餐桌礼仪
六年级 议论文 2975字 210人浏览 一个人走狮子

Beside your napkin you will find a small bread roll(小圆面包) and three glasses —one for white wine, one for the red wine, and one for water. There are two pairs of knives and forks on the table, forks on the left and knives in the right of the plate. When you see two spoons, the big one is for the soup and the small one for the dessert. The knife and fork that are closest to your plate are a little bit bigger than the ones beside them. When you sit down at the table, you can take your napkin, unfold(展开) it and put it on your lap .In Chinese you sometime get a hot, damp cloth to clean your face and hands, which , however, is not the custom in Western countries.

Dinner starts with a small dish, which is often called a starter. Some people pray before they start eating, and other people may keep silent for a moment. Then you can say" Enjoy your meal" to each other and everybody start eating. For the starter, which you eat with the smaller pair, you keep the knife on your right hand and the fork on your left. After the starter you will get a bowl of soup—but only one bowl of soup and never ask for a second serving. The next dish is the main course. Some people can use their fingers when they eating chicken or other birds, but never touch beef or other meat in bones. It is polite to finish eating everything on your plate, so don't take more food than you need.

At table ,you should try to speak quietly and smile a lot, but do not laugh all the time.

Some Don’ts & Dos

★ Don’ts :

Don’t pick up the soup and drink from it.

Don’t reach across the table for some kind of food. (ask someone to pass the dish to you);

Don’t put bones on the table. Just leave them on your plate.

Don’t talk and laugh with food in your mouth.

Don’t use your napkin to clean your face. Just put it on your lap Don’t touch the glass when you toast.

★Dos:

Do write a thank-you letter to the host.

一、下面简单介绍一下西餐的上菜顺序:

1.头盘starter/appetizer

西餐的第一道菜是“头盘”,也称为“开胃品”。开胃品的内容一般有冷头盘或热头盘之分,常见的品种有鱼子酱、鹅肝酱、熏鲑鱼、鸡尾杯、奶油鸡酥盒、火局蜗牛等。一般都具有特色风味,味道以咸和酸为主,而且数量较少,质量较高。

2.汤soup

西餐的第二道菜就是汤,这与中餐很不一样。西餐的汤大致可分为清汤、奶油汤、蔬菜汤和冷汤等四类。品种有牛尾清汤、各式奶油汤、海鲜汤、美式蛤蜊周打汤、意式蔬菜汤、俄式罗宋汤、法式火局葱头汤等。冷汤的品种较少,有德式冷汤、俄式冷汤等。

3.副菜 side dishes

鱼类菜肴一般作为西餐的第三道菜,也称“副菜”。品种包括各种淡、海水鱼类、贝类及软体动物类。通常水产类菜肴与蛋类、面包类、酥盒菜肴均称为副菜。因为鱼类等菜肴的肉质鲜嫩,比较容易消化,所以放在肉类菜肴的前面,叫法上也和肉类菜肴主菜有区别。西餐吃鱼菜肴讲究使用专用的调味汁,品种有鞑靼汁、荷兰汁、酒店汁、白奶油汁、大主教汁、美国汁和水手鱼汁等。

4.主菜main courses

肉、禽类菜肴是西餐的第四道菜,也称为“主菜”。肉类菜肴的原料取自牛、羊、猪、小牛仔等各个部位的肉,其中最有代表性的是牛肉或牛排。牛排按其部位又可分为沙朗牛排(也称西冷牛排)、菲利牛排、T 骨型牛排、薄牛排等。其烹调方法常用烤、煎、铁扒等。肉类菜肴配用的调味汁主要有西班牙汁、浓烧汁精、蘑菇汁、白尼斯汁等。禽食类菜肴的原料取自鸡、鸭、鹅,通常将兔肉和鹿肉等野味也归入禽类菜肴。禽类菜肴品种最多的是鸡,有山鸡、火鸡、竹鸡。可煮、可炸、可烤、可焖,主要的调味汁有黄肉汁、咖喱汁、奶油汁等。

5.蔬菜类菜肴salad

蔬菜类菜肴可以安排在肉类菜肴之后,也可以与肉类菜肴同时上桌,所以可以算为一道菜,或称之为一种配菜。蔬菜类菜肴在西餐中称为沙拉。与主菜同时服务的沙拉,称为生蔬菜沙拉,一般用生菜、西红柿、黄瓜、芦笋等制作。沙拉的主要调味汁有醋油汁、法国汁、千岛汁、奶酪沙拉汁等。除了蔬菜之外,还有一类是用鱼、肉、蛋类制作的沙拉,这类沙拉一般不加调味汁,在进餐顺序上可以做为头盘食用。还有一些蔬菜是熟食的,如花椰菜、煮菠菜、炸土豆条。熟食的蔬菜通常是与主菜的肉食类菜肴一同摆放在餐盘中上桌,称为配菜。

6.甜品desserts

西餐的甜品是在主菜后食用的,可以算做是第六道菜。从真正意义上讲,它包括所有主菜后的食物,如布丁、煎饼、冰淇淋、奶酪、水果等等。

7.咖啡、茶 beverage(s)

西餐的最后一道是饮料、咖啡或茶。饮咖啡一般要加糖和淡奶油。茶一般要加香桃片和糖。