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作者:Zyc 第 1 页 共 8 页 英语作文开头结尾



“How I Spent My Vacation”(我怎样度假) 的开头是:

I spent my last vacation happily.

再如“Honesty ”(谈诚实) 一文中的开头:

Honesty is one of the best virtues.An honest man is always trusted and respecte-d.On the contrary ,one who tells lies is regarded as a “liar ”,and is looked upon badly by honest people .


例如“A Trip to Jin shan”(去金山旅游) 的开头:

The day before yesterday my class went on a bus trip to Jinshan.It took three hours to ride there .The long trip made us very tired,but the sight of the beautiful sea refreshed us.


例如“A Trip to the Taishan Mountain”(泰山游) 的开头是:

I remember my first trip to the Taishan Mountain as if it were yesterday.


即对在文章中叙述的人或事先作一个概括性的介绍。如“The Happiness of Reading Book-s”(读书的快乐) 的开头:

People often say that gold and silver are the most valuable things in the world.But l say that to read books is more valuable. than anything else,because books give us knowledge and knowledge gives us power.


即开头利用自然景物或自然环境引出要介绍的事物。如:“An Accident”(一场事故) 的开头是:

It was a rainy and windy morning .The sky was gloomy, the temperature was low ,and the street was nearly empty .I was on my way back to school .Suddenly ,a speeding car came round the corner .


在文章的一开头就交待写作目的,如通过文章要表扬谁,批评谁,或说明一个什么问题等。如“Pollution Control ”(控制污染) 的开头:

In this article I shall draw your attention to the subject of pollution control.



在文章的结尾,把含义较深的话放在末尾,以点明主题,深化主题,起到画龙点睛的效果。如“I Cannot Forget Her” (我忘不了她) 的结尾:

After her death, I felt as if something were missing in my life. I was sad over her passing away, but I knew she would not have had any regrets at having given her life for the benefit of the people.


结尾回到文章开头阐明的中心思想或主题句上,达到强调的效果。如“I Love My Home Town”(我爱家乡) 的结尾:

I love my home town, and I love its people. They too have changed. They are going all out to do more for the good of our motherland.

3. 自然结尾。

随着文章的结束,文章自然而然地结尾。如“Fishing ”(钓鱼) 的结尾:


作者:Zyc 第 2 页 共 8 页 I caught as many as twenty fish in two hours, but my brother caught many more. Tired from fishing, we lay down on the river bank, bathing in the sun. We returned home very late.


用比喻或含蓄的手法不直接点明作者的看法,而是让读者自己去领会和思考。如“A Day of Harvesting ”(收割的日子) 的结尾:

Evening came before we realized it. We put down our sickles and looked at each other. Our clothes were wet with sweat, but on every face there was a smile.


虽然形式是问句,但意义却是肯定的,并具有特别的强调作用,引起读者深思。如 “Should We Learn to Do Housework?” (我们要不要学做家务?) 的结尾:

Everyone should learn to do housework. Don't you agree, boys and girls?


结尾表示对将来的展望,或期待读者投入行动。如“Let's Go in for Sports ”(让我们参加体育运动) 的结尾:

As we have said above, sports can be of great value. They not only make people live happily but also help people to learn virtues and do their work bettter. A sound mind is in a sound body. Let's go in for sports.



1. In general, I don’t agree with...

2. In my opinion, this point of view doesn’t hold water.

3. The chief reason why..., is that...

4. There is no doubt that...

5. It is not true that...

6. It can be easily denied that...

7. We have no reason to believe that...

8. What is more serious is that...

9. But it is a pity that...

10. Besides, we should not neglect that...

11. But the problem is not so simple. Therefore....

12. Others may find this to be true, but I believe that...

13. Perhaps I will question why...

14. There is a certain amount of truth in this, but we still have a problem with regard to...

15. Though we are in basic agreement with..., but...

16. What seems to be the trouble is...

17. Yet differences will be found, that ’s why I feel that...

18. It would be reasonable to take the view that..., but it would be foolishto claim that...

19. There is in fact no reason for us to believe that...

20. What these people fail to consider is that...

21. It is one thing to insist that..., it is quite another to show that...

22. Wonderful as A is, however , it has its own disadvantages too.

23. The advantages of B are much greater than A.

24. As advantage sounds ridiculous when B,s advantages are taken into consideration.


作者:Zyc 第 3 页 共 8 页 二、用于描写图表和数据的常用句型

1. It has increased by three times as compared with that of 1998.

2. There is an increase of 20% in total this year.

3. It has been increased by a factor of 4 since 1995.

4. It would be expected to increase 5 times.

5. The table shows a three times increase over that of last year.

6. It was decreased twice than that of the year 1996.

7. The total number was lowered by 10%.

8. It rose from 10 -15 percent of the total this year.

9. Compared with 1997, it fell from 15 to 10 percent.

10. The number is 5 times as much as that of 1995.

11. It has decreased almost two and half times, compared with


1. As it is described that...

2. It has been illustrated that...

3. It provides a good example of...

4. We may cite another instance of...

5. History may provides us with the examples of.,.

6. A number of further facts may be added...

7. The situation is not unique, it is typical of dozens have heard.

8. A recent investigation indicates that...

9. According to the statistics provided...

10. According to a latest study, it can be predicted..

11. There is no sufficient evidence to show that...

12. All available evidence points to the fact that...

13. Examples given lead me to conclude that...

14. It reveals the unquestionable fact that...

15. The idea may be proved by facts...

16. All the facts suggest that...

17. No one can deny the fact that...

18. We may face the undeniable fact that...


1. No one can (deny/ignore) the fact that...

例:No one can deny the fact that our country has the largest population in the world.

2. As can be (seen/suggested) from the above (analysis/explanation)....

例:As can be seen from the above explanation, there is no doubt that the number of private cars will increase drastically in a few years.

3. Take for example, a (n) (person who/matter that/affair which)....

例 :Take for example, Yangtze River that once had been regarded as one of the cleanest rivers in the world now is serious staminated.

4. It can be (inferred/concluded) that...

例:lt can be inferred that no matter how difficult the situation is, the government will never give


作者:Zyc 第 4 页 共 8 页 up.

5. My(idea/view/belief) may be (proved of/illustrated that/supported by...).

例: My view may be supported by the fact that more and more people are withdrawing from the city to the countryside


1. To begin with, “首先”

例(1)To begin with, I ’d like to express my gratitude to those who have helped me.

例(2)To begin with, smoking should be banned in public areas.

2. Generally speaking,“总体上讲”

例(1)Generally speaking , those who have knowledge are more capable than those without knowledge.

例(2) Generally speaking, the more you practice, the more skillfully you can write in English.

3. First of all, “第一” ,“首先”

例(1) First of all, doing exercise every day is of the utmost importance in keeping fit.

例(1)First of all, many people in remote areas still live in poverty.

4. In the first place, “首先”

例(1)In the first place, she can read at the rate of 100 words a minute

例(2) In the first place, agriculture needs to be developed quickly to feed the world population.


1.therefore , thus , “因此”

例( 1 ) Therefore, it takes longer time and more energy to communicate in written English than in oral English.

例(2) Thus, taking morning exercises regularly may reduce the chances of getting sick.

2. in conclusion, “最后”

例(1)In conclusion, the international agreement should be made to prevent the world from the war.

例(2) In conclusion, universities should’give larger amount of money to libraries.

3. in brief, in a nutshell, “简言之”

例(1) In brief, birth control is of vital importance in China.

例(2) In a nutshell, we should develop a good habit of study.

4. to sum up, “总而言之”

例(1 )To sum up, out of sight, out of mind.

例(2)To sum up, equality continues to be the goal of the world women.

5. in a word,“总之”

例(1) In a word, country life is more beneficial to city life

例(2) In a word, exceptional children are different in some significant ways from others of the same age.

注:要避免在这些短语之前用“So ”!

六、常见的表示先后次序的过渡词语 常见的表示先后次序的过渡语有: first, “第一”; second , “第二”; next, “其次”、“然后” ;eventually , “最后”, “最终”; since then, “自此之后”; afterward , “以后”、“随后”;meanwhile , “同时” ;therefore ,“因而”;immediately ,“立刻”。


作者:Zyc 第 5 页 共 8 页 例( 1 ) Meanwhile, the better skills and knowledge children possess, the more opportunities they will be ensured.

例(2)Afterward, they began to examine more closely the working of human mind.

例(3) The investment environment has been improved; therefore , joint ventures boost in this country.

例(4)Since then, the Olympics turned out to be an instrument of peace and freedom for small nations.

例(5) Finally, the country must not again go through the war.


对比观点题型 谚语

Actions speak louder than words.行动比语言更响亮

Blood is thicker than words血浓于水

The early bird catches the worm早起的鸟有虫吃

An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth以眼还眼以牙还牙

A friend in need is a friend in deed患难见真情

All that glitters is not good发光的不都是金子

Every coin has tow sides一枚硬币有两面 每件事都有两面

Well began,half done好的开始是成功的一半

Look before you leap三思后行

(1) 要求论述两个对立的观点并给出自己的看法。

1. 有一些人认为„„

2. 另一些人认为„„

3. 我的看法„„

The topic of ①-----------------(主题)is becoming more and more popular recently. There are two sides of opinions about it. Some people say A is their favorite. They hold their view for the reason of ②-----------------(支持A 的理由一)What is more, ③-------------理由二). Moreover, ④---------------(理由三).

While others think that B is a better choice in the following three reasons. Firstly,-----------------(支持B 的理由一). Secondly (besides),⑥------------------(理由二). Thirdly (finally),⑦------------------(理由三).

From my point of view, I think ⑧----------------(我的观点). The reason is that ⑨--------------------(原因). As a matter of fact, there are some other reasons to explain my choice. For me, the former is surely a wise choice .

(2) 给出一个观点,要求考生反对这一观点

Some people believe that ①----------------(观点一). For example, they think ②-----------------(举例说明).And it will bring them ③---------------(为他们带来的好处).

In my opinion, I never think this reason can be the point. For one thing,④-------------(我不同意该看法的理由一). For another thing, ⑤---------(反对的理由之二) .

Form all what I have said, I agree to the thought that ⑥-----(我对文章所讨论主题的看法) .



作者:Zyc 第 6 页 共 8 页 要求从一句话或一个主题出发,按照提纲的要求进行论述.

1. 阐述名言或主题所蕴涵的意义.

2. 分析并举例使其更充实.

The good old proverb ----------------(名言或谚语)reminds us that ----------------(释义). Indeed, we can learn many things form it.

First of all,-----------------(理由一). For example, -------------------(举例说明). Secondly,----------------(理由二). Another case is that ---------------(举例说明). Furthermore , ------------------(理由三) .

In my opinion, ----------------(我的观点). In short, whatever you do, please remember the say------A. If you understand it and apply it to your study or work, you’ll necessarily benefit a lot from it.



1. 问题现状

2. 怎样解决(解决方案的优缺点)

In recent days, we have to face I problem-----A, which is becoming more and more serious. First, ------------(说明A 的现状) .Second, ----------(举例进一步说明现状)

Confronted with A, we should take a series of effective measures to cope with the situation. For one thing, ---------------(解决方法一). For another -------------(解决方法二). Finally, --------------(解决方法三).

Personally, I believe that -------------(我的解决方法). Consequently, I’m confident that a bright future is awaiting us because --------------(带来的好处).



1. 说明事物现状

2. 事物本身的优缺点(或一方面)

3. 你对现状(或前景)的看法

Nowadays many people prefer A because it has a significant role in our daily life. Generally, its advantages can be seen as follows. First ----------------(A的优点之一). Besides -------------------(A 的优点之二).

But every coin has two sides. The negative aspects are also apparent. One of the important disadvantages is that ----------------(A的第一个缺点) .To make matters worse,------------------(A的第二个缺点) .

Through the above analysis, I believe that the positive aspects overweigh the negative ones. Therefore, I would like to ---------------(我的看法) .

(From the comparison between these positive and negative effects of A, we should take it


作者:Zyc 第 7 页 共 8 页 reasonably and do it according to the circumstances we are in. Only by this way, ---------------(对前景的预测) .


(1) 不同观点列举型( 选择型 )

There is a widespread concern over the issue that __作文题目. But it is well known that the opinion concerning this hot topic varies from person to person. A majority of people think that _ 观点一________. In their views there are 2 factors contributing to this attitude as follows: in the first place, ___原因一_______.Furthermore, in the second place, ___原因二_____. So it goes without saying that ___观点一_____.

People, however, differ in their opinions on this matter. Some peoplehold the idea that_观二_____. In their point of view, on the one hand, ___原因一_______. On the other hand, ____原因二_____. Therefore, there is no doubt that ___观点二______.

As far as I am concerned, I firmly support the view that __观点一或二_. Itis not only because ________, but also because _________. The more _______, the more ________.


Nowadays, there is a widespread concern over (the issue that)___作文题目______. In fact, there are both advantages and disadvantages in __题目议题_____. Generally speaking, it is widely believed there are several positive aspects as follows. Firstly, ___优点一______. And secondly ___优点二_____.

Just As a popular saying goes, "every coin has two sides",讨论议题is no exception, and in another word, it still has negative aspects. To begin with,缺 点 一 .

In addition, 缺 点 二 .

To sum up, we should try to bring the advantages of 讨论议题into full play, and reduce the disadvantages to the minimum at the same time. In that case, we will definitely make a better use of the ____讨论议题___.

( 3 ) 答题性议论文

Currently, there is a widespread concern over (the issue that)作文题目_______ .It is really an important concern to every one of us. As a result, we must spare no efforts to take some measures to solve this problem.

As we know that there are many steps which can be taken to undo this problem. First of all, __途径一______. In addition, another way contributing to success of the solving problem is ___途径二_____.

Above all, to solve the problem of ___作文题目______, we should find a number of various ways. But as far as I am concerned, I would prefer to solve the problem in this way, that is to say, ____方法_____.

( 4 ) 谚语警句性议论文

It is well know to us that the proverb: " ___谚语 has a profound significance and value not only in our job but also in our study. It means ____谚语的含义______. The saying can be illustrated through a series of examples as follows. ( also theoretically )

A case in point is ___例子一______. Therefore, it is goes without saying that it is of great


作者:Zyc 第 8 页 共 8 页 of importance to practice the proverb ____谚语_____.

With the rapid development of science and technology in China, an increasing number of people come to realize that it is also of practical use to stick to the saying: ____谚语_____. The more we are aware of the significance of this famous saying, the more benefits we will get in our daily study and job..


as is shown/indicated/illustrated by the figure/percentage in the table(graph/picture/pie/chart), ___作文题目的议题_____ has been on rise/ decrease (goesup/increases/drops/decreases),significantly/dramatically/steadily rising/decreasing from______ in _______ to ______ in _____. From the sharp/marked decline/ rise in the chart, it goes without saying that ________.

There are at least two good reasons accounting for ______. On the one hand, ________. On the other hand, _______ is due to the fact that ________. In addition, ________ is responsible for _______. Maybe there are some other reasons to show ________. But it is generally believed that the above mentioned reasons are commonly convincing.

As far as I am concerned, I hold the point of view that _______. I am sure my opinion is both sound and well-grounded.