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Literary analysis in The Pilgrim’s Progress

Abstract:John Bunyan is one of the great writers and evangelists of the period of the English bourgeois revolution on the 18th century. The Pilgrim’s Progress is his masterpiece as a religious allegory. The Pilgrim’s Progress was written in the Bedford prison. Bunyan’s varied spiritual experience as his exclusive reading of the Bible in prison, furnished his sensitive imagination with profound impression and vivid images. He wrote them down. The result is his book, The Pilgrim’s Progress, which was published in 1678, after he was released from prison. It has become one of the most popular books in the English language. Through the plots, themes and style of this allegory, and according to the social background of that era, John Bunyan gives us a clear and vivid horizon of that time. This allegory tells us a story about how the human being tries their best to earn the forgiveness by the God and how to save themselves, then get religion to the God. The Pilgrim’s Progress can compare with John Milton’s another epic-Paradise Regained, but The Pilgrim’s Progress has a deeper influence than Paradise Regained on common people. This prose paves the way for the English prose style. In this book, we can also find that it is filled with humanism though it is a religious allegory.

Key Words: evangelists religious allegory common people prose style humanism

Introduction

John Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s Progress, whose full title is The Pilgrim’s Progress from this World to that which is to come; Delivered under the Similitude of a Dream, is an immediate and enormous success and has become one of the most widely known allegories and translated into more than 200 languages and dialects. John Bunyan thus becomes “a model for the religious experience of Dissenters throughout England”.greatest novels in English literature. The striking features of his lan

guage are naturalness and frankness. In his works, he uses either symbolic expressions which enhance the themes of the story and represent his ideas with vividness, or the biblical words which are common and easy for those humble people to understand. His narrative methods are direct and straightforward. Bunyan has done a great contribution to the novel writing of the 18th century.

So The Pilgrim’s Progress attracts high attention from a great many readers and lots of researchers have analyzed this allegory from different perspectives. Thomas Babington Maculay (1800-1859), a British poet, historian and Whig politician, classifies John Bunyan and John Milton as ”the only two great creative minds” of the 17th century.

And in “The life of John Bunyan”, written by Edmund Venables M.A, Mr. Edmund use his delicate words to give a high pride for The Pilgrim’s Progress. In Mr. Edmund’s article, he says “That book, if he had written no other, would stamp Bunyan as one of the greatest masters of the English language of his own or any other age.” and ”This work of the traveling tinker, as a spiritual history, has never been surpassed.” Concerning to the effect of this book, Mr. Edmund give us his highly evaluation, “Never has the history of a soul convinced of the reality of eternal perdition in its most terrible from as the mostcertain of all possible facts, and of its own imminent danger of hopeless, irreversible doom - seeing itself, to employ his own image, hanging, as it were, over the pit of hell by a thin line, which might snap any moment - been portrayed in more nervous and awe - inspiring language.”

To sum up, different researches have different viewpoints and they analyze the story from the different perspectives, and all give fruitful materials. What's more, there are a lot of scholars who ever have made a thorough study of the rhetoric analysis in The Pilgrim’s Progress. Therefore the follow thesis will sum up some analyses of The Pilgrim’s Progress’s rhetoric analysis so as to make a better understanding about this novel.

I. The Literary Attribute of The Pilgrim’s Progress

The Pilgrim’s Progress is a book that combines with theology and literature , but at first, it is a work of religious literature. Because of John Banyan’s religion, he is Calvinism, so in The Pilgrim’s Progress, it is filled with the characteristic of the Calvinism. Bunyan is a religious fanaticism at that time. At this point, his work can’t put up without his religion. So the Bible becomes his original to create this masterpiece. In H.Elvet Lewis’s opinion, the life experience of Bunyan gives Bunyan a lot of creation material to have the chance to release his The Pilgrim’s Progress, what’s more, the English Bible models the type of The Pilgrim’s Progress, at last, he makes it with his genius. In prison, he companies with The Authorized Version and The Book of Martyrs. So the Biblical Style is almost the unique understanding literary form. In The Pilgrim’s Progress, you can find the shadow and lingering charm of The Authorized Version. Thus, a lot of scholars call Bunyan as “the man of one book” . The life of Bunyan is the best annotation for The Bible, just as Buffon says, “style is the man”.

II. The Literary Attribute of Allegory of The Pilgrim’s Progress

According to The Pilgrim’s Progress, we can clearly find that this is “a story on the way”, it belongs to the structure of dream vision. Bunyan usually uses the sentence “in the dream, I can see…” to promote the story's plots.

In Medieval Period, the literary form of allegory and the style narration in dream are very popular, it is so suitable to explain the religion and the theology so that the allegory plays a very important role in The Pilgrim’s Progress.

In The Pilgrim’s Progress, all the names of characters and backgrounds are conceptualized. In this story, there are 94 names of people and places in all. It divides all the characters into two parts - the good or the bad. In this way, Bunyan can describe the mental activities of all characters and the abstract conception of religion more vividly so that he can achieve the propose of revelation. Here are some examples used in The Pilgrim’s Progress:

The names of characters: the Perils, the Temptation, the demon Appollyon, the Sorrow, the Sickness, the Affliction, the Death, the Christian, the Faithful, the Truth, the Envy, the Superstition, the Pickthank, the Mr. Badman, the Mr. No - good, the Judge Hate - good and the Mr. Malice.

The names of places: the City of Destruction, the Slough of Despond, the Doubting Castle, the Delectable Mountains, the Celestial City and the Vanity Fair that has a influence for a long time and familiar to all of us, and in the English critical realism period , the masterpiece of William Makepeace Thackeray, the Vanity Fair is based on the character of the Vanity Fair from The Pilgrim’s Progress.

Conclusion

In conclusion, through the literary analysis of The Pilgrim’s Progress , readers can have a deep impression that The Pilgrim’s Progress is a vivid religious allegory. Though it is an allegory, it gives the readers an impression of its characters like real person. One of the most remarkable passages is that in which Vanity Fair and the persecution of Christian and his friend Faithful are described. Bunyan cherishes a deep hatred of both the king and his government. His prose is admirable. It is popular speech ennobled by the solemn dignity and simplicity of language of the English Bible. Spenser’s allegory in The Faerie Queene appears ornate when compared with Bunyan.

最后一题

Poetry is the most precious wealth in the history of mankind. Especially for its unique form, unique charm and beautiful language context . Love is closely linked with human life.It is the human instinct, people are looking forward to loving. China is famous for its poem, poem creation has a long history. For several thousand years, the poetry of China has so many excellent poets. with their love experiences and the feelings of love, have created so many beautiful and moving poems, passed down through the ages. Unlike Chinese poems, traditional English love poems do not have a long history , but it also has so many celebrities.

In memory of the beautiful past or in mourning for the dead lover, most Chinese love poems were written after marriage. Most English poems were written in marriage to praise the appearance of the lover. Therefore, we can say good Chinese love poem "blame", while the British love poem good at "Mu"

But there are also many same things between shige. Britain has a lot of poetry echoes the love poetry, Sea it is mysterious, endless, and magnificent. Characteristics of the sea is borderless and its symbolic meaning is almost no controversy Both Chinese and English love poems cannot ignore the assistance of the sea. They use the “sea ” to express the undying and everlasting love. 离思元稹 曾经沧海难为水,除却巫山不是云。取次花丛懒回顾,半缘修道半缘君。

This poem is that the poet to memory his dead wife and to express his miss, love and loyalty. The sea" is one of the world's most beautiful and incomparable sceneries, which has existed for several thousand years. The poet used the sea to express the love of couples. the image has a powerful magnificent momentum .And the last two sentences expressed that even if there are so many beauties like the clouds in the sky, the poet would ignore them and seemed like a monk. The image of "the sea" witness their deep love and firmness, the poet will always guard with his wife, the love between them will never disappear. The poem uses the abundant image to render the romantic colour ,expressing the appreciation of love. The image of the sea has played a very important role. At the beginning , the Poet compared the setting sun and the sea to a pair of lovers . the sea and the sun embrace kissing that

The spectacular scenery get readers to feel this deep love for lovers will be even longer than the eternal sun and sea, and no one can separate the setting sun and the sea. The poet use the sea to express the .

Although there are many differences and Despite a variety of English poetry in different or similar in many ways, but they all reflect their respective countries people are people of different age of the different views and pursuit of love, they may perhaps straightforward, maybe romantic maybe light like water, maybe like roses, delicate and charming maybe like lotus quietly elegant, some like fireworks brilliant, some like grains of sand, but they are recorded every true love story, they bring us into the history of reincarnation, take us to feel the great poet of the course of true love