德伯家的苔丝英文分析
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内容摘要

在英国,许多的作家以幻灭为主题,将其融入到自己的作品当中。在这些作家中最有代表性的是托马斯〃哈代。在19世纪的英国,托马斯〃哈代是著名的批判现实主义作家,《德伯家的苔丝》是他作品中最有影响力的一部。在这部作品中他的对比是:人和社会环境、人和大自然、人的外貌和他的内心世界。《德伯家的苔丝》主要讲述了一个美丽善良的少女苔丝失身后所遭遇的悲惨故事。他认为平民的生活是悲惨的,平民人物的命运也是悲剧,而主人公苔丝的命运就是平民命运的一个小缩影。并且在18世纪到19世纪之交,维多利亚时期是一个以男性为中心的时代,男女不平等已经成为维多利亚时期根深蒂固的社会习俗,因此,当时妇女倍受压迫和歧视。苔丝作为一个普通人,与当时社会的抗争是无助的,她的结局会像所有一切与道德伦理相悖的事物一样,成为这个社会的牺牲品。苔丝的悲剧是又多方因素造成的,我的论文仅通过社会环境的描写、法律制度,伦理道德和宗教, 分析出造成苔丝悲惨命运的社会因素。苔丝的悲剧是那个社会所造成的。

关键词:苔丝 社会环境 法律系统 伦理道德 宗教因素

ABSTRACT

Many novelists from England expressed disillusionment in their novels. The most typical one was Thomas Hardy who was a famous critical realistic writer at the run of the 19th century in England. In the novel, His contrasts are human and social environment, human and nature, surface and heart. Tess of the D’Urbervilles is the most influential one of all his works. This novel is a tragic story about one beautiful and kind Tess after she had been lost chastity. In his mind, the life of demos is tragic, and the destiny of Tess is a miniature display the life of demos is a tragedy. And at the turn of the century between 18th and 19th, women were oppressed and discriminated, due to the deeply inequality social culture between man and woman in Victorian Age, all of which existed in the Tess‟s living time. As a common person, Tess fought with the society is helpless. In the end, she turned out to be the sacrificial victim of society like all other things, which disobey the morality and ethic. The tragedy happened on Tess is caused by many reasons. My paper is about to analyze the tragedy of Tess though the social environment, law system,morality and religion factor at that time. Tess„s tragic life is caused by that society and it is the result of that time.

KEY WORDS: Tess society environment law system morality ethic

religion factor

CONTENTS

I. Introduction of author and novel……………………………………….1 1.1 Introduction of Thomas Hardy……………………………………1

1.2 Introduction of Tess of the D’Urbervilles…...…………...………2

II. Background ………………………………...……………….…………4

2.1Background of the novel…………………………………………

2.2 Background of Political, Economical and Cultural………………4

2.3 Background of the Features of Victorian novels...……...………5

III. Analyze the tragedy of Tess from social factors…………………..…5

3.1 Life environment for the peasants…….……….……….………...7

3.2 Unfair law system for the peasants……….……….……….……...9

3.3 The victim of morality for Female

3.4 Contacting with religion

IV . Conclusion………………………………………………………...14

R E F E R E N C E S …..…………………………………………………15

I. The introduction of author and novel

1.1 Introduction of Thomas Hardy

Thomas Hardy was born on June 2, 1840, a village of southwestern England that was the focus of his novels. He got a love of music from his father and literature from his mother. In 1862, he went to London to work for a famous architect. During the time when he was free, he widely studied: language, literature, history, philosophy and art. At that time, he even gained two prizes for essays on architecture, but it was not his desired profession. He started to write poetry and paid more attention to poetry than novel when he was 25-year-old. But he had no chance to publish his poetry. He changed the matter to create novel. In 1871, his first long novel was published. Three years ago, the celebrated work was his fourth novel far from the Madding Crowd. He stopped construction industry and devoted to the novel creation. There were early 20 long novels in Hardy ‟s life. The most famous novel is Tess of the D’Urbervilles. However his view has led considerably conflict with the moral of Victorian era. Some plots were deleted in the serial and the title of the novel is a true life of the pure woman that caused strong dissatisfaction among some people. They believe that is an affront on public moral because Tess gets the sympathetic and understanding from the author in the novel. Hardy‟s works reflected the changed of social economy, political, moral and tradition, which is the advanced thoughts in Victorian era. Especially, his novels exposed women‟s tragic life and morals, legal and religious. And his story is the people pursue a ideal life by describing the struggle, pursuit and disillusionment in his novel. Therefore, the story is full of the deep society-significance and philosophy. His works not only were the great tradition of England realism, but also were the way for 20th century British literature.

1.2 Tess of the D’Urbervilles

Tess is a 16-year-old who is a beautiful and kind girl comes from a poor family in a village ,the whole family make their living by transporting with an old horse. However the old horse was dead in a sudden accident. The poverty of the family forces her to claim help from the rich D‟Urbervilles.

While visiting the D‟Urbervilles at the Slopes, Tess meets Alec D‟Urbervilles. Alec is a young master of the D‟Urbervilles and a playboy. Alec arranges for Tess to take care of his blind mother‟s poultry, and Tess moves to the Slopes. Alec seduces and rapes Tess.

Tess returns home, gives birth to a son. His name is sorrow. Tess works as a field worker on nearby farms. Sorrow becomes ill and dies when he is a baby. People‟s opinion forces Tess makes another journey away from home to become a milkmaid on a dairy farm. There she meets Angel Clare. She falls in love with each other. On their wedding night, Tess displays her own past, Tess forgives Angel for his past, but Angel cannot forgive Tess for having a child with another man. Finally, he leaves her. Tess goes to her parents‟ home. Tess eventually leaves home to work in another town at Flint comb-Ash farm, where the working conditions are very harsh. Tess meets some of her friends from Talbot hays, and they are at Flint comb to the hard work. Tess wants to visit Angel‟s family, but she gives up at the last minute. On the way Flint comb, Tess meets Alec again. When Alec meets Tess, he leaves his position to pursue her. Alec follows Tess to Flint comb, asking her to marry him. Tess refuses in the strongest terms. However her father‟s death leads to the whole burden of the

family on her, she is forced to go back to Alec. In the meantime, Angel returns from Brazil to look for Tess and begin his own farm in England. When Angel goes to Tess‟s family, they tell him that Tess has gone to a fashionable seaside in the south of England. In the meeting with Angel, Tess asks him to leave her. Angel does leave. After her meeting with Angel, she decides to accuse Alec. In a fit of anger, Tess kills Alec with a knife. Alec is dead. Tess tells Angel that Alec is dead. Angel has trouble believing Tess‟ story but welcomes her back. Their plan is to leave the country as soon as possible. They spend a week in a house.

They are discovered, and the police take her away. Before she is executed for her crime, Tess has Angel promise to marry her sister Liza Lu. Angel agrees with her. The two, Angel and Liza Lu, leave together, and the tragic tale of Tess ends.

II. Background

2.1Background of the novel

This story happened in the late of Britain's Victorian era,in this time, Capitalist class controlled all right, and the law were serviced for them. Farmers were at the bottle of the society. They had never equal right as the capitalist class. Tess as a woman in the Victorian era ,she cannot avoided the “Hegemony” father right awareness to “woman” nature understanding . And in the man society, tradition customs made women lost their independent status.。In the male awareness, By the Capitalist break into the society,those farmers who had a small amount of land and the means of production had followed the insolvency 。Female beauty not only regarded as the "Troubles" but also become an excuse for men to shirk their crime;The male requests

feminine to be loyal and the bodily pure and chaste, actually disregards own indulging. But in under male power suppression, feminine thought pattern also was controlled solidly by this kind of strong trend was even melting.

2.2Background of Political, Economical and Cultural

The early years of the Victorian England was a time of rapid economic development as well as serious social problems. After the revolution of 1832 passed the political power from the capitalist class into the hands of the middle-class industrial capitalists, the Industrial Revolution was ready. Towards the mid-century, England had reached its top of development as a world power. Under the great prosperity and richness, there existed widespread poverty and sadness among the working class. During the next twenty years, England settled down to a time of prosperity and relative stability. The middle-class life of the time was characterized by prosperity, respectability and material progress. But the last three decades of the century was the decline of the British and the Victorian values. Actually, the Victorians experienced important changes. The rapid development of science and technology was the subject of the Victorian era. And new inventions and discoveries had created in many fields. At that time, capitalist class controlled all right, and the law system were serviced for them. Farmers were at bottle of the society; they had unequal right as the capitalist class.

2.3 Background of Features of Victorian novels

In this era, the novel became the most widely read and the most important and challenging expression of advertence thoughts. Novelists kept the principle of faithful

representation of the 18th-century realist novel, and carried their right forward to the criticism of the society. Although writing from different points of view and writing skill, they shared one thing in common, that is, they were all concerned about the life of the common people. They disagreed with the society without humanity; the social was full of the poverty and injustice. They described truthful condition of people's life and bitter and strong criticism of the society had done much in awakening the public consciousness to the social problems and in the actual improvement of the society. Victorian literature, in general, truthfully represents the reality and spirit of the age.

III. Analyze the tragedy of Tess from social factors

3.1 Hard life environment for the peasants

The first factor that causes Tess‟s tragedy was the hard environment. This story has happened in the southern countries of England. Small farmer's poverty and the decay which the writer really describes these which to be hired the farmers and seeks the work. These farmers are exploited by the rich landowners. Let us see the economy condition in the 19th century. The development of the industrial revolution led to the bad situation in the society. Trade and economic grow rapidly, driving more peasants to the crowded factories. Under the process of the great revolution, a number of farmers go poor and live a tragic life. So a daughter of a poor villager, it is very difficult for Tess to live a better life.

The past century, Tess‟s tragedy had move thousands of hundreds of people all over the world. The environment of Tess‟s life is one of the factors for her tragedy, which pushed her into the trouble. Under Hardy‟s pen, Tess is a beautiful, kind peasant girl,

comes from a poor family in a village ,the whole family make their living by transporting with an old horse. In Tess‟s time, the society is full of large changes. The death of horse was one of large changes for her family. There were seven children in her family. And she loved deeply her brothers and sisters and would not like to let them to work. At that time, Tess ‟s father knows the information of D ‟Urbervilles from the man “Throw up your face. That's the D'Urbervilles nose and chin - a little debased. You declined a little in Oliver Cromwell's time, but to no serious extent, and in Charles the Second's reign you were made Knights of the Royal Oak for your loyalty. Aye, there have been generations of Sir Johns among you, and if knighthood were hereditary, like a baronetcy, as it practically was in old times, when men were knighted from father to son, you would be Sir, John now.”[14]If her father did not know the information of the rich D‟Urbervilles, she was just a common girl. If her father did not drink over, she and her brother did not go outside and the horse still was lived. But that is true. The poverty of the family forces her to get help from the rich D‟Urbervilles. Her parents hoped that they could follow the rich D‟Urbervilles to live a better life. Actually, the young Tess would not like to visit and work to the rich D‟Urbervilles. But she hates herself to kill the old horse, she have no chance and have to go there. Tess works there and seduced by Alec, the young master of the D‟Urbervilles. Then T ess gives birth to a child who dies very soon. For the great poverty of her family, she has to go to find work again. But there is almost nothing she can do. She can only work at the dairy farm, where she meets and falls in love with Angel Clare. When Clare leaves her for Brazil, She has to do hard work. Alec comes to her again when she is in trouble. What‟s the worse, after her father's death,

the family has no place to live in, for the lease of their house is up to the death of her father. To support the family, Tess has no other way to choose. She goes back to Alec D'Urbervilles to accept his help for the second time. It is at the cost of Tess's happiness and love that her family can have a house to live in and food to eat. Then Angel Clare returns from Brazil, being repented of his disappointing treatment to Tess, but Tess's relationship with Alec stops her from living with Angel happily. She hates Alec and kills him. A short period of happy life with Angel, before Tess is punished by the law. So the poor life pushes Tess into the trap of the evil man, and the capitalist society brings about the poor life of her family. The poor life pushes Tess into the trouble of the life.

On the other hand, Tess is more beautiful than many people, but not quite up to the level of the upper and middle classes both socially and culturally. Angel‟s mother sees in Tess the beginning of the fall of the great Victorian era and high society. His mother does not accept Tess as a suitable daughter-in-law because his mother believes that Tess will bring down the status of the family. Hard life was the beginning of Tess‟s tragic life. [13] Tess bravely struggles against her fortune, and Tess surpasses herself in the tragedy.

3.2Unfair law system for the peasants

The second factor that causes Tess‟s tragedy was the unfair law system. Tess lives in the Victorian era, which throws capitalism into village. In the capitalist society, law is served for the capitalist class. Farmers are at the bottle of the society have never equal rights as the capitalist class.

In the real world, Alec, the representation of capitalist power and wealth, is not afraid of doing anything, not only because he has money and power, but also because the capitalist law and rules protect his evil action, while Tess was sentenced to death. “When old Simon Stoke, latterly deceased, had made his fortune as an honest merchant (some said money-lender) in the North, he decided to settle as a county man in the South of England, out of hall of his business district; and in doing this he felt the necessity of recommencing with a name that would not too readily identify him with the smart tradesman of the past, and that would be less commonplace than the original bald stark words. Conning for an hour in the British Museum the pages of works devoted to extinct, half extinct, obscured, and ruined families relating to the quarter of England in which he suggested to arrange, he considered that D'Urbervilles looked and sounded as well as any of them: and D'Urbervilles accordingly was annexed to his own name for himself and his heirs eternally. Yet he was not an extravagant minded man in this, and in constructing his family tree on the new basis was duly reasonable in framing his inter-marriages and aristocratic links, never insertin g a single title above a rank of strict moderation.” And Alec is the son of the old Simon who adds the name of D‟Urbervilles to his own name, Stoke.

In Victorian people‟s opinion, the young Alec is noble without crime, while Tess is considered to get marry with Alec to get Alec's money. The fact is that he met Tess at first time, he had shown the face, and he was a playboy. In Chapter 3, he calls Tess “beauty ” and wants to show her around his house. When he picks strawberries up, he puts then into her mouth in person regardless Tess‟s refuse. While Tess has her meal, he is watching her all the time. As soon as Tess leaves, he plans how to get her. In

Chapter 4, when Tess has to work for his family, he does everything he can to seduce her. Tess is innocent and has no experience, and her living environment is so dark that no one comes to help her and no law protect her. So Alec takes advantages of Tess‟s helplessness, seducing her. Tess bears all unjust treatment silently alone.

Tess was lived in the Victorian era which capitalism breaks into the old England. She was a hardworking, kind-hearted, intelligent and beautiful girl;but regard as a laborer, a man of the poor agricultural workers, she has low social status that naturally will received oppression and humiliation in the capitalist society。

In the capitalist society, legal policy and moral view all were take maintains the exploiting class the benefit and the acknowledgment exploiting class makes people lose their rights as the premise, which were serviced for protect reactionary control. Alec did all kinds of evil things, but he was protected by the law. Tess actually is blamed the death penalty. This just was explaining man politics system reactionary, indicated the unimportant person in lower level social class was impossible to get the fair treatment in the society. We may see in the novel, such as Alec this thunder actually receives man state and the religious morals protection.

In the lower level social class, common people like Tess were impossible to get the fair treatment in the capitalism society. Hardy says at the end of the novel: “Justice was done, and the President of the Immortals, in Aeschylean phrase, had ended his sport with Tess.”(Tess, 467) Obviously, Tess is the victim of the unjust law.

3.3The victim of morality for the female

The third factor that causes Tess‟s tragedy was the morality. The highest standard of

the Victorian woman had no sex experience before they got marry, and adultery is the worst. Their dresses covered her whole body except he hands and face, and to show an ankle or a shoulder is considered improper. Firstly, the woman would not like to get marry the man in order to protect her reputation. For example, Tess went back home first time. “Get Alec D'Urbervilles in the mind to marry her! He marries her! He had never once said a word about marriage. And what if he had? Her poor foolish mother little knew her present feeling towards this man. Perhaps it was unusual in the situations. But there it was; and this, as she had said, was what made her hate herself. She had never completely cared for him; she did not at all care for him now. She had afraid him. Then, temporarily blinded by his kind manners, had been stirred to confused surrender awhile: had suddenly despised and disliked him, and had run away. That was all. Hate him she did not quite; but he was dust and ashes to her, and even for her name's sake she scarcely wished to marry him.” Alec is a symbol of evil; he can protect by law. He, who represents a larger moral principle rather than a real individual man, symbolizes the base forces of life that drive a person away from moral perfection and greatness.

Secondly, on public morals are that woman must have no sex experience before marriage, but men could have sex experience. The morals are rooted in people ‟s minds: when either man or woman has a sex, the first would be forgiven, but the second would not be forgiven. Tess is just a girl when she first meets the terrible man, and knows nothing of men. But people do not blame the man; only blame Tess as a fallen woman. Angle is Tess„s husband who had done something dissolute but Tess forgave him. However Angle couldn‟t forgive Tess because Tess had been lost

chastity.

He says to Tess “the woman I have loved is not you, but ano ther woman in your shape.” The next day, he leaves for Brazil, leaving Tess in hot water again. But because of Angle‟s moral view, which totally comes from the social customs and moral standards of that time, she is forced to come back to Alec for the second time. Thirdly, Tess was rather traditional. According to the Victorian social moral, the loss of chastity was shameful. Even if she wondered “Was once lost always lost really true of chastity?”(Hardy, 2004, P.100) she never asked Angel this to his nose. “Old mind of chastity is deeply rooted in Tess‟s blood and soul. Tess felt shame and self-abased for the loss of chastity. Tess believes she is not fit to be Angel‟s wife.” However, Angel‟s love, to Tess, is like a knife. She had no status on society. All she had was her honesty to love, and to Angel. But her honesty resulted in the leaving of Angel. Tess loved Angel too much to blame him and she also believed she was an improper woman who did not get the love of Angel. Unluckily, her family went into trouble again. Angel failed her completely. Hopeless and helpless Tess went back to Alec whom Tess killed when Angel came back asking for her forgiveness.

Angel is the symbol of the morality of the capitalist society. Though Angle is with open and advance mind, he has the traditional moral idea in the deep of his heart. In Victoria era, under the situation of Britain capitalist society's moral ethics, Tess‟s tragedy was due to social morals root mainly in the central society of men that woman chastity idea had been firmly rooted in the heart of people. It is a classic statement of social double standard, which judges men‟s sexual behavior leniently and punishes women for the same behavior. It is unequal that and kinds of sexual

experience would earn a young woman moral and social condemnation, regardless of how the man involved conducted himself. Furthermore, Tess is the victim of morality.

3.4Contacting with religion

The fourth factor that causes Tess‟s tragedy was the hypocritical religion. Religion was also closely related to Tess‟s tragedy. In capitalist society, religion was just used as a tool to cheat most people. When Tess met Alec again, he is a man who seduced her and pushed her into the tragedy. He became a priest who asked people to do good things. From this part we can see that religion is hypocritical.

In this novel, Tess and Clare were the two positive characters. They gave up their own religious belief gradually because of their respective living experiences, and became the agnostics with doubtful attitude. But the negative role Alec always did evils under the mask of being a preacher. This was a greatest irony to the religion indeed. Alec was seized by a mind and believed in God. As a matter of fact he was only searching for a kind of new excitement, and it came all of a sudden. When he came across Tess again, he had betrayed himself.He brings Tess into trouble obsessively. Tess bitterly reproached him, she said: “You have enjoyed all the

happiness in the world, but the persons like me are suffering because of your spree. You have got enough. So that you begin to think about turning over a new leaf,

because you want to keep happiness after you go to the heaven. All of the good have been intended by you!”

Brought up in a heavily religious environment, Tess has deep religious thoughts, which forces Tess to bear pressure and push herself into tragedy. Tess is a victim of religion.

And when the child was sudden death, she believed that is a suffering from God because of her past wrong, "we can only follow the own fortune. She cannot free herself from the shadow of religion. She always uses religious thoughts to image, explain and symbolize her tragic life. Fighting against with God was not useful. Especially, the hypocritical character was Alec, who opens the religion in capitalism society. He was a capitalist applied the business, and he was “a person of flesh”, he pushed the wrong to the young girl by the bible.

Religion is a tool that is controlled by the reactionary ruling class. And religion poisons, cheats and fools laboring people. It was visible that a woman was used by the religions. Such as Marx said “religions offered the theoretical gist for bourgeoisie insulted and disgraced women.”

The bitter experience of Tess was not sympathized by the others, but laughed by them. Even in the church, she was treated with distance by the other belief of the religion, and became the topic of their conversation. The church should be a place where they can get blessing and could be forgiven. But Tess was suffered heavily and she could not appease her broken heart here. So she hated to go to the church, and would not go there any more. And when she meets a man writing biblical texts on wall, she feels ashamed for she lose chastity, although it is not her fault. Tess believed that she was

not in perfect harmony with the whole reality of the world. Hardy opposed :

“what she affronted involuntarily was only a low which is generally acknowledged by people. In the natural world, she thought incompatible with herself. There was not any law in fact. ” Hardy gave a definite answer to the retribution of religion. From this part we can get to know religious impact on Tess.

Finally, religion made Tess to be a tradition woman. Setting out from religious disciplines, Tess believed herself as improper because of the loss of chastity. With the sense of shame, she was not able to fight against religion or old moral completely. Instead, “…She has become their advocator unconsciously. Religion and feudalism make a dent in her courage.”

IV Conclusion

[12] A beautiful and kind Tess from the poor village became a murder because of social power. By analyzing social factors lead to Tess‟s tragedy, Tess is justified as a loser in her hard life. She is “daughter of nature”. However, as a daughter of poor peasants, she is a laborer with low social status. Enduring a great deal of pain in life, finally she is completely destroyed. As the victim of the ill-judged execution, Tess is noble and dignified. It is the Victorian cult of aristocratic lineage that drives Tess to seek the agreement of Mrs. D‟Urbervilles and meet her seducer Alec. It is the unfair class system that allows a rich nobleman to impregnate and abandon a low-class girl without consequence. It is also the Victorian moral of the pure virginal bride that unfairly keeps Angle from accepting Tess as his wife, despite his own sexual history. These social injustices bring undeserved suffering to Tess. Tess is a strong woman in the novel. She fights against the capitalist system, but in her deep minds, she submits to the society. In fact, it is the time she lives invested her in this poor situation. Living in a society overwhelmed by capitalist law, hypocritical moral ethics and state apparatus, Tess, a poor peasant, unavoidable leads a tragic life and finally goes to her collapse. Besides, wicked Alec representing evil force is the direct cause for her death. But, it is hypocritical Angel who kills her indirectly but more cruelly. Facing such a

severe situation, the weakness of her character becomes the accomplice. Thus, encountering so many cases, it seems that Tess‟s tragedy is doomed. Tess‟s tragic fate is not only of herself, but also of the time she lives in. Thomas Hardy wrote the novel in the late of Britain‟s Victoria era. At that time, capitalist class controlled the life of farmers. Farmers were at the bottom of the society and they never had equal right as capitalist class. The social factors had caused Tess‟s tragedy. The death of Tess was inevitable in capitalism society because of social factors, which were bound up with capitalism. His words just point out that the real and root cause of Tess‟s tragedy is the capitalism. And as a common girl, Tess, fought with the society is helpless. In the end, she turned out to be the sacrificial victim of society like all other things, which disobey the morality and ethic. The tragedy happened on Tess is caused by many reasons. There was the social environment, law system,morality, religion factor and so on at that time. In my paper, I tend to analyze the tragedy of Tess from the social factors with the achievements of the critical study done by Hardy. By studying Tess‟s tragedy, we can better understand Tess completely, which contains the advance significance of Hardy‟s novel.

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