高考英语作文顶级教案1
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1 高考英语作文备考材料

英语写作基础知识

一. 提高学生英语书面表达的策略:

1. 仔细审题,看清题目要求, 确定文章类型。

2. 尽量打草稿,实在没时间写一个简略题纲。

3. 用见过的句型来写,不生造中国式的英文

4. 写好首尾句,注意关联词语的使用

A. 文章开头:

(1)开门见山,揭示主题

文章一开头, 就交待清楚文章的主题是什么。如“How I Spent My Vacation”(我怎样度假) 的开头是:I Spent my last vacation happily.下面是题为"Honesty"(谈诚实) 一文中的开头:Honesty is one of the best virtues.An honest man is always trusted and respected.On the contrary, one who tells lies is regarded as a "liar",and is looked upon by honest people.

(2)交代人物、事情、时间或环境开头

在文章的开头,先把人物、事件和环境交待清楚。例如"A Trip to Shenyang" (去沈阳旅游) 的开头:The day before yesterday my class went on a bus trip to Shenyang. The bus ride there took three hours. The long trip made us very tired, but the sight of the beautiful sea refreshed us.

(3)回忆性的开头

用回忆的方法来开头。例如"A Trip to the Taishan Mountain"(泰山游) 的开头是: I remember my first trip to the Taishan Mountain as if it were yesterday.

(4)概括性的开头

即对要在文章中叙述的人或事先作一个概括性的介绍。如“The Happiness of Reading Books”(读书的快乐) 的开头:People often say that gold and silver are the most valuable things in the world.But I say that to read books is more valuable than anything else, because books give us knowledge and knowledge gives us power.

(5)介绍环境式的开头

即开头利用自然景物或自然环境引出要介绍的事物。如“An Accident”(一场事故) 的开头是: It was a rainy and windy morning.The sky was gloomy, the temperature was low, and the street was nearly empty. I was on my way back to school. Suddenly, a speeding car came round the corner.

(6)交待写作目的的开头。

在文章的一开头就交待写作目的, 如通过文章要表扬谁, 批评谁, 或说明一个什么 问题等。如 "Pollution Control" (控制污染) 的开头: In this article I shall draw your attention to the subject of pollution control.

B. 文章结尾:

(1)结论性---通过对文章前面的讨论, 引出或重申文章的中心思想及观点 .

a.From what has been discussed above,we may safely draw theconclusion that …

2 b.To sum up/In a word,it is more valuable …

(2)后果性---揭示所讨论的问题若不解决, 将产生的严重后果.

Obviously,if we ignore/are blind to the problem,there is every chance that …will be put in danger .

(3)号召性---呼吁读者行动起来, 采取行动或提请注意.

a.It is time that we urged an immediate end to…

b.It is essential that effective measures should be taken to correct the tendency .

(4)建议性----对所讨论的问题提出建议性的意见, 包括建议和具体的解决问题的方法.

a.While it cannot be solved immediately,still there are ways. The most popular is …Another

method is …… Still another one is…

b.Awareness/Recognition of the problem is the first step toward the situation.

(5)方向性的结尾方式----其与建议性的唯一差别就是对问题解决提出总的, 大体的方向或者 指明前景.

a. There is no quick method to the issue of …, but …might be helpful/beneficial.

b. The great challenge today is …There is much difficulty, but …

(6)意义性的结尾方式----文章结尾的时候, 从更高的更新的角度指出所讨论的问题的重要性 以及其深远的意义

In any case,whether it is positive or negative,one thing is certain that it will undoubtedly …

5. 可适当使用复杂结构和新颖词汇,但应以准确表达意思为第一原则.

6. 书写规范,重视卷面整洁.

7. 准备几种主要的文章体裁模版.

8. 基础不好的同学可以适当抄写与写作相关阅读理解材料,但要注意需要对某些词汇进行替换, 以免被批卷轻易发现你在抄阅读理解.

二. 文章美的标准:

1. 外在美:书写清楚、字母大小匀称、单词间距适当,没有明显修改痕迹.

2. 结构美:一般分三段,每段有一个主题句和几个支撑句

3. 词汇美:

A. 较高级词汇即亮点词汇

(1)What they did has brought joy to others and enriched their own lives.

(2)The job is very challenging.

(3)April 12 is memorable because our class had a meaningful experience on that day.

(4)Seeing the lines of trees,we all had a sense of achievement .

(5)He learned about everything eventually.

B. 短语优先原则

( )

)

)

( )

3 something environment-friendly. ( )

)

( )

)

C. 选词独辟蹊径:

( ) ( )

( ) )

D. 避免重复使用词汇:

(1)喜欢 ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

(2)八岁____________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

(3)上学____________________________________________________________________ E. 避免重复使用结构相同的句型(变化)

(1) As the chart shows,up to twenty-nine percent of the students let out their stress by listening

music.Twenty-eight percent of them choose TV and the Internet as their favourite.Some eighteen percent prefer sleeping to get rid of their stress.Surprisingly and interestingly, exercise and other ways take up only 15 and 10 percent.

(2)The students put the most time—93 minutes into their homework,and next in line is watching TV ,which takes up 46 minutes.They spend about the same amount of time listening to music and working on the computer,34minutes and 30 minutes respectively.While 25 minutes is spent on sports,only 12 minutes goes into housework.As is shown on Chart 2,only 10% of the time is taken up with sports activities.

F. 适当添加副词,增强文章的表现力

(1)He will be arriving _____________soon.

(2)After that,I rushed __________to see if the man was ok.

(3)They can truly learn the skills of cooperation and how to get through the ideas to their

teammates.

(4)Teamwork is always important.

(5)We can go running,play ball games or simply take a walk after a day’s study.

(6)…,thus a good command of English will greatly benefit me in my work.

4. 句式美

(1)倒装句:Only in this way can we live a healthy life.

(2)感叹句:How time flies!Class was over before I realized it.

(3)定语从句:We will meet at 8:00 am at the gate,where a blue bus will be waiting.

(4)独立主格结构:Everything done,they sat in the yard chatting with the elderly people.

(5)谚语:If you “Do as the Romans do when in Rome”,you ’ll enjoy more of your stay here.

4 (6) 排比, 气势十足

比较下列两个句子:

a.Sun Shuwei,a world champion in diving,is a boy of 14 from Guangdong.

b.Few athletes will ever be good enough to win the title of world champion,and even

fewer will achieve this by the age of 14.But that is what Guangdong’s young diver,Sun

Shuwei did.

5. 衔接美(过渡词)

表列举:for example,for instance,that is to say 表补充:besides,in addition,moreover

表对比:on the one hand…on the other hand ,in spite of

表原因:because of,thanks to,due to,owing to 表结果:therefore,thus,as a result,so 表结论:to conclude,in a word,in brief,to sum up 表转折:however,nevertheless,yet

三. 注意事项

1. 遇到不会写的单词怎么办?(化难为易)

遇到不会的单词时,可以用同义词或近义词代替;选择不同的词性,变化一下句型;当出现了非要使用的单词不会拼写或拼不准时,不要放弃;尽量采用较简单的词和句子结构和句型来表达相近或与主题相关的内容。

(1)妈妈在医院陪着我 Mom stayed with me in the hospital.

(2)他到深圳打工去了 He went to Shenzhen and tried his luck there.

(3)欢迎大家届时莅临 I hope to see all of you there.

2. 作文字数如何把握?

在题目要求范围内如果有能力写的稍微多一点,问题不大。如果追求长度,而忘了写那些话是不是真正有意义,是不是真正跟题目相关,那就没有太大价值。

3. 字迹潦草会不会扣分?

尽量一笔一画写清楚,潦草程度不至于让批卷人很难判断是没有问题的,但是如果让批卷人很难判断还是要扣分。

4. 考作文的时间安排?

写作理想时间是30 分钟,最少不能少于20 分钟,要有一定的时间限制。

四. 写作中使用率最高覆盖面最广的基本句式:

以下是短文写作中使用率最高、覆盖面最广的基本句式,每组句式的功能相同或相似,考生可根据自己的情况选择其中的1-2 个, 做到能够熟练正确地仿写或套用。

1、表示原因

1)There are three reasons for this. 2)The reasons for this are as follows.

3)The reason for this is that… 4)We have good reason to believe that…

例如:There are three reasons for the changes that have taken place in our Life.Firstly,people’s living standard has been greatly improved.Secondly,most people are well paid, and they can afford what they need or like.Last but not least,more and more people prefer to enjoy modern life. 注:如写第一个句子没有把握, 可将其改写成两个句子. 如:Great changes have taken place in our Life.There are three reasons for this.这样写可以避免套用中的表达失误。

5 2、表示好处

1)It has the following advantages. 2)It does us a lot of good.

3)It benefits us quite a lot. 4)It is beneficial to us.

5)It is of great benefit to us.

例如:Books are like friends.They can help us know the world better,and they can open our minds and widen our horizons.Therefore,reading extensively is of great benefit to us.

3、表示坏处

1)It has more disadvantages than advantages.

2)It does us much harm.

3)It is harmful to us.

例如:However,everything divides into two.Television can also be harmful to us.It can do harm to our health and make us lazy if we spend too much time watching television.

4、表示重要、必要、困难、方便、可能

1)It is important(necessary,difficult,convenient,possible )for sb.to do sth.

2)We think it necessary to do sth.

3)It plays an important role in our life.

例如:Computers are now being used everywhere ,whether in the government,in schools or in business.Soon,computers will be found in every home,too.We have good reason to say that computers are playing an increasingly important role in our life and we have stepped into the Computer Age.

5、表示措施

1)We should take some effective measures.

2)We should try our best to overcome(conquer )the difficulties.

3)We should solve the problems that we are confronted(faced )with .

例如:The housing problem that we are confronted with is becoming more and more serious. Therefore,we must take some effective measures to solve it.

6、表示变化

1)Some changes have taken place in the past five years.

2)A great change will certainly be produced in the world’s communications.

3)The computer has brought about many changes in education.

例如:Some changes have taken place in people’s diet in the past five years.The major reasons for these changes are not far to seek.Nowadays,more and more people are switching from grain to meat for protein,and from fruit and vegetable to milk for vitamins.

7、表示事实、现状

1)We cannot ignore the fact that… 2)No one can deny the fact that...

3)There is no denying the fact that… 4)However,that ’s not the case.

例如:We cannot ignore the fact that industrialization brings with it the problems of pollution.To solve these problems,we can start by educating the public about the hazards of pollution.The

6 government on its part should also design stricter laws to promote a cleaner environment.

8、表示比较

1)Compared with A,B … 2)I prefer to read rather than watch TV.

3)There is a striking contrast between them.

例如:Compared with cars,bicycles have several advantages besides being affordable.Firstly,they do not consume natural resources of petroleum.Secondly,they do not cause the pollution problem. Last but not least,they contribute to people’s health by giving them due physical exercise.

9、表示数量

1)It has increased(decreased )from …to …

2)The population in this city has now increased (decreased)to 800,000.

3)The output of July in this factory increased by 15% compared with that of January.

例如:With the improvement of the living standard,the proportion of people’s income spent on food has decreased while that spent on education has increased.

再如:From the graph listed above,it can be seen that student use of computers has increased from an average of less than two hours per week in 1990 to 20 hours in 2000.

10、表示看法

1)People have(take ,adopt ,assume )different attitudes towards sth.

2)People have different opinions on this problem.

3)People take different views of(on )the question.

4)Some people believe that…Others argue that…

例如:People have different attitudes towards failure.Some believe that failure leads to

success.Every failure they experience translates into a greater chance of success at their renewed endeavor.However,others are easily discouraged by failures and put themselves into the category of losers.

再如:Do“lucky numbers really bring good luck?Different people have different views on it. 注:一个段落有时很适宜以问句开始,应掌握这一写作方法。

11、表示结论

1)In short,it can be said that… 2)It may be briefly summed up as follows.

3)From what has been mentioned above,we can come to the conclusion that…

例如:From what has been mentioned above,we can come to the conclusion that examination is necessary,however,its method should be improved.

注:例句1 可用于任何一个段落的结论句; 例句3 则多用文章结论段的第一句。

12、套语

1)It ’s well known to us that… 2)As is known to us…

3)This is a topic that is being widely talked about.

4)From the graph(table ,chart )listed above,it can be seen that…

5)As a proverb says,“Where there is a will,there is a way.

例如:As is well known to us,it is important for the students to know the world outside

7 campus.The reason for this is obvious.Nowadays ,the society is changing and developing rapidly,and the campus is no longer an‘ivory tower’.As college students,we must get in touch with the world outside the campus.Only in this way can we adapt ourselves to the society quickly after we graduate .

再如:Does it pay to be honest?This is a topic that is being widely talked about and

different people have different opinions on it.