初中英语书信作文辅导讲义
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初中英语作文高分秘诀

1. 动笔之前,认真审题

《中考考试说明》指出,书面表达要切中题意。怎样才能切中题意?就是要认真审题,看到考题后,先不要急于动笔,要仔细看清题目要求的内容。在自己的头脑中构思出一个框架或画面,确定短文的中心思想,不要匆匆下笔,看懂题意,根据图画、图表、提纲或短文提供的资料和信息来审题。审题要审格式、体裁、人物关系、故事情节、主体时态、活动时间、地点等。

2. 围绕中心,拟定提纲

书面表达评分原则有四条:(1)内容要点;(2)运用词汇和结构的数量;(3)运用语法结构和词汇的准确性;(4)上下文的连贯性。

由此可见,要点是给分的一个重要因素。为了防止写作过程中遗漏要点,同学们要充分发挥自己的观察力,把情景中给出的各个要点逐条列出。根据短文的中心思想考虑如何开头、展开和结尾,设想几个承上启下的连词,将主要句型、关键词语草草记下,形成提纲,写时切忌结构分散,废话连篇,严重跑题。书面表达,内容广泛,题材多样,要弄清考题的要求是写人、叙事、介绍、评论、图表、书信、日记、通知、便条还是看图作文或改写缩写。如果是日记,要写清年、月、日和天气情况;如果是书信,则要注意书信的格式,注意短文字数不要低于或超过规定的字数太多。

3. 语言通顺,表达准确

(1) 避免使用汉语式英语,尽量使用自己熟悉的句型。几种句型可交替使用,以避免重复和呆板。

(2) (2) 多用简单句型,记事、写人一般都不需要复杂的句型。可适当多使用陈述句、一般疑问句、祈使句和感叹句。不用或少用非谓语或情态动词等较复杂的句型。

(3).注意语法、句法知识的灵活运用。

1) 语态、时态要准确无误。

2) 主谓语要一致,主语的人称和数要和谓语一致。

3) 注意人称代词的宾格形式。

4) 注意冠词用法,例如: He is an honest student.中的an 不能写成a 。

5) 注意拼写、标点符号和大小写,例如:receive, believe, fourteen, forty, ninth, restaurant等。

标点符号特别注意汉英的不同,例如:

汉语 英语

A. 句号 。 .

B. 省略号 „„ „

C. 顿号 、 无

(4) 描写人物时,要生动具体,例如:1) 外表特征:tall, short, fat, thin, strong, weak, ordinary-looking 等。2) 服饰颜色:red, yellow, blue, white, green, brown, black 等。3) 内心境界:glad, happy, sad, excited, anxious, interested 等。4) 感情描写:love, like, hate, feel, laugh, cry, smile, shout 等。5) 动作描写:come, go, get, have, take, bring, fetch 等。

(5) 上下文要连贯。上下文的连贯性也是评分的一条原则,因此同学们应把写好的句子,根据故事情节,事情发生的先后次序(时间或空间),使用一些表示并列、递进等过渡词进行加工整理,使文章连贯、自然、流畅。同学们应注意下面过渡的用法:1) 表示并列关系的过渡词:and, as well as, or „2) 表示转折关系的过渡词:but, yet, however „3) 表示时间关系的过渡词:first, second, third, and then, finally, after, before, after a few days, at last, at that time, later, in the past, immediately, in the meanwhile, when, while, then, after that „4) 表示空间关系的过渡词:near (to), far (from), in the front of, beside, behind, beyond, above, below, to the right, to the left, on one side, on the other side of, outside „5) 表示比较关系的过渡词:in the same way, just like, just as „6) 表示对照关系的过渡词:but, still, yet, however, on the other hand, in spite of, even though „7) 表示递进关系的过渡词: also, and, then, too, in addition, moreover, again „

8) 表示因果关系的过渡词:because, since, then, thus, otherwise, so, therefore ,as a result„9) 表示解释说明的过渡词:for example, in fact, in this case, for, actually „10) 表示强调的过渡词:in fact, indeed, necessarily, certainly, without any doubt, truly, most important „11)

表示目的的过渡词:for this reason, for this purpose, so that, in order that, so as to, in order to, „12) 表示列举的过渡词:for example , such as „13) 表示总结性的过渡词:in conclusion, finally, at last, in brief, as has been stated, in a word, in general, in all, in a word, generally speaking „

4. 不会表达,另辟蹊径

中考作文给分是以要点和语言准确度而定,不以文采打分。造句越简单准确越好,造复合句容易出错,容易被扣分,阅卷场上有句话:“错误面前人人平等,文采好不加分”。如遇到个别要点表达不出来或难以表达,可采用变通的办法,化难为易,化繁为简。总之,所造句子要正确、得体、符合英语表达习惯。(1) 迂回而行 当汉语词义不会用英语表达时,可以想一个与这个汉语词义相似的几种词义。扩展思路,然后从英语中找出一个与其词义相近的代替。这样可有异曲同工之妙。(2) 小词大用 汉语中有些语意看来很复杂很文雅,但在英语中可用一些常用词表达。下面这些词可能在你的书面表达中很有用:take, have, get, make, come, go, do, see, show, happy, nice, kind, help 等。(3) 借花献佛 有时书面表达中需要的单词或词组或许在试卷中的其他地方出现。因为刚刚做过题,记忆犹新,那么就可信手拈来,为我所用。

5. 锦上添花,量力而行 如果你还有时间和精力,想把书面表达写得更好,那么,请注意以下几点:(1) 句型多样化,不要I (We )„„到底,使人觉得乏味。(2) 适当使用一些并列句或主从复合句。(3) 进一步描绘人或事物时,适当使用定语从句。(4) 适当使用分词或分词短语,烘托谓语动词。(5) 偶尔使用一下倒装句,增加新鲜感。(6) 适当调换一下状语在句子中的位置,使句子不雷同。

(7) 上下句子紧接时,其中完全相同的成分可以省略,以节省篇幅。

6. 书写工整,卷面整洁

字迹要清晰,让阅卷人看得清楚,不可字迹潦草,难以辨认,要保持卷面的整洁。

7. 写完之后,勿忘检查

中考作文时,由于时间紧、内容多,同学们出错在所难免。因此,改错这一环节必不可少。中考作文评卷是根据要点、语言准确性、上下文的连贯性来给分,

根据错误多少来扣分。因此,中考时花几分钟时间用来检查错误显得尤为重要。检查错误应从以下几个方面入手:(1) 格式是否有错。(2) 拼写有无错误。(3) 语言是否用错。(4) 时态、语态错误。(5) 标点错误。(6) 人称是否用错。

【注意】此时不宜在卷面上作较大的改动以免顾此失彼,影响全局。总之,只要平时同学们多练习写作并有意运用上述方法和技巧,合理分配时间,在中考时一定能写出高质量的作文,得到令人满意的考分。

三、典型例题

(一)(2012河北)书面表达(共计10分)

91. 假如你叫李华,请你就“英语老师用英语还是用英汉双语教学,这一问题,根据下面的提示和要求,给你的老师Miss Li 写一封信,谈一谈你的看法。

提示:(1)What is your idea?

(2) Why do you think so?

(3)What is your advice?

要求:(1)信须包括所有提示内容,可适当发挥。

(2)信中不要涉及真实的人名和校名。开头和结尾已给出,不记录总次数。

(3)词数:60-80.

Dear Miss Li,

I think you’d better use

Hopefully you can think about it.

Best wishes!

Yours,

Li Hua

Dear Miss Li,

good chance to improve our listening kills .It is also helpful for our reading, speaking

and writing. We can copy what you say all the time. The more chances we have, the

more progress we will make ! So I hope you can teach in English. But please use

simple English as much as possible and speak clearly and slowly. This way, we can

learn English better and better. Yours, Li Hua

Dear Miss Li,

is to use it. When you teach in English, it's good for our listening. At the same time it

is helpful to improve our speaking, reading and writing .However ,if you only ous English, we can't follow you sometimes , especially when you explain grammar rules

and language points. So my advice is "Use English when possible and use Chinese

when necessary". This way, we can learn English better. Yours, Li Hua

(二)【河北省2011】B) 书面表达(共计10分)

91. 假如你看到或听到下面这则消息,请以李华的名义,给你的英国笔友Davy 发

一封电子邮件,告诉他这个感人的故事及你的感受。

提示:(1) Tell him the true story.

(2) Talk about how you feel about it.

(3) Say something about what you can learn from it.

要求:

(1)文稿须包括所有提示内容,可适当发挥。

(2)电子邮件的开头和结尾己给出,不计入总词数。

(3)词数:60〜80个。

参考词汇:money order (汇款单), go on, be moved (感动), be full of love

I'd like to tell you a true story. Li Baoyuan. a student of Hebei Agricultural University

came from a poor family. Unluckily,

he___________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

________-.

26 classmates decided to help Baoyuan’s parents. In the past fifteen years, they’ve sent 15 money orders and 56 letters to his parents. And their true love is still going on...I’m really moved. As a student, I should learn from them and try to help others. If

everyone would like to do that, the whole world will be full of love!

What do you think of it?

Please write soon!

75. 成长中每个人都要面对烦恼,并解决问题。假设你叫刘明,是美国中学生爱丽丝的朋友。你收到了她的电子邮件,请给她回复,回答她的问题,提出你的建议,并就此事谈谈你的看法。

参考例文:

Hi !Alice ,

I'm glad to hear from you.

Yes ,I sometimes have the same problem.

I think if she really needs the money,you'd better lend it to her.You don't need to worry too much.She'll probably pay you back when she has money.If you don't lend her the money,I'm afraid you may lose the friend.

I think everyone may have trouble in life and we should help each other .So when my friends need money,I will try my best to help them.Maybe I'll get it back,or maybe I won't.

I hope what I said can help you.

Yours ,

Liu Ming

(四)2010 北京

十、文段表达(15分)

根据中外提示和英文书信内容,写一封意思连贯、符合逻辑、不少于60词

的回信,信的开头恶化结尾已给出,其词数布局如梭完成的回信内。请不要

写出你的校名和姓名。

假设你叫刘京,是美国中学生托尼的笔友,你收到了他的来信。请给托尼写

一封回信,回答他的问题,介绍北京良好的公交服务,并谈谈你的感受。

Dear Tony,

I’m glad to know your grandpa is coming to Beijing.

Your grandpa is right. The bus service in Beijing is really good now. There are bus lines all over Beijing and buses can even take you to a small village. Besides, special seats are offered on buses. People do not have to spend a long time waiting for a bus and the tickets are cheap.

I like taking a bus because I think it’s comfortable and also good for the environment. So it’s a good choice for your grandpa to travel in Beijing.

If you have more questions, please ask me.

Yours, Liu Jing

(五)天津

假如你是某学生杂志社的编辑Diana ,收到了读者Steve 的一封来信,心中倾诉了他的烦恼。请根据提示内容,给Steve 写一封回信。

提示:

参考词汇:小组讨论 group work 表达 express

要求:1. 词数:80-100个。

2. 开头和结尾已经给出,不计入总词数。

3. 要点齐全,行文连贯,可适当发挥。

Dear Steve,

I’ve leaned your problem. I think you should be active in group work in class

and be brave enough to express your ideas. Try to talk with your classmates at break. If you want to get on well with your classmates, don’t forget to say hello when you meet them. Being friendly and helpful is also very important. You need to take part in all kinds of class activities, such as sports meeting, football games and singing competitions. I’m sure you will soon be among friends.

Best wished Diana XI. 书面表达(共1小题;满分20分) (2013年 安徽)

今天是父亲节。假定你是李华,请给你的美国朋友John 写一封电子邮件,谈谈你将如何与父亲一起度过这个特别的日子。要点如下:

●表述你与父亲间的情感;

●为父亲制作二张卡片;

●帮助父亲做点事;

●陪父亲散步等。

注意:1. 词数80-100;

2.请不要逐句翻译,可适当发挥;

3.邮件的开头和结尾已为你写好,不计入总词数。

Dear John,

It's Father's Day today. It's a special day, isn't it? ______________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

What' your plan for Father's Day? I'm looking forward to hearing from you.

Yours,

Li Hua

典型例题:

Dear John,

It's Father's Day today. It's a special day, isn't it?

I think we should do something to show our love for our fathers on this special day. My father and I are good friends. Whenever I meet with difficulties, he is always there, ready to help me.

Today I will make a beautiful card for him, with my thanks and best wishes on it. Then I will help him wash the car this afternoon and cook his favorite food in the evening. Besides, I'll take a walk with him after dinner and then play chess with him, for he likes it very much. I' m sure he'll be very happy.

What's your plan for Father's Day? I' m looking forward to hearing from yon.

Yours,

Lihua