大学英语四级考试写作篇3,4
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大学英语四级考试写作篇(三)——书信

2000年开始,四级作文的命题趋势由议论文写作,逐渐倾向于更能体现实用意义,体现考生实力的记叙文、描写文,以及书信、演讲类应用文写作。应用文是考查考生英语表达基本功的最佳方式之一。在类型上包含有咨询、投诉、介绍、请求、建议、道歉、邀请、感谢等私人信件和公务信函,以及开幕、欢迎、等致辞内容。此外,便签、通知和广告的写法也属于应用文范畴。

信函,作为出现频率较高的作文试题,是大学英语四级考试取得好成绩的重要准备项目。在这类题型中,考生被给定某个特定场景,要求在理解的基础上给相关人士写一封短信,在信中明确表达写信的原因、动机、目的和愿望等。信件内容多种多样,都源于日常生活,只要掌握英语书信的基本格式,掌握其写作语言,就能在应试中写出高质量的文章,得到高分。

[审题思路]

在写书信时,除了信首的称呼和信尾的签名、落款之外,信的主要内容体现在信的主体部分。一般来说,信的主体包括以下三个部分:

简短的问候,自我介绍,引出话题,提出写信的目的。

就上面所提及的问题,运用举例、比较、因果等手段进行展开阐释。

总结补充,提出解决问题的方案或对问题的解决表示期盼。并以简单的结束语收尾。

[写作模式]

书信类的作文可以是商业信函(business letter) ,也可以是私人信函(personal letter) ,遇到题目时要能迅速作出判断,以便进一步确定选词、造句、行文的风格。商业信函,一般格式严整、语言正式,写作时要注意其固定的客套语言和行文模式。类型有:咨询信、申请信、推荐信、邀请信、投诉信等以及与之相应的回复信件。私人信函,是熟人见联络感情的方式,语言较为随意,格式上也有很多省略。信件的主要内容包括以下几点:

称呼(Addressing)

写信的目的及自我介绍(Purpose of the Letter & Self-introduction)

背景情况介绍(Background Information)

解释情况、说明问题(Explanation Analysis)

希望与要求(Need & Demand)

结束语(Closing Remarks)

签名(Signature)

[常见格式]

书信作为应用文体,具有不同于一般作文的特殊格式,但是大体上也可以固定为“三段式”。一封完整的书信包括信首、正文和信尾三个部分,而正文部分就可以按照三段式的方法展开内容叙述。

信首:信首要求给出写信人的地址及写信的日期。地址在上,日期在下,位于首页右上角。地址写法按照从“小”到“大”的顺序,即:门牌号-路名-城市-省-国家。该部分内容可按照要求灵活增减。

正文:正文可以套用“三段式”模式。

简短问候,自我介绍,引出话题,提出写信目的。

阐释问题,运用举例、比较、因果等手段展开。

总结补充,提出解决方案或表示期待问题的解决。并以简单的结束语收尾。

信尾:结尾谦称,并署名。

例文:

117B Washington Ave

Charlottesville, 22903

U.S.A

April 24, 2004

The Manager,

Central Hotel, Brighton

England

Dear Sir/Madam,

I am writing at the suggestion of a friend who stayed at your hotel last year and warmly recommended you to me.

I expect to arrive in Brighton on June 9th and would like a single room with a private bath. I shall be staying for five days and would like to have all my meals at your hotel.

Would you please let me know whether there is a room available and how much my stay will cost?

Looking forward to hearing from you soon.

Yours very truly,

Jack Smith

信首

写信人的地址日期

收信人姓名地址

称呼

正文

引出话题

展开阐释

内容完整

条理清楚

文字连贯

表示期盼

信尾

结尾谦称

署名

[常用词句]

书信开头称呼与结尾:

开头

结尾

Name unknown

Dear Sir,

Dear Madam,

Dear Professor,

Dear President,

Yours faithfully,

Yours truly,

Very sincerely yours,

Name known

Dear Mr. Jenkins,

Dear Ms. Smith,

Dear Dr. Write,

Yours,

Yours sincerely,

Yours cordially,

Friends

Dear Sue,

Dear Michael,

Dear Mary,

Best regards,

Best wishes,

Lovingly youres,

Certificate or introduction

To whom it may concern,

Sincerely yours,

书信开头部分,应尽量做到开门见山表达意见,与汉语开场白的寒暄方式不同。常用的表达句型有:

My purpose of writing this letter is to…

I am writing to…

You will be very glad to hear that…

The reason that I write this letter is to…

I was surprised to learn that…

I am sorry it has taken me so long to reply to your letter but…

I would like to inquire about…

I apologize for…

I wish to apply for a position with your company.

书信结束语主要是进一步明确写信人的要求,希望对方重视自己的意见、建议、请求或者致歉,尽快回复信件。结束语应与正文内容首尾呼应,使信件显得更完整,不能省略。常用表达句型有:

I am looking forward to your reply.

Please be kind enough to take my request into your consideration.

Please accept my apologies once again.

Thank you for your attention to this matter.

If you need any help, do not hesitate to contact us.

I do hope you will…

书信主体因信件类型不同,内容各不相同,主要是介绍背景、反映问题、解释说明事件、表示感谢等。可以按照段落写作来布局,注意以下几个方面:

条理清楚,多用序数词来表达层次,如first, second等;

使用适当连接词,表明句子间关系,如therefore, however等;

信息明确、简洁,切忌空话、大话,不要过分谦恭或客气;

题目要求的要点不可遗漏,可适当增补一些理由、原因来丰富主体内容。

(韩巍巍)

大学英语四级写作篇(四)——谚语的使用

语言源于生活,源于劳动人民在生活和劳作中约定俗成的交流习惯,谚语更是从中提炼出来的精华,寓意深刻,富有哲理和智慧。谚语的主要特点是言简意赅,用日常生活中的具体事例来说明带有普遍意义的道理。不论是中文还是英文都有着数以万计的谚语,在英语写作中,正确使用谚语对提高写作水平有着很大的帮助,为所创作的文章起到画龙点精的作用。尤其是在四级英语临场考试中,谚语的使用能够使作文语言流畅,生动活泼,处处闪现亮彩。恰到好处的谚语不仅能体现考生扎实的英语语言功底,丰富的英文知识,灵活的语言表达能力,而且更容易使作文从众多同题文章中脱颖而出,获得写作高分。

标题

谚语在作文中出现的位置比较灵活,可根据具体情景的需要加以设计。除四级考试给定试题以外,如要求自行拟订题目,英语谚语短句是很好的选择。谚语用句短小精悍、音韵和谐、琅琅上口,并且语义直白,寓意深刻,让人一目了然。例如一些简洁的谚语短句,都可以用来作为文章标题:

While there is life, there is hope. 留得青山在,不怕没柴烧。

Great hopes make great man. 伟大的理想造就伟大的人。

God helps those who help themselves. 天助自助者。

In doing we learn. 实践长才干。

Two heads are better than one. 三个臭皮匠,顶个诸葛亮。

Constant dropping wears the stone. 滴水穿石。

Better late than never. 迟做总比不做好;晚来总比不来好。

Lifeless, faultless. 只有死人才不犯错误。

A bold attempt is half success. 勇敢的尝试是成功的一半。

(Explanation: people are loath to refer to defects in their possessions or their family members.) 连接词

连接词写中文作文时, 我们想引用俗语谚语时, 一般都有" 所谓" ; " 古语有云" ; " 曾听过一句话" ;" 有一谚语是这样说的...." 等说法,以此来做自然衔接。转折词(transitional words)扮演的重要角色是:承先启后,使句子紧凑,段落相吸,对文章结构,有良性作用。如果没有采用转折词的习惯,就会使文句松散,上下文七零八乱,应试中应注意避免。

常见句型有:

Just as the saying goes...

As the proverb goes...

As the old saying goes...

A saying goes like this...

除了句型衔接转折以外,很多常用字词能在句与句之间、段与段之间起到点睛作用。主要转折词归类分列如下,在应试文中可加以参考,多多安插使用。

表示“尤有进者”:again; also; then; besides; further; furthermore; moreover; next; in addition, etc.

例如:Jason teaches diligently. Besides, he writes a lot.

English is a useful language. For one thing, it is an official language in the UN. Then, it is widely used in business, science and technology.

表示“反意见”:but; however; still; yet; after all; for all that; in spite of; on the

contrary; on the other hand, etc.

例如:Jim is intelligent but lazy.

Singapore is not a big country. On the contrary, it is very small.

表示“因果关系”:therefore; so; hence; thus; accordingly; consequently; as a

result, etc.

例如:Some people are over-ambitious. As a result, they are usually unhappy.

Tom did not work hard; hence, he failed.

表示“比较”:likewise; similarly; in a like manner, etc.

例如:You cannot writes without a pen. Likewise, you cannot cook without rice.

No one is allowed to speak Mandarin in an English class. Similarly, no one is allowed to speak English in a Mandarin class.

表示“举例示范”:for example; in other words; for instance; that is, etc.

例如:There are some common errors in his composition. For instance, it is wrong to use "he" to replace "the queen".

表示“结束”:to sum up; in brief; in short; on the whole; to conclude, etc.

例如:Some say Singapore is a nice place to live in. Others say it is not so nice. It is too competitive. In short, some like Singapore; some do not.

常用谚语

另外,在行文写作中,注意使用一些常用谚语,可以使笔法自然,简洁明了。更加符合英文表达方式和习惯。考生们在平时要多积累类似的语句,熟练掌握,以便应试时游刃有余地恰当选用。常用的英语谚语如下:

in everyone’s mouth. 脍炙人口

to kick against the pricks 螳臂挡车

to give the last measure of devotion 鞠躬尽瘁

to suffer for one’s wisdom 聪明反被聪明误

to convert defeat into victory 转败为胜

beyond one’s grasp 鞭长莫及

to be severe with oneself and lenient with others 严以责己宽以待人

a heart of steel 铁石心肠

to be guided by destiny 听天由命

to harp on the same string 旧调重弹

It ’s a matter of time . 这是迟早的问题。

You can count on me. 你可以信得过我。

He see things not people. 他论事不论人。

We sang the same songs. 我们志同道合。

Man proposes and god disposes. 谋事在人成事在天。

Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。

I'm trying to make ends meet. 我尽力要使收支平衡。

If you wish to be the best man, you must suffer the bitterest of the bitter. 吃得苦中苦, 方为人上人。

Self-trust is the first secret of success. 自信心是成功的首要关键。

The secret of success is constancy of purpose. 成功的秘绝在于目标坚定有恒。

(文英)