专四写作绝招
初一 记叙文 18748字 111人浏览 HR张鹏sky

写作绝招[zt]

写作绝招

开头万能公式:

1. 开头万能公式一:名人名言

有人问了,“我没有记住名言,怎么办?尤其是英语名言?”,很好办:编!

原理:我们看到的东西很多都是创造出来的,包括我们欣赏的文章也是,所以尽管编,但是一定要听起来很有道理呦!而且没准将来我们就是名人呢!对吧?

经典句型:

A proverb says, “ You are only young once.” (适用于已记住的名言)

It goes without saying that we cannot be young forever. (适用于自编名言)

更多经典句型:

As everyone knows, No one can deny that„

2. 开头万能公式二:数字统计

原理:要想更有说服力,就应该用实际的数字来说明。

原则上在议论文当中十不应该出现虚假数字的,可是在考试的时候哪管那三七二十一,但编无妨,只要我有东西写就万事大吉了。所以不妨试用下面的句型:

According to a recent survey, about 78.9% of the college students wanted to further their study after their graduation.

看起来这个数字文邹邹的,其实都是编造出来的,下面随便几个题目我们都可以这样编造:

Honesty

根据最近的一项统计调查显示,大学生向老师请假的理由当中78%都是假的。

Travel by Bike

根据最近的一项统计调查显示,85%的人在近距离旅行的时候首选的交通工具是自行车。

Youth

根据最近的一项统计调查显示,在某个大学,学生的课余时间的70%都是在休闲娱乐。

Five-day Work Week Better than Six-day Work?

根据最近的一项统计调查显示,98%的人同意每周五天工作日。

更多句型:

A recent statistics shows that „

写作绝招

结尾万能公式:

1. 结尾万能公式一:如此结论

说完了,毕竟要归纳一番,相信各位都有这样的经历,领导长篇大论,到最后终于冒出个“总而言之”之类的话,我们马上停止开小差,等待领导说结束语。也就是说,开头很好,也必然要有一个精彩的结尾,让读者眼前一亮,这样,你就可以拿高分了!比如下面的例子:

Obviously (此为过渡短语), we can draw the conclusion that good manners arise from politeness and respect for others.

如果读者很难“显而见之”,但说无妨,就当读者的眼光太浅罢了!

更多过渡短语:

to sum up, in conclusion, in brief, on account of this, thus

更多句型:

Thus, it can be concluded that„, Therefore, we can find that„

2. 结尾万能公式二:如此建议

如果说“如此结论”是结尾最没用的废话,那么“如此建议”应该是最有价值的废话了,因为这里虽然也是废话,但是却用了一个很经典的虚拟语气的句型。拽!

Obviously, it is high time that we took some measures to solve the problem.

这里的虚拟语气用得很经典,因为考官本来经常考这个句型,而如果我们自己写出来,你说考官会怎么想呢?

更多句型:

Accordingly, I recommend that some measures be taken.

Consequently, to solve the problem, some measures should be taken.

写作绝招

写作的“七项基本原则”:

一、 长 短 句原则

工作还得一张一驰呢,老让读者读长句,累死人!写一个短小精辟的句子,相反,却可以起到画龙点睛的作用。而且如果我们把短句放在段首或者段末,也可以揭示主题:

As a creature, I eat; as a man, I read. Although one action is to meet the primary need of my body and the other is to satisfy the intellectual need of mind, they are in a way quite similar.

如此可见,长短句结合,抑扬顿挫,岂不爽哉?牢记!

强烈建议:在文章第一段(开头)用一长一短,且先长后短;在文章主体部分,要先用一个短句解释主要意思,然后在阐述几个要点的时候采用先短后长的句群形式,定会让主体部分妙笔生辉!文章结尾一般用一长一短就可以了。

二、 主 题 句原则

国有其君,家有其主,文章也要有其主。否则会给人造成“群龙无首”之感!相信各位读过一些破烂文学,故意把主体隐藏在文章之内,结果造成我们稀里糊涂!不知所云!所以奉劝各位一定要写一个主题句,放在文章的开头(保险型)或者结尾,让读者一目了然,必会平安无事!

特别提示:隐藏主体句可是要冒险的!

To begin with, you must work hard at your lessons and be fully prepared before the exam(主题句). Without sufficient preparation, you can hardly expect to answer all the questions correctly.

三、 一 二 三原则

领导讲话总是第一部分、第一点、第二点、第三点、第二部分、第一点„ 如此罗嗦。可毕竟还是条理清楚。考官们看文章也必然要通过这些关键性的“标签”来判定你的文章是否结构清楚,条理自然。破解方法很简单,只要把下面任何一组的词汇加入到你的几个要点前就清楚了。

1)first, second, third, last(不推荐,原因:俗)

2)firstly, secondly, thirdly, finally(不推荐,原因:俗)

3)the first, the second, the third, the last(不推荐,原因:俗)

4)in the first place, in the second place, in the third place, lastly(不推荐,原因:俗)

5)to begin with, then, furthermore, finally(强烈推荐)

6)to start with, next, in addition, finally(强烈推荐)

7)first and foremost, besides, last but not least(强烈推荐)

8)most important of all, moreover, finally

9)on the one hand, on the other hand(适用于两点的情况)

10)for one thing, for another thing(适用于两点的情况)

建议:不仅仅在写作中注意,平时说话的时候也应该条理清楚!

四、 短语优先原则

写作时,尤其是在考试时,如果使用短语,有两个好处:其一、用短语会使文章增加亮点,如果老师们看到你的文章太简单,看不到一个自己不认识的短语,必然会看你低一等。相反,如果发现亮点—精彩的短语,那么你的文章定会得高分了。其二、关键时刻思维短路,只有凑字数,怎么办?用短语是一个办法!比如:

I cannot bear it.

可以用短语表达:I cannot put up with it.

I want it.

可以用短语表达:I am looking forward to it.

这样字数明显增加,表达也更准确。

五、 多实少虚原则

原因很简单,写文章还是应该写一些实际的东西,不要空话连篇。这就要求一定要多用实词,少用虚词。我这里所说的虚词就是指那些比较大的词。比如我们说一个很好的时候,不应该之说nice 这样空洞的词,应该使用一些诸如generous, humorous, interesting, smart, gentle, warm-hearted, hospital 之类的形象词。再比如:

走出房间,general 的词是:walk out of the room

但是小偷走出房间应该说:slip out of the room

小姐走出房间应该说:sail out of the room

小孩走出房间应该说:dance out of the room

老人走出房间应该说:stagger out of the room

所以多用实词,少用虚词,文章将会大放异彩!

六、 多变句式原则

1)加法(串联)

都希望写下很长的句子,像个老外似的,可就是怕写错,怎么办,最保险的写长句的方法就是这些,可以在任何句子之间加and, 但最好是前后的句子又先后关系或者并列关系。比如说:

I enjor music and he is fond of playing guitar.

如果是二者并列的,我们可以用一个超级句式:

Not only the fur coat is soft, but it is also warm.

其它的短语可以用:

besides, furthermore, likewise, moreover

2)转折(拐弯抹角)

批评某人缺点的时候,我们总习惯先拐弯抹角说说他的优点,然后转入正题,再说缺点,这种方式虽然阴险了点,可毕竟还比较容易让人接受。所以呢,我们说话的时候,只要在要点之前先来点废话,注意二者之间用个专这次就够了。

The car was quite old, yet it was in excellent condition.

The coat was thin, but it was warm.

更多的短语:

despite that, still, however, nevertheless, in spite of, despite, notwithstanding

3)因果(so, so, so)

昨天在街上我看到了一个女孩,然后我主动搭讪,然后我们去咖啡厅,然后我们认识了,然后我们成为了朋友„可见,讲故事的时候我们总要追求先后顺序,先什么,后什么,所以然后这个词就变得很常见了。其实这个词表示的是先后或因果关系!

The snow began to fall, so we went home.

更多短语:

then, therefore, consequently, accordingly, hence, as a result, for this reason, so that

4)失衡句(头重脚轻,或者头轻脚重)

有些人脑袋大,身体小,或者有些人脑袋小,身体大,虽然我们不希望长成这个样子,可如果真的是这样了,也就必然会吸引别人的注意力。文章中如果出现这样的句子,就更会让考官看到你的句子与众不同。其实就是主语从句,表语从句,宾语从句的变形。

举例:This is what I can do.

Whether he can go with us or not is not sure.

同样主语、宾语、表语可以改成如下的复杂成分:

When to go, Why he goes away„

5)附加(多此一举)

如果有了老婆,总会遇到这样的情况,当你再讲某个人的时候,她会插一句说,我昨天见过他;或者说,就是某某某,如果把老婆的话插入到我们的话里面,那就是定语从句和同位语从句或者是插入语。 The man whom you met yesterday is a friend of mine.

I don’t enjoy that book you are reading.

Mr liu, our oral English teacher, is easy-going.

其实很简单,同位语--要解释的东西删除后不影响整个句子的构成;定语从句—借用之前的关键词并且用其重新组成一个句子插入其中,但是whom or that 关键词必须要紧跟在先行词之前。

6)排比(排山倒海句)

文学作品中最吸引人的地方莫过于此,如果非要让你的文章更加精彩的话,那么我希望你引用一个个的排比句,一个个得对偶句,一个个的不定式,一个个地词,一个个的短语,如此表达将会使文章有排山倒海之势!

Whether your tastes are modern or traditional, sophisticated or simple, there is plenty in London for you.

Nowadays, energy can be obtained through various sources such as oil, coal, natural gas, solar heat, the wind and ocean tides.

We have got to study hard, to enlarge our scope of knowledge, to realize our potentials and to pay for our life. (气势恢宏)

要想写出如此气势恢宏的句子非用排比不可!

七、 挑战极限原则

既然十挑战极限,必然是比较难的,但是并非不可攀!

原理:在学生的文章中,很少发现诸如独立主格的句子,其实也很简单,只要花上5分钟的时间看看就可以领会,它就是分词的一种特殊形式,分词要求主语一致,而独立主格则不然。比如:

The weather being fine, a large number of people went to climb the Western Hills. Africa is the second largest continent, its size being about three times that of China. 如果您可一些出这样的句子,不得高分才怪!

写作绝招

文章主体段落三大杀手锏:

一、举实例

思维短路,举实例!提出一个观点,举实例!提出一个方案,举实例!而且者也是我们揭示一个观点最好的方式,任何情况下,只要我们无法继续文章,不管三七二十一,尽管举例子!

In order to attract more customers, advertisers have adopted every possible stimulative factor in making ads, such as sound, light, colours, cartoon films and human performance. For instance, to advertise a certain food, advertisers will ask an actor or actress to sit at a t

able and devour the seemingly delicious food while they fime him or her.

更多句型:

To take „ as an example, One example is„, Another example is„, for example

二、做比较

方法:写完一个要点,比较与之相似的;又写完一个要点,再比较与之相反的;

世界上没有同样的指纹,没有相同的树叶,文章亦同,只有通过比较,你才会发现二者的相同点(throu gh comparison)和不同点(through contrast)。下面是一些短语:

相似的比较:

in comparison, likewise, similarly, in the same manner

相反的比较:

on the other hand, conversely, whereas, while, instead, nevertheless, in contrast, on the contrary, compared with „, „

三、换言之

没话说了,可以换一句话再说,让你的文章在多一些字,或者文邹邹地说,是让读者更充分的理解你的观点。

实际就是重复重复再重复!下面的句子实际上就三个字 I love you!

I am enthusiastic about you. That is to say, I love you.

I am wild about you. In other words, I have fallen in love with you.

或者上面我们举过的例子:

I cannot bear it.

可以用短语表达:I cannot put up with it.

因此可以这样说:I cannot bear it. That is to say, I cannot put up with it or I am fed up with it.

更多短语:

in more difficult language, in simpler words, put it more simply

学生生活,家庭生活,科技发展,社会话题

题型

1)A or B

2) 支持或者反对

3)自选类,自圆其说。

写作要点

1. 思路清晰,理由合理

2. 避免政治上的敏感话题

3. 道德水准

4. 理由充分,要有逻辑性

5. 要用事例说服

6. 语言能力的提高

a ) 同义词的互换使用

b ) 专业词汇

c ) 简单的词用在合适的位置上

d ) 修辞,引用

e ) 文章的句式有变化,比如派比,双重否定。

习作方法

三遍式 → 写、检查、范文 → 用语、数据、思路

TOEFL 作文通用理由:

效率 方便 空间 安全 耐久 经济 健康 性格 成就 乐趣 情感 交流 经验 他人 作文的结构:

开头部分:

1. 派比,反问句式

2. 具体事例,细节化的思维

3. 从话题的背景到观点

4. 使用定义式的方法开头

5. 开头引用一些与主题紧密相关的名言、谚语、电影中的名句

中间部分:

1. 详略得当

2. 引导各段的引导词的风格要一致

3. 各段写作的TOPIC 句,用词的尺度,主题句的抽象概括。

结尾部分

1. 避免强烈反诘语气,过于总结的语句也不是很好

2. 让步式结尾

3. 正面总结

4. 引用一些较相关的名句,一般开头结尾都引用,会很震撼。

TOEFL 作文的重要题材:

1. COMPUTER 话题

Update 更新

Monitor 屏幕

缺点:健康 安全 性格 交流方面

rediation computer disease hacker viras(CIH)

face-to-face communication

找资料:《TIMES 》《财富》等原文杂志中相关的资料

来自红岩的网上复习笔记:

With the introduction of computers to the modern world, books,

the traditional medium, are more and more challenged. Libraries often face the dilemma of investing on computers or books. With all aspects carefully considered,an investment on computers would be a better choice.

When equipped with computers, a library may run more efficiently than ever. Students or faculties may get useful inFORMation as fast as the computer can. A student may find it easier to type in only a key word and get the desired results,which, if done with books, may well need a long time scanning among many related books; A researcher may feel it more convenient to find an article on those Engineering CD series than in a paper book. With the development of computer technology, such as the increasement of CPU rate, memory, or cache on the mainbord, the efficiency of getting inFORMation can only be

accelerated, whereas a man’s reading speed is normally limited to some extent.

The efficiency of getting inFORMation is the users’ major concern. While for the librarians, what they care most is how to store as much as possible inFORMation within limited space.

A computer has a large storage capacity. When a book with

750,000Chinese characters is stored as electronic text, it only take about 1M bytes on the hard disk. When stored on a normal CD with 640MB capacity, when these CDs are packed in locks, much precious space will be spared for other uses.

Unlike a book, a mortal physical medium, a computer may keep all data on its disk safe and sound for a long time. It is very easy for us to copy, backup, or transfer those data to rewritable CDs or other recording materials.

The last but not the least. Internet may provide these computers with more capabilities of future inFORMation exchanges.

Books, certainly, have their own merits. As a traditional medium, people have reasons for cherishing them. They are easy to carry, conveniently read without consumption of any other type of energy. However, for a modern library, computers, presenting so many merits and possibilities, can be more reasonably treated as a wiser choice.

2. 人际关系话题

∆; 你认为your best friend应该具备什么样的品质(quality ) 诚实、幽默、慷慨等等

3. MONEY问题

∆; 你是否支持向朋友借钱(borrow money from your friends) 是:可以增进朋友的感情,比银行方便等等

否:万一不还怎么办?不安全

4. 环境话题

破坏、解决

a) 法律保护

b) 通过媒体教育

c) 学校教育

d) white pollution 科技发展来解决

--

人是为活着本身而活着的,而不是为活着之外的任何事物所活着。

1、包装

①书写、习惯

②格式(如书信右上角的时间)、结构(两头小、中间大、字数分配50-80-50)

↗长句↖

③选词造句→短句←交错使用(15句,1/3写长句,30字左右,长句后接一两句短句过

渡)

↘难句:强调句(最好使)

2、货真价实

↗情景文字

①不要跑题(跑题则一半分数以下),审题(三维)→提纲

↘图或表上的信息

②内容衔接(思维跨度不要太大)→总述和概述

↘注意句子完整

③方法多样性

一、大作文

(一)描绘:描述性语言、可加议论性观点

(二)议述:作者意图、个人评价

(三)总结(好的:预期一下未来;坏的:采取措施防治)/ 例证

具体讲:

(一) 描绘:总体背景介绍+细节刻画图或表上的信息

1、背景介绍

例一:人类克隆(试管婴儿 / 一个老婆四个一模一样的老公,“谁才是真的?”)

The problem of the use of genetic technologies on human being has

[caused/aroused public concern]/[loomed up/cropped up as a burning/challenging topic].

例二:中国青少年犯罪比率上升(表)

In the recent years, China experienced/witnessed/was plagued with an alarming increase in juvenile delinquency.

例三:人和社会的发展与环境的协调(寓意图、对比图)

Currently, the topic/phenomenon of environment versus development has been in the limelight. Nowhere is the clash more evident/visible than in China, where the largest population confronts deforestation, pollution and acid rain on a range scale.

2、细节描绘

例:04年作文题

The (a set of) cartoon depicts a vivid scene in which an athlete dripping sweat is rushing to the end. Unquestionably/Undoubtedly/Beyond doubt, he wins the game but it is not the key message conveyed/implied/delivered by the picture. Apparently/Basically, the striking feature is that there is a line marked as both “the start ” and “the end”, which means after the player came to the finishing-line, a new race is waiting to him.

另:对于图表描述不光要用上升下降等词,还要使用比较句型结构。

compare with/to

„as much as that„

more than, less than

by 2000, [the number reach the peak/bottom]/[the largest number appeared].

(二) 议述

引言句+分论点、事实信息罗列

如:As a matter of fact, the purpose of the drawer/drawing is to make us [pay

high/more attention to„]/[rethink/have a fresh look at„]. 例一:兼职part-time job brainstorming I. Advantages: ↗pocket money

①make money →follow interest

↘tuition fees ↗on one’s own

↗life →make friends

②experience ↘custom, culture

↘work →lay a solid foundation for future career

↘be familiar with new fields II. Disadvantages: ①money: be so young that they are bound to be cheated/be induced to do„ ②experience →science and technology accelerate/speed up → invalid ↘hurt/injury/do harm to/endanger

III. what should we do?

①a second language

②computer operation and application

③后果degrade one’s academic performance

完整表述:

Acquiring knowledge at school without practical work experience is like working on one leg. Occasionally, although a student could attain some experience, nevertheless/yet such experience too frequently is [valid or even harmful]/[a bane rather than a boon]. That is to say, its demerits outweigh merits. Why? This is natural and necessary. Not only may the acceleration of science and technology bring about new tools/skills with each passing day, but also our work circumstances will change as the society develops. The fact that college students must get a good command of a second language as well as master the operation and application of computer requires them not to do part-time job. If they take part-time job, their energy and time will not be enough and their academic will degrade.

12.28作文

例二:出国留学

brainstorming

↗ dream of (doing)

原因(好处)→ the mere way to achieve success

↘ curricula arrangement, teaching method

↓why?/how?/which channel?

good learning condition

↓what?

up-to-date teaching equipment

first-class research facilities

world famous professors

坏处:money → tuition fees 而在国内don ’t worry about

↘ living expense

communication: language and cultural barrier而在国内parent ’s care and support facilitate

例三:盗版问题(最新光盘,四元一张;港台歌曲,十元三盒;流行书刊,一律二折)

(乾坤大挪移)Nowadays, the problem of piracy has been in the limelight. According to the cartoon we could find that books, VCDs, tapes and other high-tech products have been copied. When a new product enters into the market, we are bound to discover that its pirated counterpart will soon swarm/flood into the same market. Never in the nation ’s history has the problem of piracy been more severe than now.

There is no denying that pirated commodities has not only resulted in a great loss to producer /manufacturers, inventors and writers, but also disturb/have a confusion in the market. Why? In that the pirated goods often cost less than the original ones, they enjoy a pretty good selling in spite of their shoddy quality. The genuine ones, however/by contrast, sell poorly. A current investigation/study/ report/survey/poll indicates/manifests/reveals that consumers spend approximately ¥20 billion on the pirated counterparts instead of the genuine ones annually. In addition, such pirated product, especially books, will do harm to/endanger the producers’ reputation due to too many misprinting.

(三) 结论

另:养宠物话题

With the quickening pace of modern life and fierce competition in the society, many people feel a sense of loneliness, not only because of the lack of normal communication in the family but also since absence of intercourse among the neighborhood. Cats and dogs or other pets will fill your void.

1、 总结性发言

例:养宠物

[Taking into account all the factors]/[which has been discussed above], we can safely come to a conclusion that keep-pets has both positive and negative influences. What we must do is to make sure that not only are its benefits encouraged and developed/retained but also we have to strive to/attempt to/endeavor to eliminate its unfavorable impacts.

2、 号召与后果

例:腐败现象

It is time that our government/authority should speak out against corruption and take firm/strong/stern action to punish him whoever takes bribes and embezzles funds. For the official corruption [if permitted to continue]/[If let this situation go as it is] will tarnish the government ’s popularity/image and may lead to ultimate/terminate downfall.

3、 具体的建议

例:学生吸烟比率上升

In any case, we ought to do more than talk about the rise in student smoking. Our

high schools and colleges must bring in some cancer experts/specialists/researchers who run films/slides for students, showing the dreadful consequence caused by cigarette smoking. We can also arrange/schedule visits to hospital wards for lung cancer patients. In short, we should take student smoking seriously.

12.29作文

二、应用文

书信

↗①语气 / 措辞客气

公务信件→②格式:开头(写明目的)、结尾(期待回音)

↘③词汇 / 语法(言简意赅,长句最多25个字)

另:无论是大作文还是小作文,都不用些标题,如果想写则须注意以下问题:

①实词大写;②字母长度大于等于4个的虚词大写;③第一个单词的位置,不论实词还是虚词都要大写;④动词短语不做标题

补充:1、投诉信(换宿舍)

Dec.29th , 2004

Dear Sir or Madam/To whom it may concern/Dear Mr. Dean Zhang,

I’m writing to inform you that I wish to moving to a new room next term. I prefer a single room, as I rind the present sharing arrangement inconvenient.

I must explain that the reason for dissatisfaction is my roommate’s inconsiderate behavior. For one thing, his friends constantly visit him; for another, he regularly holds noisy parties. In addition, he too often borrows my private things without my permission. Consequently, I find it difficult for me to concentrate on my studies.

I’m sure that you will agree that I must move into a room of my own, where I would be far from such distraction. I would be grateful if you would take my requirement into consideration, as well as provide me with a room, preferably not in the same building but as near to college campus as possible.

Yours faithfully

XXX

2、感谢信(感谢车祸中及时救助你的人)

I’m writing to express my heartful gratitude. I’m referring to the unfortunate crash, when I was knocked off my bike by a taxi. But for your timely taking first aid and sending me to a nearby hospital, I fear that the consequence might have been much more serious. The doctor says that my broken leg is healing well, and cuts and bruises will soon be completely better, what ’s more, the taxi company agreed to pay my hospital bills. Everyone holds that it is your quick-witted action in the emergency that has led to satisfactory outcome.

Although many people talk about the need to be unselfish and to ready to help others, we see few people practicing what they preach. You showed by your selfless action that you are an exception. If there are more people like you, the world would be a much nicer one.

3、求购 / 预定信(为朋友庆祝生日)

I’m preparing a birthday party for a friend, and writing o inquire if you restaurant could offer private rooms with catering service. If so, I want to reserve one room for next

Friday (oct.16th ) from 5 p.m. to 9 p.m.

The room should be big enough to accommodate more than 50 people comfortably. And the party will be hold in a cocktail style; therefore a majority of us will be standing up for most of the time. So ten chairs are needed in the room. If there isn’t a bar, a drinks table should be set up. For entertainment, Karaoke of Disk jockey may be acceptable.

Will you please contact me in two days? You can reach at 13820XXXXXX in the daytime and at 2737XXXX in the night. Thanks for you consideration once more.