 什么能作主语?

● 名词

● 名词性词组

● 代词

● 动名词

● Doing business is one thing and doing good business is another. ● It is none of your business.

● 句式:结构完整

● 不定式

● To help others is to help yourself.

● It is significant to bring a wallet to a restaurant with your girlfriend. ● 句式:结构完整

● 名词性从句

● What the foreigner asked puzzled me.

● It is significant that you bring a wallet to a restaurant with your girlfriend.

● 简单句的基本结构

● ⒉ 什么词能作谓语?

● 动词

● ①实义动词

● ②情态动词+动词原形

● can/could,will/would, shall/should,may/might,must/need ● have to,ought to,used to…

● 简单句的基本结构

● ③助动词+动词原形/分词

● do ,have…

● 3. 什么词能作宾语?

● 同主语

● 简单句的基本结构

● 4. 什么词能作系动词?

● be¶¯´Ê£º

● am£¬is£¬are£¬was£¬were

● be, being£¬been

● 感官动词:

● feel£¬look£¬sound£¬smell£¬taste ● Seem, appear

● 简单句的基本结构

● 4. 什么词能作系动词?

● become, get, turn, grow, fall

● go, come

● 译为还是/维持:

● remain, keep, hold, rest, stay, continue, prove

● 句式:结构完整

● 5. 什么词能作表语?

● 名词

● 形容词

● 代词(宾格)

● 介宾短语

● The laptop is on my laptop.

● 句式:结构完整

● 5. 什么词能作表语?

● 名词性从句——表语从句

● 不定式

● To help others is to help yourself.

● 句式:主谓一致

● ①单复数主谓一致

● ②主从句主谓一致

● When at the age of eight,climb trees.

● 句式:主谓一致

● When Mr. Hu was at the age of eight£¬his father began to teach him to climb trees.

● When at the age of eight£¬Mr. Hu was taught to climb trees by his father.

● 句式

● 2、句子结构的复杂性:

● 各类从句

● ——名词从句、定语从句、状语从句

● 分词结构

● 其他高级语法现象

● 句子的合并

● 1. 逻辑连词

● 2. 非限定性定语从句和分词结构

● 3. 成分的整合

● 句子的合并:逻辑连词

● 五大逻辑关系之连词:

● 并列:

● and ,or ,neither…nor,either…or…,not only…but (also) ● 因果:

● because ,as ,since ,for, for the reason that; so

● 转折:

● but ,yet ,although ,even though,though

● 对比:

● while ,whereas

● He is lazy while she is diligent.

● Although it is raining heavily,the flower inside the greenhouse blooms while the same flower withers/fades when it is moved outside without any protection.

● 句子的合并:逻辑连词

● 条件:

● If; when,while; as long as,provided that; u n l e s s

● P r o v i d e d t h a t y o u m a s t e r a l l t h e w o r d s , y o u w i l l d e f i n i t e l y p a s s

t h e e x a m .

● 句子的合并:逻辑连词

● ,连词 .

● . 副词,.

● 因果副词:

● therefore ,as a result,consequently

● 转折副词:

◆ however ,instead ,on the contrary,by contrast,unfortunately ,in fact,to one’s surprise

● 句子的合并:非限定从和分词结构

● 非限定性定语从句

● 非限定性定语从句

● abandoned.

● Filial piety,which is a virtue of Chinese people, has been abandoned.

● 句子的合并:非限定从和分词结构

● 分词结构之主动

● Xue Feng went to give a class,having drunk two tins of Red Bull

Vitamin Drinks before.

● 分词结构之被动

● He was scolded by his mother for being lazy/his laziness. He was full of remorse.

● Scolded by his mother for being lazy, he was full of remorse.

● 句子的合并:非限定从和分词结构练习之一

● 1. The Husky is chained to the tree.

● The Husky is barking noisily.

● The Husky, who is chained to the tree, is barking noisily. ● The Husky,who is barking noisily,is chained to the tree. ● 句子的合并:非限定从和分词结构练习之一

● Barking noisily,the Husky is chained to the tree.

● The Husky,barking noisily,is chained to the tree.

● 句子的合并:非限定从和分词结构练习之一

● Chained to the tree,the Husky is barking noisily.

● The Husky,chained to the tree,is barking noisily.

● 句子的合并:非限定从和分词结构练习之二

● 2. Lao Yu has failed many times.

● Lao Yu deems that he will succeed in the end.

● Lao Yu,who has failed many times,deems that he will succeed in the end.

● Lao Yu,who deems that he will succeed in the end,has failed many times.

● 句子的合并:非限定从和分词结构练习之二

● 句子的合并:综合练习

● An old man lived in a small house alone,which was on the top of a high mountain.

● A man lived in a house. He was old. He lived alone. The house was small. The house was on a mountain. The mountain was high. The house was on the top.

● 句子的合并:综合练习

● One day he was pulling weeds. He saw something. A chicken was eating his grain. The grain was new . He caught the chicken. He put her in a pen. The pen was under his window. He planned something. He would eat the chicken for breakfast.

● One day,the man was pulling weeds when he saw a chicken eating his new grain. He caught the chicken and put her in a pen under his window,planning to eat her for breakfast.

● One day he was pulling weeds. He saw something. A chicken was eating his grain. The grain was new . He caught the chicken. He put her in a pen. The pen was under his window. He planned something. He would eat the chicken for breakfast.

● 句子的拓展

● 名词:

◆ ⑴加形容词

● 小修饰:1个词,放在名词前

● 大修饰:>1个词,放在名词后

● 的前有动词——定语从句

● Ms. Liu, who is enthusiastic about travelling, is my teacher.

● ⑵ 加插入语:逗号(或破折号) 之间

● ①词:同位语,因果或转折副词

● This hobby, however, brings her troubles.

● 句子的拓展:插入同位语

● 可以放在任何名词的后面——名词或名词词组

● 人:身份、职业(务)

● 物:性质、用途、功能

● Ms. Liu is giving a class.

● 刘→一位老师→a teacher

● 刘→一位新东方的老师→a teacher in New oriental School ● 句子的拓展:插入同位语

◆ Ms. Liu,a writing teacher in New oriental School,is giving a class.

● 句子的拓展:插入同位语

● 一节信息量很大的课

● A densely-informing lecture

● Ms. Liu,a writing teacher in New Oriental School,is giving a class,a densely-informing lecture.

● 插入语

● ②短语:

● 位置:可以放在任何名词的后面

● especially +sth. ,rather than,other than

● The teachers in New Oriental School are extremely humorous. ● 插入语

● The teachers in New Oriental School are very humorous,especially Mr. Hu.

● Mr. Hu likes eating snacks.

● Mr. Hu likes eating snacks,especially battercake.

● 插入语:rather than

● I think it, rather than a talk, should be called a lecture.

● r a t h e r t h a n p r e p . 介词 而不是

● r a t h e r t h a n + 名词/d o i n g

● He, rather than continue the argument, walked away.

● rather than conj. 连词

● rather than + 动词原形

● 插入语:other than

● How can you say that psychology is nothing ,● 你怎么能说心理学对于任何领域的任何人来说都只是控制人们的一种方法呢?

● other than prep.介词 除了…之外

● other than +名词/ doing

● 句子的拓展

● ⑶ 加非限定性定语从句

● “,which”

● ⑷ 加分词结构:

● ⑸ 对较为抽象的名词举例:

● such as,including

● 句子的拓展

● 注:凡是列举的时候,我们一般举两到三个例子

● “1,2 and so forth/so on”

● 或是“1,2,3 and so forth/so on

● 名词拓展练习

● 女人爱逛街。

● Women are crazy about shopping .

● 句子的拓展:名词要胖

● Women ,especially leisure housewives,I suppose,are crazy about shopping ,especially buying fashionable clothes,a painful activity that men hate,encouraging men to work hard,which consumes a lot of precious energy.

● 句子的拓展

● 动词

● 加状语

● 时间状语

● 地点状语

● 方式状语

● 目的状语

● 句子的拓展:动词要“状”

● 地点状语:

● in our society

● In the modern society

● 黄金地点状语:

● In the modern society dominated by the increasing emphasis on… ● 句子的拓展:动词要“状”

● 黄金地点状语:

● in our modern society dominated by the increasing emphasis on… ● 句子的拓展:动词要“状”

● 方式状语:

● adv. 或in a+adj. +way

● in a proper way

● in an appropriate way

● in a decent way

● 句子的拓展:动词要“状”

● 目的状语的引导词:

● to do,in order to

● 原因状语的引导词:

● for ,owing to,due to,thanks to,as a result of

● 句中四个状语的一般顺序:

● 目的+主句+方式+地点+时间

● 目的+主句+方式+地点+时间

● To bring sunshine to the world, the sun rises gradually and slowly in the east every morning.

● 句子的拓展

● 主系表结构中,当表语是adj. 时

● 固定搭配拓展句子:

● too…to…

● so…that…

● 食堂的饭菜难吃。

● The dish is not delicious.

● The dish is ● The dish is too disgusting to swallow.

● The dish is so disgusting that we can not swallow it.

● 句子的拓展

● 饭菜价钱贵。

● The dish is dear.

● The dish is so dear that we can not afford it.

● The dish is so dear that can not afford it. ● 句子的拓展

● 部分倒装:

● So +adj. +be +主语+that +从句

● The dish is so dear that most of my classmates can not afford it. ● So dear is the dish that most of my classmates can not afford it.

● 句子的拓展:黄金句子开头

● 不言而喻的是…

● It goes without saying that…

● 可以毫不夸张的说…

● without fear of exaggeration that … ● 不言而喻的是,图中的孩子们拒绝照顾他们的父亲。

● It goes without saying that the children in the picture refuse to take care of their father.

● 可以毫不夸张的说,图中的孩子们拒绝照顾他们的父亲。 ● It may be said without fear of exaggeration that the children in the picture refuse to take care of their father.

● 句子的拓展:黄金句子开头

● 必须承认的是…

● It must be admitted that…

● 不可否认的事实是…

● There is no denying the fact that …

● 必须承认的是,吸烟每年造成的损失很大。

● It must be admitted that the loss caused by smoking every year is great.

● 不可否认的事实是,吸烟每年造成的损失很大。

● There is no denying the fact that the loss caused by smoking every year is great.

● 句子的拓展:黄金句子开头

● In our modern society dominated by the increasing emphasis on the development of economic benefits,it must be admitted that the loss caused by smoking every year is great.

● a