研英语应用文小作文题型解析与范文
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1 2014年考研英语应用文小作文

应用文写作(小作文)

第一节命题分析

应用文写作是2005年大纲修订之后出现的新题型,主要考查学生在某些特定的日常情境中英文的实际应用能力。相对于大作文来说,应用文的写作还是比较容易完成的。但是在大约15分钟内按照题意写出100词的短文,考生不仅要能够恰当地根据给定情境迅速成文,而且也要有较高的语言能力。因此,在平时的准备过程中,考生应全面了解和掌握各种常见应用文体的写作格式、方法和特点,尤其是要熟悉各类文体的基本结构和常用句型。

大纲中规定的应用文文体的种类包括私人和公务信函、备忘录、摘要、报告等。鉴于考试的要求和实际情况,文章的长度以及文体应用的广泛程度,我们认为应用文写作主要分为两大类:信函类应用文和告示类应用文。其中信函类应用文种类繁多、应用广泛,因此比较重要; 告示类应用文虽然写法不同,但总体上的格式和要求是一致的,不能忽略其重要性。另外,应用文写作也有可能出现在平时的生活中,考生也要学会实际运用。

应用文的实际用途决定了其语言应简洁明了,但并不要求复杂多变、词藻华丽。应用文一般需要开门见山,一开始就明确地表达主要意思或目的; 文章要求思路清晰,目标明确,语气恰当; 尤其是公文信函中,一定要注意语言的正式和礼貌,遵循交际原则; 最后还要注意细节,确保事件、数字、日期等信息的准确传达和标点符号的正确使用。

第二节题型解析

信函类应用文

书信是我们用以交涉事务、增进了解、交流思想、联络感情的一个重要工具。就其文体可分为正式和非正式的文体; 就其种类可分为私人信件、社交信件、商务信件和公务信件; 就其用途可分为求职信、咨询信、感谢信、投诉信、建议信、邀请信、推荐信等。这里先就书信的一般写作格式加以介绍。 一封正规的英文书信的结构或框架由以下五部分组成:

1. The Heading 信端

2. The Salutation 称谓

3. The Body 正文

4. The Close 结尾

5. The Signature 签名

下面分别对这五个部分进行详细的分析:

1. 信端(或信头)

信端是写信是最先要写的,也就是你的地址和写信日期。当然,如果你的长期通信地址收信人已知道,信端只写日期也行。

写信端时至少要离纸的边缘三、四行开始写,信端写在信纸右上角。先写发信人地址,第一行写门牌号码和街道名称; 第二行写区名、市(县) 名、省(州) 名; 寄往国外的信,还要加上国家的名称; 第三行写发信日期。

日期的写法应注意以下几点:

(1) 年份应写完整,不能以09代替2009;

(2) 月份通常用缩写形式(May, June, July除外);

(3) 日期最好用基数词,这样简单明了;

(4) 如果都用阿拉伯数字,一般顺序是:日、月、年。

整个日期可用下列几种表达方式:

Oct. 15, 2009

15th Oct. 2009

15 Oct. 2009

注意:日期与年份之间总要用逗号隔开,但月份与日期之间不用逗号(全用阿拉伯数字除外) 。

2

2. 称谓

信的称谓是对收信人的尊称语。一般在信纸的左边顶格开始书写,低于信内地址一、二行; 如果没有信内地址,就低与信端一、二行。

不管写给何人的信都首先写上Dear 。给一般朋友的信,Dear 后跟名字,如Dear Mary; 给母亲的信,Dear 后跟称谓,如 Dear Mother;给长辈亲戚的信,Dear 后跟称谓,如 Dear Uncle John;给不太相识的人写信, Dear 后跟先生、夫人、小姐等称呼,再跟姓,如 Dear Mr. Brown, Dear Miss Jenny;如果不知对方姓名,可直接写 Dear Sir或 Dear Madam,如连对方的性别都不知道,就写 Dear Sir/Madam。

千万不要根据汉语的习惯用下列称呼,如 Dear Friend, Mr. Frank Smith等。

称呼后一般用逗号,但美国和加拿大英语常用冒号。

3. 正文

信的正文是一封信最重要的部分,它包含你要说的话或你的个人信息等。

信的正文在称呼的下面一行,一般在信纸左边五六个字母的空隙后开始写。写正文时,如果涉及的事务较多,可以分段叙述。每段开头都要留空格,每句第一个字母都应大写。信的正文应简明扼要,条理清楚,语言通俗易懂。信的开头语和结束语多种多样。

常见的开头语有:

I was so pleased to receive your letter...

Thank you for your kind letter...

Sorry for delaying this letter so long...

常见的结束语有:

Best wishes to you.

Take good care of yourself and write often.

Our warm regards to your parents.

4. 结尾

信的结尾即在签名前再一次表示敬意和问候。信的结尾写在低于正文两、三行的地方,大都从信纸中间偏右的位置写起,只第一个字母大写,句末应用逗号。确切的措辞取决于书信的种类以及与收信人的友谊深浅和亲昵程度。如果写给一般相识,就不应用“Devoutly yours,”或者“With deepest affection,”也不要用冷漠和正式的 “Very truly yours,”写给一位很喜欢的老相识,结尾既不要过分使用华丽辞藻,也不可粗鲁无礼,而是要恰到好处的用词。

写给专业人士的商务信函,一般用正式的社交语言结尾。如:“Very truly yours.”

一般非正式的社交信函,通常使用下列结尾:Sincerely yours, Yours very sincerely, Always sincerely yours, Yours cordially, Most cordially yours, Faithfully yours 等。

对于密友或亲戚可以用这些结尾:Yours affectionately, Always affectionately yours, Lovingly yours, Yours Loving sister, With love 等。

至于情书,那要看爱情的深厚程度如何,可以用一般性的结尾“Fondly yours,” 也可用冲动的 “Yours with the utmost devotion,”。

我们中国人用英语写信,往往受汉语书信格式和语言的影响,所以要注意不要用中国式的结尾如 “I salute to you,” “Salute, ”等。

5. 签名

写信人将自己的名字签在结尾的下面,偏向信纸的右边,名字签完一般要靠近右边边缘。签名时要注意名字的拼法:一是不要带有任何头衔,二是中国人的姓名若是两个汉字的名字,其拼音的首字母都要大写,如 “Li Ming ”(而现在最流行的写法是姓氏的字母全都要大写,如LI Ming, 以便让人区别姓氏与名字); 若是三个字的名字则第一、二个拼音字母大写,第三个与第二个无间隔首字母小写,如:“Liu Xiaoming”。 考研作文中没有对英文信封的考查要求,故在此只作简单介绍,作为考生的知识扩充。英文信封的写法与中文信封的写法不同。发信人的地址应写在信封左上角,收信人的地址应写在信封中间。

以上是一般书信的写作格式,下面我们列出一些具体信笺及其所需包含的内容,以提供考生参照。

4 I am most reluctant to complain, but...

我非常不愿意投诉,但„„

One annoying aspect of your service is...

你们的服务项目中一个令人不满的地方是„„

I have been pleased with your services for years, but now I feel very disappointed.

多年来我一直很满意你们的服务,但现在我非常失望。

I would like to draw your attention to the problem/fault...

我想让您知道这个问题/错误„„

I am writing to inform you that I find... unsatisfactory.

我写信是为了告诉你我发现„„令人非常不满意。

I wish to express my dissatisfaction/disappointment about..

. 我想表达我对„„的不满/失望。

It would be highly appreciated if you could...

如果你能„„我将万分感谢。

I trust you will take my complaints seriously and...

我相信你会认真对待我的投诉,并且„„

I hope you will give due attention to this matter.

希望对此事你能给予足够的重视。

I would like to get this matter settled by the end of this month.

我希望能在月底解决这事。

I could not be more satisfied if you can kindly...

如果你能„„我将会非常满意。

I would appreciate it very much if you could...

如果你能„„我将非常感谢。

2. 咨询信(Letter of Inquiry)

咨询信的主要目的是寻求所需的信息或帮助,其写作要点如下:

(1) 首先要表明写作意图,说明写这封信是为了寻求什么样的信息或帮助。

(2) 接着提出所咨询的具体问题,强调获得这个信息对自己的重要性。

(3) 向对方表示真诚的感激,表达获取信息的强烈愿望,提供联系方式。

【例文1】

Directions:

Suppose you are a store holder and want to purchase goods for Christmas sales. Write to a wholesaler to ask the detailed information of the available goods.

You should write about 100 words. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “George O. Justin ” instead.

Dear sir/Madam,

Your advertisement in the latest edition of Buy Now caught my attention. I am particularly interested in your new line of gift merchandise. Since the Christmas season is near, we need to stock our inventory with items that will make appropriate gifts.

Please send me your current holiday catalog of gift ideas, we are usually asked to stock items that worth $ 50 and under.

We will also need to know your terms of payment, quantity prices, discount options and any special offers. We are also interested in how items will be shipped and the speed with which they can be delivered.

Thank you for your assistance.

Sincerely yours,

George O.Justin

5 I am writing to you because I need to inquire you about...写这封信是想向你咨询„„

I am sorry to bother you to inquire about... 对不起打扰你向你询问„„

Your advertisement in...caught my attention. 贵方刊登在„„上的广告吸引了我的注意。

I am particularly interested in...我对„„十分感兴趣。

It would be highly appreciated if you could... 如果你能„„我将万分感谢。

I hope you will give due attention to this matter. 希望对此事你能给予足够的重视。

3. 道歉信(Letter of Apology)

道歉信是因某事向某人致歉的信件。其写作要点如下:

(1) 首先点明对因何事向收信人致歉。

(2) 说明道歉的具体原因,表明自己对待该事的态度,及深刻的歉意。

(3) 最后再次请求收信人的原谅。

【例文1】

Directions:

Suppose that a friend of yours, Wei Fang, came to visit you from Shanghai business yesterday when you were out. Now you are required to write a letter:

1) give your apology to her;

2) indicate the reason why you broke the appointment;

3) make another appointment with her.

You should write about 100 words. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Zhang Hong” instead.

Dear Wei Fang,

I am very sorry that I was out when you came to see me yesterday afternoon. The fact is that I had an engagement with some friends and, ignorant of your visit, accompanied them to the cinema. Since those friends and I haven t met each other for quite a long time, we went to a friend s home after the film was over and talked a lot. Therefore I didn t come back until nine o clock in the evening. You must have been disappointed by my absence.

I hope you will not leave the city this week. I will call on you on Friday afternoon at four o clock. As this is the first time you come to Beijing, I will take you to some places of interest that may interest you if possible. Please wait for me in your hotel at the appointed time.

Truly yours, Zhang Hong

I would like to give you my apology for...对于„„

我向你道歉。

Please accept my sincere apology for...

请接受我关于„„的真诚道歉。

I am indeed very sorry for what I said/did, but believe I had no intention to hurt you.

对于我说过的话、做过的事,我确实感到很抱歉。但请相信,我并非要故意伤害你。

Let s not put a little misunderstanding between us.

可别让我们之间存在哪怕一点点的误解。

Please forgive me for a stupid choice of words.

请原谅我的用词不当。

I feel badly sorry about it and want you to know what happened.

我为此感到非常内疚,所以想让你知道实情。

Please allow me to say sorry again.

请允许我再次表示歉意。

6 Please accept my apologies for my oversight.

请原谅我的疏忽。

I sincerely hope you can accept my apologies and understand my situation.

我真心希望你能理解我的处境,并接受我的道歉。

Once again, I m sorry for any inconvenience caused.

再一次,我为所有的不便表示歉意。

4. 感谢信(Letter of Thanks)

感谢信的主要目的是向收信人表明感激之情,其写作要点如下:

(1) 首先要表明写作意图,向对方表示诚挚的谢意;

(2) 简要说明感谢的原因,语言要诚挚;

(3) 官方感谢信须行文得体,非官方感谢信较随意;

(4) 结尾再次表明感激之情。

【例文1】

Directions:

Suppose you re a customer. After your shopping, you found yourself in trouble. The salesperson came and helped you. Write a letter to the manager to express your gratitude in about 100 words.

Dear Mr.Wells,

Our family has shopped at your supermarket for several years. The quality of the food has been consistently good, the prices reasonable, and the staff friendly and helpful.

One of your employees is particularly outstanding, and I thought I d drop you a line and say a word on his behalf.

Freddy, who bags groceries and brings them out to the car, frequently goes out of his way to help. Yesterday he had finished loading my car and was heading back to the store. I tried to pull out but found myself stuck in the snow. When he heard my wheels spinning, Freddy came back and gave me a push. That certainly beat calling a tow truck!

It s nice to find someone these days who s willing to go that extra mile to please a customer. That young man will go far in life.

Truly yours, Frank Smith I am writing to express my thanks for...

我写这封信是为了表达我对„„的谢意。

Many thanks for your kind invitation.

感谢你的邀请。

Thanks a lot for your nice present.

非常感谢你精美的礼物。

Thank you ever so much for your warm wishes/greetings/compliments.

非常感谢你温馨的祝福/问候/祝贺。

It's very kind of you to have us over.

谢谢你邀请我们过去。

We are indebted to you for your help.

对于你们的帮助,我们表示深深的谢意。

Thank you so much for the gift you sent me. It s one of the most wonderful gifts I have ever got. 非常感谢你给我寄来的礼物,这是我收到的最好的礼物之一。

I would like to take this opportunity to express my great appreciation for your timely help and assistance. 我谨借此机会感谢您给予我们的及时帮助和支持。

7 On behalf of my whole family, I would like to extend my sincere gratitude for...

我谨代表我全家对„„表示真诚的感激之情。

Thanks again for your kind help.

对你的帮助再次表示感谢。

Nothing will be able to erase our wonderful memories, we will remember them forever.

没什么能抹掉我们美好的记忆,我们会永远铭记在心。

Please accept my thanks, now and always.

请永远记住我的谢意。

Your help is very much appreciated by each of us.

我们每一个人都非常感谢你。

My true gratitude is beyond any word s description.

任何语言都不能表达我的真挚谢意。

Thank you again from the bottom of my heart.

再次由衷地表示感谢。

5. 邀请信(Invitation Letter)

邀请信是邀请某人参加某种仪式、会议等的应用文,其写作要点如下:

(1) 开头首先表明写作意图,向某人发出邀请,指明地点、日期、时间等要素。

(2)表达你渴望见到对方。如果是商务性质的,注明时间、会议地点、发信主题、组织者、出席者等。留下联系人的姓名、地址和电话号码。

(3) 表达你对被邀者能应邀的愉快心情,并希望尽快得到回复。

【例文1】

Directions:

Write a letter to your former roommate in your university and invite him/her to visit your city during the summer vacation. You should write about 100 words. You don t need to write your own address.

Dear Xiaobing,

How are you getting on recently? I am wondering if you have made a definite plan for the coming summer holidays. If not, I wish you could come here and visit my city. My family are also glad to receive you as a popular guest in my home.

My hometown is a very beautiful seashore city. There are many places of interest worthy of sightseeing. Besides, the local style food here is also well known. Don t you tell me in the letter that you have been dreaming of the sea? The place where I live is located near the sea. Every day you can walk on the seashore, pick up seashells and even enjoy swimming in the sea.

Hoping to see you in my hometown as soon as possible.

Yours, Li Ming I am writing to invite you to... 我写信是想邀请你„„

I wonder if you can come...

我在想你是否能来参加„„

I think it would be a great idea if you could participate in...

我想如果你能参加„„将是一个非常好的主意。

Would you please drop me a line to let me know if you can come to...

你可以打电话通知我你是否能来„„

Be sure to let me know if you can come. My whole family is very eager awaiting your arrival.

请通知我你是否能来,我们全家都非常盼望你的到来。

We would be looking forward to your coming with great pleasure.

我们非常高兴地期待着你的到来。

8

I am looking forward to seeing you.

我非常期待见到你。

My family and I would feel much honored if you would come.

如果你能来,我们全家都将感到不胜荣幸。

Please accept my invitation and let me know at your convenience as soon as possible.

请接受我的邀请并尽早通知我。

6. 求职信 (Cover Letter)

求职信是向某一企业或事业单位发出的申请某一工作岗位的信件,其写作要点如下:

(1) 开门见山指出对自己所应聘的职业岗位和技能的关注的兴趣。要求包含与工作有关的恰当信息。有时要指出招聘信息获取的渠道。

(2) 指出自己的优势和特长,以及与该岗位的关联。所述情况要符合事实,态度切忌过冷或过热。

(3) 将自己的详细联系方式在信中说明。称呼一定要用人名,而非职位。

(4) 表明你渴望接受面试,以及表示愿意服从公司的工作分配安排。

【例文】

Directions:

Suppose you are a college student and you intend to work part time during your vacation. In your letter, you are supposed to include the post you would like to apply for, your experience and your hobbies, etc. Dear Sir or Madam,

I wish to apply for the position for a part time assistant you advertised in Beijing Daily during the coming summer vacation.

I am a student at Beijing University, which is only five minute walk from your firm. I feel that my qualifications and work experience make me a suitable candidate for the job, which, according to the advertisement, demands a multi lingual person with some experience. Chinese is my mother tongue, and I have a fair mastery of English. As a keen traveler, I have learned some Japanese and French, and I have acquired an understanding of the cultures of Japan and French. As for experience, I worked part time as a waiter at a shop of Pizza Hut. Therefore, I am confident that you will find my service satisfactory. Incidentally, could you please inform me of the rate of payment?

I hope you will take my application into consideration favorably and entitle me to an interview at your convenience. I can be reached at 45268934.

Thank you for your consideration of my application. I am looking forward to your reply and, eventually, meeting you.

Sincerely Yours, John Gordon Your advertisement in...caught my attention.

贵方刊登在„„上的广告吸引了我的注意。

I am particularly interested in...

我对„„十分感兴趣。

Please consider me for...

请考虑我做„„

I am sure to be as successful in...as I am in my college endeavors.

由于我在大学期间的努力,我确信能够成功地做„„

It would be highly appreciated if you could...

如果你能„„我将万分感谢。

9 7. 推荐信(Recommendation Letter)

推荐信是将某人向第三方做出介绍的信件,其写作要点如下:

(1)推荐信的主要目的是写信人向收信人推荐第三人做某事。

(2)开头先写明写信意图,并说明推荐人与被推荐人的关系。

(3)接着列举推荐原因,介绍推荐人与被推荐人的关系,写出被推荐人的专长和人格魅力。

(4)表明推荐人的态度,并表示感谢和期待。

【例文】

Directions:

William Black was your classmate and best friend. Please write to William Black s new college and recommend him as a good student. Write about 100 words.

Dear Madam,

For two years William Black was in my Sunday School class and during that time we became good friends. William is all boy on the baseball diamond and the soccer field, but also a serious student while in class.

His attentive behavior in class and good sportsmanship at play are vital evidence of the loving home he comes from. He receives a lot of support balanced with prudent discipline. As the oldest of four children, he handles responsibility well.

I'm certain William will adapt to his new school and make friends quickly. My only regret is that he and his family have moved so far away, I will miss the opportunity to watch him growing up to be the fine young man. Sincerely yours, Frank Smith I am writing this letter to recommend...to your department.

我写这封信的目的是推荐„„到贵部门。

This will introduce Mr. ...a good friend of mine who... I would be grateful for anything you could do for him to...

这封信的目的是推荐我的好朋友„„先生,他是„„。为你对他所做的任何帮助,我将不胜感激。 My appreciation to you for your generous help is beyond my words.

对您慷慨的帮助我不胜感激。

I am very glad to recommend to you a student of mine, Mr. / Ms. ..., to be an ideal candidate for... If any further information about him / her is required, please let me know.

我很高兴推荐我的一位学生,„„先生/女士,作为„„职位的理想候选人。如果需要关于他/她的任何进一步信息,请告知于我。

I am very glad to have this chance to write to you...

很高兴能有机会给您写信„„

The bearer of this is Mr. Wang whom I personally know to be a most deserving person for your position. 这里介绍的王先生,我个人认为是这个职位最理想的人选。

I take the pleasure in introducing Mr. Li to you.

很高兴能向您介绍李先生。

Thanks for your attention and hope to receive your reply.

谢谢你的关注,希望能收到你的回复。

It would be appreciated if you can give her some help.

如能蒙您帮忙将不胜感激。

I would be most grateful if you could lend due attention to this letter and contact me at...

如您能对此信给予一定的关注并用„„和我联系,我将非常感激。

In addition, I want to express my sincere thanks for your attention.

另外,真诚地感谢您的关注。

10 I have no hesitation in recommending sb. for the position of...

毫不犹豫地推荐某人任„„职位。

8. 申请信(Application Letter)

申请信是向机构、团体或个人申请帮助、资金等的信件。其写作要点如下:

(1)开门见山指出自己要申请的职位、学位或其他特别的要求。

(2)指出自己要申请的理由,并简要介绍自己的学历和工作经历等。

(3)向对方表示感谢,说明自己盼望所申请之事能够得到允许的心情。

【例文】

Directions:

Suppose you are a university student, write a letter to apply for a visa for the winter quarter, and want to get much more financial aid for your study.

1) Describe your reason for the application.

2) Explain why you are so eager to the financial funds.

3) Show your appreciation to the admittance.

You should write about 100 words. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Mei Yang” instead.

Dear sir,

Thank you for your e mail and kind offer! Definitely, I would like to try to apply for a visa for the winter quarter. I understand that both you and Professor Black have tried very hard to help me with my situation and I appreciate your efforts.

As it is true that nobody really knows why the visa officers refuse certain applicants and allow others, I have been told by several successful visa re applicants that re applying with a new I 20 with a slightly different offer from the US schools would help. For example, a slight increase in financial aid and so on. I don t know whether this is something possible for you to consider for my situation. But I would really appreciate if you could consider some possibilities.

I know that I have given you enough trouble and please ignore my request if it is too difficult for you to do. I will simply try my best to get my visa and come to your school.

Sincerely yours, Mei Yang I would like to try to apply for...

我想要申请„„

I understand that both you and Professor Black have tried very hard to help me with my situation and I appreciate your efforts.

我知道你和布莱克教授已经竭尽全力地帮助我,对此我十分感激。

I know that I have given you enough trouble and please ignore my request if it is too difficult for you to do. 我知道我给你带来了很多麻烦,如果这件事情对于你来说太困难,请忽略我的申请。

9. 建议信(Suggestion Letter)

建议信的目的是向人提出解决某事的建议,其写作要点如下:

(1)开门见山指出要建议的事情。

(2)主题段落首先肯定对方的优点,随后指出不足和需要改进之处。最后是针对不足之处提出具体建议或忠告,并指出这样做的必要性。

(3)向对方表示感谢,希望接受你的建议。如果需要,提供你的联系方式。

【例文】

Directions:

Suppose one of your friends will go to Dalian for a visit. You now write to her/him and tell her/him your own opinions and give some advice in about 100 words. Do not use your own name, and use“Xiao Tong” instead.

11 Dear Mary,

I am very glad to hear that you are going to pay a visit to Dalian. Since you have only day stay here, I specially suggest you head for three scenic spots: they are Sun Asia Ocean World, the Coastal Road or Binhai Road and the Poles Aquarium.

In the morning, you can take 15 minute ride from Jiuzhou Holiday Inn to the Sun Asia Ocean World, the longest undersea tunnel aquarium in Asia, where you may feel as if you are among schools of various fish and enjoy the pleasure of dancing with them. There is a restaurant in the sea world where you can have a western style snack, if you feel like it. Out of the Ocean World, the natural scenery of Binhai Road will extend its greetings to you. Along the road, you will come to Tiger Beach where the Poles Aquarium is located. There you will see the Poles animal world and will want to keep close to the animals.

By the way, it is mid autumn in Dalian and sometimes, it is nice and cool here, bring suitable clothes with you. Let me know the flight number, I will meet you at the airport.

Looking forward to seeing you.

Truly Yours,

Xiao Tong

I am writing to express my views concerning...

我写信来是要表达有关„„我的看法。

I feel that it would be beneficial if...

我想如果你能„„,可能会更好。

I would like to suggest that...

我想建议„„

You have asked for my advice with regard to...and I will try to make some suggestions.

你问我有关„„的事情,我会尝试着提出一些建议。

It seems to me that you could...

我认为你可以„„

I believe you will take my advice into account.

我相信你会认真考虑我的建议的。

I will be more than happy to see improvements in this regard.

如果这方面有所改善我会非常开心的。

I will be ready for further discussing this matter into details.

我时刻准备着就此事进行更详尽的讨论。

If I were you,I would...

如果我是你,我将„„

I would recommend that...

我想推荐„„

It seems to me that you could...

我认为你可以„„

I hope that you take my suggestions into serious consideration.

我希望您能仔细考虑我的建议。