四级作文讲义
初二 散文 25806字 72人浏览 猛虎叫兽

四级作文讲义

(第1,2章内容参阅PPT 文档)

重点:段落层面:六种功能段落

1. 现象描述 2. 危害分析 3. 原因分析

4. 建议措施 5. 观点阐述(利弊) 6. 意义阐述

第三章 模板提炼过程

本章通过阅读评卷实例,我们来找出高分作文的特征,同时讲解模板句式的提炼过程。 高分作文实例:

英文题目:Bicycles ——An Important Means of Transport in China

汉语提纲:

(1)为什么自行车在中国这样普及

(2)和汽车的比较

(3)自行车在中国的前途

模版的提炼过程:思路和表达

* 首段原文:Bicycles are very popular in China. Almost every family in the city has two or three bicycles. During the rush hour, you can see that thousands of people -- man and woman, old and young -- ride their bicycles to work and study. That is why China is called ―the kingdom of bicycles‖.

单复数错误:man and woman → men and women

词性误用:old and young → the old and the young

专有名词: 第一个和最后一个单词首字母大写,其他:实词(名动形副代数)首字母大写;虚词(介连冠)首字母不大写。

3.1模板句式提炼1(自我复习,答案参阅PPT )

原句:Bicycles are very popular in China.

词性转化:popular →

首句升级:

练习: 2011-06:现在网上购物已成为一种时尚

2010-06:如今不少学生在英语学习中不重视拼写

2009-12:建设绿色校园很重要

2009-06:越来越多的博物馆免费对外开放的目的是什么?

2008-12:一次性塑料袋曾经广泛使用

2008-06: 娱乐活动多种多样

首句升级的第二种形式:

简单句(Bicycles are very popular in China. )

→长难句:

在我眼中你最美!→ In my eyes, you are the most beautiful.

→提炼高分句式: 双重否定:结构:No ___ is/are more ____ than ___.

原句:Bicycles are very popular in China.

→ In China, bicycles.

练习:我能想到最浪漫的事就是和你一起变老。

3.2模板句式提炼2

原句:Almost every family in the city has two or three bicycles.

* 调查法描述:Chinese families in the cities

练习:

2011-06:现在网上购物已成为一种时尚

* … Based on a recent report by China Daily, 72.34% of young people reckon that they have purchased clothes, books and other items on Taobao, Dangdang, Amazon and Group-buying websites.

*

2010-06:如今不少学生在英语学习中不重视拼写 * However, according to a recent survey, a great many learners admit that they pay less

attention to words spelling.

*

2009-06:越来越多的博物馆免费对外开放的目的是什么? * Based on an investigation, a majority of visitors reckon that by visiting museums freely, they acquire rich knowledge on history, military and customs.

*

2008-12:一次性塑料袋曾经广泛使用 * As a recent reports reveals, a majority of residents acknowledge that they have been using these bags to take food, books and many other goods.

*

2008-06: 娱乐活动多种多样 * According to a recent survey, a majority of folks admit that they participate in more recreational activities: traveling, sports, watching TV or movies and surfing the Internet.

3.3提炼句式提炼3

原句:During the rush hour, you can see that thousands of people -- man and woman, old and young -- ride their bicycles to work and study.

模板句式:During the rush hour, it can be noticed that thousands of people – men and women, the old and the young- ride bicycles to work and study.

*

练习: 2011-06:现在网上购物已成为一种时尚 * Every day, it can seen that thousands of people – men and women, the old and the young – shop online to buy various goods.

2009-06:越来越多的博物馆免费对外开放的目的是什么?

On the weekends, it can be noticed that hundreds of people – men and women, the old and the young – visit museums to see the exhibits.

请背诵首段现象描述(正面)

In China, have gained great popularity among Chinese people. Based on a report, a – men and women, the old and the young-

第二段原文

easy to ride. riding bicycle is good for health.

cars are faster and more comfortable, they are too expensive. They consume plenty of oil and they pollute the air. Sometimes, it is difficult for a driver to park his car. they often cause traffic jams and accidents.

第二段前半部分:支持:利

easy to ride. riding bicycle is good for health. 3.4写作常用理由积累

分词结构开头: compared with cars;be superior to = 优于;be inferior to = 低于 层次与逻辑:first, second, third, moreover

用于比较的模板句式1: Compared with cars, bicycles are superior in many ways. 11-06:第2个提纲: 网上购物有很多好处, 但也有不少问题

Compared with shopping in departments, online shopping is superior in many ways.

Compared with = In comparison with

请笔记:常用理由:①便宜:cheap / economical / inexpensive

如:First, it is inexpensive to buy books or film tickets online.

② 方便:convenient / convenience / inconvenience

如:Second, this means of shopping brings us great convenience.

③对…有益:be good/ beneficial/ rewarding for

3.5转折模板句式提炼:

原句:Though (转) cars are faster and more comfortable, they are too expensive.

欲抑先扬:Though/Although + 优点,+缺点(弊)

请练习Though 让步状语从句进行转折

2011-06:网上购物有很多好处, 但也有不少问题

Though online shopping is beneficial, it carries some risks.

*

2009-06:1. 越来越多的博物馆免费对外开放的目的是什么? *

2. 也会带来一些问题 *

Although free admission is convenient and beneficial, it does cause some problems. *

2008-12:使用一次性塑料袋带来的问题 * Although these bags are convenient and inexpensive, they result in some negative impacts.

*

2008-06:娱乐可能使人们受益,也可能有危害性 * Although these activities are rewarding, they generate certain negative influences.

第二段后半部分:

They consume plenty of oil and they pollute the air. Sometimes, it is difficult for a driver to park his car.

笔记:consume :time/ energy /money

* 如:Choosing or selecting items in the Internet consumes plenty of time and energy.

第三段:我的看法

* In my opinion, the future of bicycle is very promising. Since China is a developing country and has a large population, I think, riding bicycle is appropriate to Chinese present conditions. It will be an important means of transportation for quite a long time.

3.6观点模板提炼

原句:In my opinion, the future of bicycle is very promising.

*

→ I am convinced that the future of bicycle is very promising. * → what convinces me is that …

3.7高分特征

*

a. 内容相关 (切题即可) *

b. 结构清晰 (新闻联播三段论) *

c. 语言精彩 (句子结构词多变) *

四级写作中一个作文题目做到一例多用的例子 *

例如题目:On English Learning *

1. 英语学习很重要 *

2. 英语者所面临的困难 *

3. 如何学好英语 * 范文:

* In the contemporary world, English learning has gained great popularity and it is of great significance. (主题句) Firstly, based on a survey, a majority of tourists aknowledge that they prefer to speak English when traveling around the world. (调查法表述)Secondly, comapred with the poor English speakers, good English-speakers are superior in many ways. (比较模板句式)

* However, English learners may have a variety of difficulties or troubles in their learning. (主题句) For example, it can be noticed that a large number of students have difficulty memorizing words. Sometimes, it is difficult for them to understand the rules of grammar. In addition, though some are good at reading or writing, they can not express themselves freely in English.

* Then, how to get a good command of (学好) this language? I am convinced that practice makes perfect. Only practice can enable us to speak and write fluently. And it is also through practice that one can master the rules of grammar and remember words, and there is no other way. (强调句式)

请记住内容上:熟悉什么就写什么

小结:写作考试是可以提前准备的,考前一定要多背写有用的表达和句式。考场上尽量写自己背写过的句式和表达,因为背诵的表达首先不容易出错,其次句式和表达往往是亮点句式。一篇高分作文,大概十到十二句左右,只要其中能够写出背诵过五六句优秀表达就高分无忧了。高分定律:写作基础(自己写的表达写正确不扣分)+亮点句式(用背诵的表达提分)

(第4章内容参阅PPT 文件)

第五章 问题解决型写作思路

Review:六种功能段落

问题解决型作文,亦可称为:解决问题型作文。一般在首段现象描述,之后进行问题分析(原因或危害),最后提出建议措施, 例如:2010年6月Topic :Due Attention Should Be Given To Spelling .

1. 如今不少学生在英语学习中不重视拼写

2. 出现这种情况的原因

3. 为了改变这种状况,我认为…

按照功能段落的概念对作文进行备考,该类作文需要背诵四种功能段落:现象描述、问题(危害)分析、原因分析、建议措施。学习重点是思路和表达,请各位考生在背诵的基础上灵活使用。

5.1现象描述段(正反)

现实生活中的现象总是有好坏之分,四级考试中现象描述段也可以分为两种:正面现象和负面现象。如果是负面现象描述,就等同于描述一个需要大家关注并解决的问题;而正面现象就是在宣扬或赞美它。因此本段需要学习描述正面和负面的词汇和表达。

现象描述可以写三个内容:引出现象+具体描述+总结。接下来逐一介绍各个功能句式的写法和用途。

1)引出现象:

* ☆首句

*

负面:a grave problem * → 正面:a common/popular phenomenon/practice

首句2. In the contemporary society, there is no denying the fact that + 客观事实(提纲1). 首句3. On many campuses/ In the contemporary society/ In the present-day society/ In recent decades, is one of the most serious problems with which people are confronted.

☆首句4(正反均可): Nowadays/In the present-day society/In recent decades, it can be noticed that 比较级引出问题)

首句5(正反均可) : In the present-day society/ In recent years, it has become a prevalent/ popular tendency/ trend/ practice for ___ to ___.

首句6: (正面)In recent decades, ____ has/have gained great popularity among _____. popularity → public attention (负面)

首句7:The past years /decades have seen /witnessed the huge/speedy advancement/ development of _____.

段落写作原则:

* 1. 首句正确+开篇精彩,

2)具体描述:

二句1:事实描述二步走

第一步:提纲中涉及谁就说谁

第二步:引申其中的名词(由个体到群体,由小见大)

第三步:给句子加修饰

①状语:1)时间:nowadays ,recently ;2)地点:in our modern society

②列举:such as/including A,B ,C and so forth/

练习:现在很多父母替孩子包办一切

*

ⅰ. Parents do everything for their children. *

ⅱ. A great many parents do everything for their children. * ⅲ. In many families, a great many parents do everything for their children, such as food, clothes, education even marriage.

* (事实描述)An increasing number of individuals/people find it difficult/ hard/ troublesome to _______.

* 2010-12: 父母替孩子包办一切:An increasing number of children find it hard to

*

正面话题:difficult → convenient/ inexpensive/ beneficial … *

2011-06: Online Shopping → * * 越来越多的…→A growing number of → People in growing numbers

二句2:(举例描述1)A case in point of this is /A typical example of this is/This phenomenon can

☆ (举例描述2)Turning a look around, we can find a great many/plenty of/a good deal of examples like this:

冒号改为句号结束该句话)

(举例描述3)

:Our daily life has been filled with a variety of examples like this法同上)

二句4:(调查法描述:)According to a recent survey/ report, a majority of /72.34% of people/ students /individuals /citizens /residents admit/reckon /acknowledge that ___

*

According to …→ Based on … * 正面:a majority of …→ 负面:a minority of …

3)总结问题:承上+启下

* 三句1:(承上)Thus/Therefore/Hence, (启下)how to effectively has become a matter of concern. (用于总结负面话题)

*

实例:2010:父母替孩子包办一切 * Thus, how to strengthen teenagers' independence effectively has become a matter of concern.

* ☆三句2:(承上)As a result/ Consequently/ Accordingly ,(启下)_____ requires/ necessitates/ calls for close attention of the whole society. (总结正面或负面话题) 三句3: (承上) So, (启下1)due attention should be paid to _____/

(或)we should pay due attention to ___.

现象描述写作范例1:Unhealthy Living Habits

1. 现在很多大学生有不健康的生活习惯

2. 这些习惯的危害

3. 我的建议

首段:负面现象描述(各个句子功能及表达)

首句引出现象:On many campuses, there are more unhealthy living habits among college or university students than ever before. 二句具体描述:Turning a look around, we can find a great many examples like this: some stay up late; some are addicted to a variety of computer games; some consume excessively. 三句总结:As a result, these habits call for the close attention of teachers and parents. (60词)

现象描述写作范例2:现象(正面): 2011-06真题

1. 如今网络购物已成为一种时尚

首句引出现象:In the present-day society, it has become a prevalent trend for individuals to shop online. (或:In the present-day society, online shopping has gained great popularity among youngsters. )二句具体描述:A growing number of people find it convenient and inexpensive to buy/purchase via the Internet. (或万能举例法:Turning a look around, we can find plenty of examples like this: Taobao, Dangdang and Amazon are websites where we can buy clothes, books, and other items.) 三句总结话题:Thus, online shopping calls for the attention of the society.

5.2危害分析段

对于解决问题型作文而言,在完成首段描述负面现象之后,按照提纲要求,多数考题需要对所存在的负面现象进行危害或原因分析。我们先进行分析问题(危害)段落讲解。 分析危害的本质就是该现象的弊端,其写作思路可以简化为:主题句+危害1+危害2+总结危害

①分析危害:主题句

主题句1:Such __ is /are bound to (generate/result in/ give rise to/ lead to) (severe/negative/serious) (consequences/effects/impacts) if we keep turning a blind eye to. 万能词汇:phenomenon /phenomena(复数)

☆主题句2: Apparently enough, there are some negative impacts which we should not ignore/neglect. (推荐)

☆主题句3:Quite obviously, it is of great necessity to figure out the negative influences behind it.(推荐)

主题句4:To tackle this problem, it is of great/vital significance to analyze the potential negative impacts of this matter.

*

原因/危害/建议/利弊/意义分析逻辑: * 一个中心,四个基本点:以孩子(学生、事件)为中心,以家长(老师、相关人员)、家庭(学校、管理机构)、社会、法规(道德意识)为基本点

* ☆危害1:(写作中注意使用近义词的并列表达,以增加用词的广度:如2009-12真题,提纲2:博物馆的免费开放所带来的问题。显然,本段本质就是在分析―博物馆免费开放‖这一现象所带来的负面影响。按照―一个中心、四个基本点‖分析,相关人员就是博物馆的访客和管理人员。因此,套用模板句式可以这样来写:To begin with, too many visitors may harm or impair the daily management of the museums.其中harm 和impair 使用or 连接属近义词连用,达到写作用词广度)

* 分析危害:当前和未来

☆危害2:Moreover, (强调句式) it is _____ that exerts/ produces/ generates bad impacts on 危害3:In addition/ Furthermore/ What is worse/ Besides, ___ set bad examples to others, leading them to ______.(对于他人影响)

☆危害4:Then, it is manifest that ___ are developing/gaining ____ at the expense/ cost of ______. 得:convenience/ profits/ pleasure …

失:honesty/ morality / health …

* ☆危害5(结果论):Besides, the results/ influences / impacts/ effects / qualities of ____ are not always as positive/ credible / trustworthy / reliable as expected (because _____).

危害6:(浪费)Besides, it can be argued that _____ means a grave waste of time/energy/natural

resources.

危害总结:

危害总结1:As has been noted, ____ do/does impact our ____ negatively to a large/some extent. ☆危害总结2:To conclude, it is undeniable that the bad impacts of _____ can never be turned a blind eye to.

危害分析范例1:Unhealthy Living Habits

1. 现在很多大学生有不健康的生活习惯

2. 这些习惯的危害

3. 我的建议

二段:大学生不健康生活习惯危害分析(弊) :主题句:Quite obviously, it is of great necessity to figure out the negative influences behind these habits. 危害1:To begin with, staying up late may impair students’ physical health. 危害2:Moreover, it is playing games that exerts negative impacts on students academic performance. (危害3:Then, it can be argued that these behaviors mean a grave waste of time, money and energy. )尾句总结危害:As has been noted, these bad habits do impacts students' life and study to some extent.

5.3原因分析段

当针对现象产生的原因进行分析时,有两种情况:正面现象的原因和负面现象的原因。但是正反现象原因的思路都可以总结为:原因分析段= 原因分析主题句+ 具体原因(2-3个)+原因总结

主题句1:Generally speaking, several reasons can account for this phenomenon. (中性话题) ☆主题句2:In general, there are several reasons/ factors/ causes/ purposes responsible for ____, but the following may be the most critical.(中性话题)

主题句3:It is evident that the causes of ____ are diverse.

主题句4:(To solve/deal with this worrying/disturbing issue,) it is of vital significance to determine /explore investigate the possible reasons.

*

原因/危害/建议/利弊/意义分析逻辑: * 一个中心,四个基本点:以孩子(学生、事件)为中心, 以家长(老师)、家庭(学校、管理机构)、社会、法规(道德意识)为基本点分析

☆原因1: (原因+原因描述:即现象)

In the first place, ______is the root cause. An illustration of this point would be that ______.(或调查法:Based on a survey, ...)

原因2:In the second place, _____ constitute another major reason. Specifically, _______. (原因+具体描述).

原因3:In addition, social prejudice/ignorance plays a critical role in this issue. (忽视往往导致不好的现象)

负面:社会忽视或偏见

例如:2010-06:学生拼写错误较多的原因:教师教学中对拼写的忽视(In addition, teachers’ ignorance plays a critical role in this issue.)

正面:重视:emphasis(重视往往产生好的结果)

原因4:(法规)Besides, the _____ policy being carried out in ______ (doesn’t) enables ____ to _______.

万能词汇:related

原因5: 正面原因

What is more, (强调句式) it is _____ that attracts ____ to ___.

原因总结1:Consequently, ____ has (not) been emphasized.

☆原因总结2:As a result, ____ pay relatively less attention to _____.

less more

原因分析范例:2007-12:What Electives to Choose

1. 学校开始了各种各样的选修课

2. 学生选课有不同的原因

3. 就我而言

原因分析: 学生选课有不同的原因

主题句:In general, there are several factors responsible for students' electives, (but the following may be the most critical). 原因1:In the first place, the interest of students is the root cause. An illustration of this point would be that thousands of students are keen on literature. Therefore, they choose literature courses as electives. 原因2:In the second place, practical needs in society constitute another reason. 原因3:What is more, it is teachers’ fame or reputation that attracts

hopeful and promising. (推荐背诵)

建议措施范例1:Unhealthy Living Habits

1. 现在很多大学生有不健康的生活习惯

2. 这些习惯的危害

3. 我的建议

三段:建议措施段:

* 主题句: Evidently, there are a variety of ways in which we can help students to correct these bad habits. 建议1:On the one hand, it is essential that regulations should be worked out and enforced to regulate students’ behaviors. 建议2:On the other hand, lectures or courses about healthy living are highly expected to be set to guide students. 展望未来: If we spare no effort to do so, a promising and hopeful future of students is just awaiting them.

第六章 观点对比型作文写作思路

首先,观点对比型作文在命题思路上已经有了明显的变化,就是反模板趋势。请关注一下该类作文命题形式的变化。

老题型:Reading Selectively or Extensively?

1. 有人认为读书要有选择

2. 有人认为应该博览群书3. 我的看法

新题型:Online Shopping

1. 现在网上购物已成为一种时尚

2. 网上购物有很多好处(利), 但也有不少问题(弊)

3. 我的建议

因此,建议写作思路如下:

Ⅰ段:现象描述

Ⅱ段:观点阐述:支持方观点(利)

Ⅲ段:观点阐述:支持方观点(弊)

(或将利弊写成一段)

Ⅳ段:我的看法

6.1 支持方观点(利或好处)

Ⅱ段:观点阐述:支持方观点(利)

支持方主题句1:There are some individuals arguing that ____ is of great importance/ benefit. ☆支持方主题句2:A number of individuals favor / advocate _____ ( based on the following viewpoints). (推荐)

支持方主题句3:Those who are in favor of ____ claim that ____ is / are superior to ____ . ☆支持(观点)1:(In their eyes,) without _______ , it is impossible for individuals to ________(只要是分析好处,或支持永远都可以用)

☆支持(观点)2:Another evident advantage/ merit/ benefit is that ____ may offer /provide entertainment/ pleasure/ an enjoyable life. (只要是分析好处,或支持永远都可以用)

☆支持(观点)3: What makes them convinced is that ____ is of great value/necessity /significance for them to _____.

☆支持(观点)4:(From their viewpoints,) _____ will definitely promote the development/efficiency of _____, which, otherwise, would be impossible.

支持(观点)5:They firmly believe that ____ will enable them to enrich their social/academic / professional experience and broaden their horizons.

支持(观点)范例:2008-06: 题目:Recreational Activities

*

1. 娱乐活动多种多样 *

2. 娱乐可能使人们受益,也可能有危害性 *

3. 作为大学生我的看法

*

2. 娱乐可能使人们受益,

* 主题句:There are some individuals arguing that recreational activities are of great benefit. 支持(观点)1:(In their eyes,) without these activities, it is impossible for individuals to reduce/ ease the pressure of work or study. 支持(观点)2:Another evident advantage is that participating in these activities may provide an enjoyable life. (50词)

参考网购好处:There are some individuals arguing that online shopping is of great benefit. 支持(观点)1:(In their eyes,) without this means, it is impossible for individuals to stay home and purchase their favorite goods. 支持(观点)2:Another evident advantage is that online shopping

may provide an enjoyable life, because while shopping one can also listen to music, or watch movies. (61词)

6.2 反方观点(弊或危害)

Ⅱ段:反方观点(弊)

反方观点(弊):本质为分析危害或指出不足,因此用于分析危害的表达也可以用来写反方观点。

主题句1:Even so, others hold a different view that ____ carries some risks/doubts. (推荐使用) 主题句2:Others, however, regard it differently.

* 主题句3: Although it is advantageous /beneficial/ rewarding/ good/popular, others have an opposite perspective.

* Although it is beneficial, Beneficial as it is,(as 引导让步状语从句)

☆反方(观点)1:Firstly, (they deem that) _____ means a great amount of time or money; therefore, _____ may be disturbed.(分析危害亦可从对人们的生活、学习等造成干扰)

☆反方(观点)2:(In their eyes,) ____ calls for/requires/necessities plenty of energy; nonetheless, the result/quality is not as satisfactory as expected. (结果论:从结果角度出发看问题)

反方(观点)3:In addition, what worries many parents/teachers is that some _____ may exert/generate/have negative influence on _____.(For instance, some _____; some _____; some ______. ) (使得…担忧的是:往往不好的事情引起忧虑)

复习:用于分析危害的表达同样可用于写反对的理由

如:反方(观点) 4:To begin with, _____ may damage/ hurt/ harm/ impair/ undermine the ____of ____.

☆反方(观点) 5:Moreover, (强调句式) it is _____ that exerts/ produces/ generates bad impacts on 反方(观点) 6:In addition/ Furthermore/ What is worse/ Besides, ___ set bad examples to others, leading them to ______.(对于他人影响)

☆反方(观点) 7:Then, it is manifest that ___ are developing/gaining ____ at the expense/ cost of ______.

得:convenience/ profits/ pleasure

失:honesty/ morality / health

* ☆反方(观点) 8(结果论):Besides, the results/ influences / impacts/ effects / qualities of ____ are not always as positive/ credible / trustworthy / reliable as expected (because _____). 反方(观点) 9:(浪费)Besides, it can be argued that _____ means a grave waste of time/energy/natural resources.

反方(观点)范例:2008-06:

*

题目:Recreational Activities *

1. 娱乐活动多种多样 *

2. 娱乐可能使人们受益,也可能有危害性 *

3. 作为大学生我的看法 *

反方观点:(娱乐活动)也有一定危害性 * 主题句:Even so, others hold a different view that some recreational activities carry some risks. 反方(观点)1:Firstly, they deem that these activities mean a great amount of time and energy; therefore, their normal work may be disturbed. 反方(观点)2:In addition, what worries many parents or teachers is that some ne gative games may exert bad impacts on students’ academic performance.

6.3 阐述我的观点

我的观点可以是支持(再次说明其好处)、反对(再次强调其危害或弊端)、还可以是平衡性观点(不否认其利弊,提出新的看法)。

Ⅲ段:我的观点 3句:我的观点+理由++展望未来

我的观点1:As far as I am concerned, the advantages of _____ will far outweigh its / their disadvantages.

我的观点2:I, as well as many others, am convinced that _____ will do more good than harm. 我的观点3:As a college student, I am firmly convinced that ____.

我的观点4:(折中型)Who is right? As far as I am concerned, it is advisable to handle this issue in a comprehensive way. On the one hand, it must be admitted that ___ is/are an effective way to __. On the other hand, ___ should not be conducted in a wrong way. Thus, as long as ___reasonable, we should accept, use and propagandize it/them.

理由句:写法同第一段和第二段

展望未来:同问题解决型展望未来写法。

第七章 现象阐述型作文

2009-12:Creating Green a Campus

1. 建设绿色校园十分重要

2. 绿色校园不仅指绿色环境

3. 为了建设绿色校园我们应该。。。

意义的本质为利或好处,因此用于支持方观点的表达可以用于写意义。同样―一个中心,四个基本点‖的分析思路同样可以应用于分析意义或好处。

意义阐述段写作思路:主题句+意义1+意义2

*

如:建设绿色校园十分重要 *

主题句: * Apparently enough, it is of great significance for universities or colleges to construct green campuses. 意义1:First, without green environment, it is impossible for students to enjoy their rosy life in the Ivory Tower. 意义2:Then, creating green campuses is of great necessity to strengthen students’ awareness of environmental protection.

2. 绿色校园不仅指绿色环境(本质:现象描述)

In addition to environment, green campuses refer to students’ behaviors or spirits. (比较级引出话题)However, it can be noticed that there are much more acts among students which are not green. (举例法描述)Turning a look around, we can find a great many examples: Some students cheat in tests; some waste food on canteens; some throw litters everywhere; some watch pornographic or violent videos in dorms.

第三段:建议措施段(略: 请思考如何写)

Evidently, there are a variety of ways in which green campuses can be created. Firstly, lectures or courses on ―Green Life‖ should be set to guide students. Secondly, students should educate, advocate and encourage their classmates, friends and acquaintances to refuse any ―Un-gree n Behaviors‖.

* 其他现象阐述型作文范例:志愿者活动

*

题目: On Volunteering Activities. *

1. 越来越多的人从事志愿者工作 *

2. 志愿者工作的意义 * 3. 作为大学生,应该怎么做

第八章 四级写作必备应急文章

题目:Internet

* 现象意义段:

现象:Owing to the speedy economic development, the number of people who use the Internet has considerably increased/declined.意义:It is universally acknowledged that the Internet plays a crucial role in modern society.

利弊分析:主题句:Due attention has to be paid to the issue of Internet. (利) With the reform and opening -up in recent decades, people in mounting numbers have come to realize the significance/convenience /efficiency of Internet. (弊)Unfortunately, many of them utilize the Internet in an irrational way. And if we let this situation continue as it is, we do not know where humans will be in the forthcoming future.

建议措施:主题句:Accordingly, it is imperative for us to take drastic measures. 建议1:To begin with, we should appeal to the authorities to make strict laws to regulate the Internet. 建议2:In addition, we should cultivate the awareness of people that the Internet is essential to us. Only in this way can we reverse this disturbing trend illustrated above.

我的看法段:Obviously, the Internet, like anything else, has more than one side. While they are so indispensable to mankind, they also bring us serious problems. It is only hoped that mankind, while making the most out of the Internet, will eventually find a satisfactory solution to the problems caused by it.

第九章 应用文和图表作文模板思路

9.1应用文

段落分为三个部分:1. 固定开头;2. 中间按提纲要求写;3. 尾段感谢期待

应用文固定开头:

首段首句写法:

读者分为两类:熟人 (acquaintance);陌生人 (stranger)

a. 陌生人:首句自我介绍:

I am Li Ming, a ___ who _____ .

I am a senior from the Department of Business Administration of Beijing University.

Senior → freshman/sophomore/junior

b. 熟人:首句It is 句式

It is so great/pitiful to do / that …

应用文首段2句:目的(通知、书信、海报…)

T his letter/letter/poster is written for the purpose of _____.

中间段落写法:转化为六种功能段落

如:2002-01:A Letter to the University President about the Canteen Service on Campus

假设你是李明,请你就本校食堂的状况给校长写一封信,内容应设计食堂的饭菜质量、价格、环境、服务等,可以是表扬,可以是批评建议,也可以兼而有之。

*

尾段:期待+感谢 *

感谢:Many thanks to you for your favorable help. *

期待:I, on behalf of ___, hope/expect that _____. * On behalf of → as well as many other ___

2002-01书信范文:

Dear sir:

首段:I am Li Ming, a sophomore from the Department of Business Administration. This letter is written for the purpose of conveying some complaints about our Campus Canteen.

二段:现象描述:Based on a recent survey by Students’ Union, a majority of students reckon that the quality of food is not delicious as expected. In addition, it can be noticed that the price is much higher than before, and an increasing number of students find it hard to afford the food. Lastly, what worries many students is that the service and environment on canteens may impair students’ health.

建议措施段:Evidently, there are a variety of ways in which universities can improve canteen service. Firstly, regulations should be worked out and enforced to limit the price and promote the quality. Then, it is advisable to build a new canteen; therefore, a system of competition can be

introduced.

I, on behalf of all students, expect that effective actions are taken. Many thanks for your favorable help!

Yours Sincerely

Li Ming

9.2图表作文

该类作文近几年考察较少,但稍有必要准备。该类作文起来只需要准备第一段(图表描述)即可,第二段和第三段已经被涵盖在六种功能段落之内。其写作思路如下: 首段:图表描述

二段:分析原因/危害/意义

三段:建议措施

例文:

From the diagram, we can see that between 1900 and 1950, the population of the state remained a little less than 200,000. (首句:分段描述变化)Since 1951 it has been increasing rapidly. (二句:再次分时间段描述变化) In the past four decades, the population has gone up by over three times.(尾句:总体描述变化)

原因分析:There are several reasons for the increase. Firstly, the open policy being carried out in the state has enabled many foreign laborers to work there. Secondly, the beautiful scenery of the small island has attracted many tourists and some of them have been permitted to settle there. In addition, the government may not have realized the necessity of controlling population.

危害分析:If this trend continues, it is no doubt that the small state will suffer from various kinds of problems caused by overpopulation, such as lack of land resources, food shortage and traffic congestion. Therefore, actions should be taken to control the increase of the population.

第十章 总结

10.1写作时间安排

总计:30分钟

1. 审题: 识别提纲功能 2-3分钟

2. 以关键词形式打草稿3-4 分钟

3. 正文写作 18-20 分钟

4. 检查修正 2-3分钟

10.2日常写作学习方法:

1. 背写:一个单词、标点都不错

2. 仿写:写作思路和表达

3. 翻译:英→ 汉→英→ 背写

4. 限时训练:写→ 自己改→对比范文

结课祝福:

做最坏的打算、

尽最大的努力、

得最大的成功。

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