高三 其它 32767字 156人浏览 花花哥114


1.individuals,characters, folks替换(people ,persons)

2: positive, favorable, rosy (美好的) ,promising

(有希望的) ,perfect, pleasurable , excellent, outstanding, superior替换good

3:dreadful, unfavorable, poor, adverse, ill (有害的) 替换bad

如果bad 做表语,可以有be less impressive替换

eg.An army of college students indulge themselves in playing games, enjoying romance with girls/boys or killing time passively in their dorms. When it approaches to graduation ,as a result, they find their academic records are less impressive.

4.(an army of, an ocean of, a sea of, a multitude of ,a host of, many, if not most)替换many.

注:用many, if not most 一定要小心,many 后一定要有词。

Eg. Many individuals, if not most, harbor the idea that….同理 用most, if not all ,替换most. 5: a slice of, quiet a few , several替换some

6:harbor the idea that, take the attitude that,

hold the view that, it is widely shared that,

it is universally acknowledged that)替think


7:affair ,business ,matter 替换thing

8: shared 代 common

9.reap huge fruits 替换get many benefits )10:for my part ,from my own perspective 替换 in my opinion

11:Increasing(ly),growing 替换more and more( 注意没有growingly 这种形式。所以当修饰名词时用increasing/growing.修饰形容词,副词用increasingly.

Eg.sth has gained growing popularity.

Sth is increasingly popular with the advancement of sth.

12.little if anything, 或little or nothing替换hardly

13..beneficial, rewarding替换helpful,

14.shopper,client,consumer,purchaser, 替换customer

15.exceedingly,extremely, intensely 替换very

16.hardly necessary, hardly inevitable ... 替换 unnecessary, avoidable

17.sth appeals to sb, sth exerts a tremendous fascination on sb 替换sb take interest in / sb. be interested in

18.capture one's attention替换attract one's attention.

19.facet,demension,sphere 代aspect

20.be indicative of ,be suggestive of ,be fearful of代 indicate, suggest ,fear

21.give rise to, lead to, result in, trigger 替换cause.

22. There are several reasons behind sth 替换..reasons for sth

23.desire 替换want.

24.pour attention into 替换pay attention to

25.bear in mind that 替换remember

26. enjoy, possess 替换have(注意process 是过程的意思)

27. interaction替换communication

28.frown on sth替换 be against , disagree with sth

29.to name only a few, as an example替换 for example, for instance

30. next to / virtually impossible,替换nearly / almost impossible


起:起动观点,开篇点题: •

应用文:firstly,first,lastly •

议论文:用有文采的, 比如: •

First of all, in the first place, first and foremost, for one thing, on the other hand •

It goes without saying that„ •

承:正面论证,解析观点: Besides, moreover, furthermore, in addition, what’s more •

Last but not least, even worse, more important •

转:反面论证,与众不同: • It is admittedly that, Admittedly,

• Nevertheless, yet, whereas=while 比较圆润 but 生硬

• Instead, by comparison, by contrast, on the contrary, conversely,

in comparison

• 合:总结归纳,画龙点睛

• 一篇文章至少3个表示合的词,第2,3段最后,第3段开头

• Thus, hence, in brief, in short, in conclusion, in summary, to

summarize, as a result, to sum up, as a consequence, in general, generally speaking.

• 原则:1 写的每个词必须是背过或者看过,自己编造容易错

• 2 想到的第一个词永远不要使用

• 写作两大原则:


• 一 句子原则:

• 1.长短结合,以断句为主

• 长句:15-20词 短句:10词

• 2 基本句型:

• A 主谓I succeed,B 主谓宾I love sb,C 主系表„is smart.

• D 主谓双宾 I gave „an English dictionary.

• E 主谓宾补 Tulongdao makes many people selfish.

• 3.长句写法:

• 张道真, 薄冰语法 实用英语语法

• A 并列句 and, but, while, whereas

• B 从句: a定语从句who, that, which, when, where

b状语从句 =副词性从句, 放在句首或句尾when, where, if, because, though

• c 名词性从句 主语从句what, how, 宾语从句I think , 同位语从句

reason, idea, conclusion, 表语从句

• C 非谓语动词a 动名词b 分词(过去, 现在分词) c不定式

• D 独立主格结构 Time permitting, I’ll „


• 1讲述背景知识

• 例 人为什么越活越长?

• 背景知识:自1990以来,中国人的平均寿命增加了4年多

• 这种写法要求你们由非常丰富的课外知识:

• 搜集背景信息:Google„

• 2.引用法开头(名人名言)

• 例 学校有一笔钱;买书?计算机?

• Sir Francis Bacon said that knowledge is the power. 知识就是力量。 • 要求比较高:积累了许多名人名言„

• 注意:一定要引用贴切;要符合西方人的习惯:不要翻译中国的名人名言; • 例:住校 & 住外面?

• 中国学生:There is famous saying: you can every kind of bird in the

large forest.

• A proverb says, “you are only young once.” /It goes without saying

that we cannot be young forever.

• 3.定义法开头

• 对你所要描述的主题作一个客观的、符合事实的定义

• A is B太一般:A is defined as/understood as/referred to as B; • 注意:有些抽象概念不要下定义:例如progress 无法定义;

• 4.问句法开头


• 低质量:

• 一篇6级作文:练习英语阅读的最好办法是精读还是泛读?

• In order to improve our English reading capability, should we read

intensively or extensively?

• 低质量:通过问题无法看出作者的立场!

• 高质量:Do you know how many people die from traffic accidents every 23 minutes?

• 你去黄山看过日出吗?你去大海里游过泳吗?如果没有的话,你的人生是


• 高质量:通过问题作者的立场非常清楚!

• 论证方法:如何展开论证:6种方法

• 1.分类法 classification

• 面对一个非常抽象的idea ,一筹莫展时,分类法可帮你一下撒开思路; • 例1:TV programs are for entertainment or education?

• 2.举例说明法

• 举例原则:convincing (不一定noble ):自己身上的例子最convincing ; • 关键是举例时的关键词:for example, for instance太普通;

• 推荐:take „as an example, to illustrate/as an illustration, a

good case /another case in point is„

• 万能:Numerous examples can be given, but this/these will suffice. • I can think of no better illustration than the following one(s). • 3.对比/比较法compare and contrast

• 例:Confidence is important.

• 你可以用举例法:Mrs. Curie/Edison (万能论据)

• 总结:有了自信,你就能所有事情都成功;

• 1.With confidence, you are to succeed in almost everything. • Without (with 找不到更好的反义词)confidence, you are doomed(命

中注定)to (这个to 是prep ,+ O) failure in almost every field. • 替换:without in the absence of confidence(自信缺席); • “反之”:conversely, otherwise, on the contrary

• 5.数字论证法

• 数据的好处:convincing ;

• 数字可以编,不要太离谱;

• 编数字有技巧:95% or 94.85%?94.85%好;

• 本题:编数字:1500、2000都可以,但不要太离谱;编数字不难,关键

是模版: •

经典句型: •

According to the recent survey/data/figure/statistics/study by the Chinese Academy of social science •

On the basis of a recent survey (conducted) by a group of outstanding /excellent scientists, statistics show that„ •

6.名家名言来论证 •

名人名言可以编,但要编的像样: •

反例:I think where there is hope there is a way. I think错误; •

技巧: •

Just as an old Arab proverb goes/says, •

An ancient Chinese sage(智者)once said„ 美国人不认识Chinese ; •

万能论据:Chinese sage换为Confucius ; •

替换:said → remarked, claimed(子曰„) •

A famous British/Greek sage once said„ ; •

7.经典废话模式 •

A .Numerous evidences suggest that„ •

替换:suggest → demonstrate, illustrate, indicate, show, reveal ,convey •

B .Numerous psychological/sociological/economic studies show that„ •

C .Common sense informs us that„ 常识 •

It accords with common sense that„ •

D .Both common sense and our experience inform us that„ •

E. It is a question/problem both basic and profound.


• 明确一点:无论时间多么不够,结尾一定要写完;哪怕理由少写一个 → 理

由少一个只有你自己知道,如果你结尾没有那天下人就都知道了; • 先讲一个错误的结尾:

• 反问式:Shouldn’t we spend the money on computers? 难道我们不


• 结尾要有结尾的标志:

• 简而言之:In a word, in short, in summary, in conclusion;to sum

up, to conclude„

• 有总结

• 错误:Finally :前面3个理由firstly, secondly, thirdly„这里

finally 容易让人以为是第4个理由;in shorts穿着短裤;

• 结尾段的5种模式:

例:买书 & 买计算机?

• 1.最简单的conclusion :时间不够用

• 综上所述,我们可以得出„结论。

• From what has been discussed above, we can safely draw/come to the

conclusion that„

• 2.缩写前面的理由 + 结尾:

• 如果时间还有剩余 可以总结一下前面你列举的几个理由

• In summary, 投资计算机的好处有A 、B 、C (3个理由缩写成3个单词).


• 3.让步结尾:如果时间有比较多的剩余

• 用让步从句把对立面说一下 + 突出强调一下自己的优点 + 结尾;

• 当然,我们承认投资于书还是有其优点的,便宜、没电也能看。但是还

是投资计算机更好:A 、B 、C 。所以我认为投资于计算机好。

• 4.后果性结尾

• 你所讨论的问题如果得不到解决将会有非常严重的后果

• 例:作为一个坏习惯,吸烟肯定是弊大于利的;为了你的健康,请远离吸烟。

• As a bad habit, smoking will do you far more bad than good. • 5.展望未来 + 号召:呼吁读者采取行动

• 到了„的时候:It is the time that we did sth. 虚拟语气 • 推荐:It is high time that we did sth. 正是到了„的时候

• 不同类型书信常用句型总结 :

• 1 申请信:

• I am writing to /I would like to apply for„.

• According to„

• Thank you for your time and consideration.

• Look forward to hearing from you soon.

• I am looking forward to a personal interview at your convenience. • 2. 邀请信及答复:

• It gives me the greatest pleasure to invite you to„

• I am wondering if you could come to dinner on„

• It is very kind of you to ask us to„

• I am sorry not be able to accept your kind invitation on lunch on„ • 3. 批评,抱怨,投诉

• I am writing to express my dissatisfaction with/at/to complain


• To improve the situation, it is advisable for you to take the

following measures.

• There are some problems with „that I wish to bring to attention.

For one thing„

• To be frank, I am not prepared to put up with the situation any


• 4. 感谢信

• I don’t know how to thank you for your kindness to me. • We are indebted to you for your help.

• With deepest gratitude I write you here a few lines.

• I warmly appreciate your hospitality.

• Thank you very much for the kindness you have given me during my

stay in„I have really enjoyed my visit there.

• 5. 咨询信

• I would like to inquire about some information about„

• I would like some detailed information about„

• Your prompt and favorable attention to my inquiry would be highly


• I am already eagerly awaiting your reply to this letter. • 6. 寻找失物信

• I am writing this letter to inquire about a„that might have been

left at„

• I would appreciate it if you could contact me asap. I would be most

grateful. I have arranged to pay for the service.



A. 认识负责人:Dear Sir or Madam, Dear Sir/Madam, To whom it may


B. 不认识负责人:Dear Mr./Ms.

President/Professor/Manager/Editor (Michael) Wang,


A. 关系不亲密:Dear Mr./Ms.

President/Professor/Manager/Editor (Michael) Wang,

B. 关系亲密:Dear Michael,



(1)祝福语:Best wishes!/The best regards!

(2)签名:Yours sincerely,

Li Ming




(1)I am a staff member from Microsoft China Corporation.

(2)I am a/an


from the Department of Chinese Language and Literature in

Beijing University.


I am writing the letter in purpose of expressing/airing dissatisfaction/disappointment/concern regarding/concerning the service of our canteen.



(1)My thanks to you for your generous help are beyond words.

(2)Words fail me when I want to express my sincere gratitude

to you.

(3) I take this opportunity to show my heartfelt appreciation

for the kind assistance you rendered me.


(1)I am looking forward to your reply/hearing from you soon.

(2)I look forward to a favorable reply at your earliest convenience.

(3)Your prompt attention to my inquiry would be highly appreciated.

第 三 节




Directions: You are preparing for an English test and are in need of some reference books. Write a letter to the sales department of a bookstore to ask for:

1) Detailed information about the books you want,

2) Methods of payment,

3) Time and way of delivery.

Dear Sir or Madam:

As I am planning to take College English Test Band 4 (CET-4 ), I have decided to place an order of some CET-4 books with due consideration of the good reputation of your bookstore and the high quality of your books.

Firstly, please give me particular accounts as regards names, authors, publishing houses and prices of these books. Secondly, I also need to know the terms of payment and after-sell service. Thirdly, I wonder if it is convenient for you to deliver these books by EMS to the headquarters of Beijing New Oriental School by September 1, 2005. I have arranged to pay for the service.

I would like to express my gratitude for your kind consideration of my requests. I look forward to hearing from you soon.

Y ours sincerely, Li Ming


Directions: You want to study at a certain foreign university. Write a letter:

1) Inquire about the situations there,

2) Ask about qualifications,

3) Fees and accommodation.

Dear Sir or Madam:

I am a Chinese student who wish to study at your prestigious university. My plan is to start my course next term, and I would be grateful if you would be kind enough to provide me with certain essential information.

First, what qualifications do I need to follow a course of study at your university? I already had a bachelor ’s degree from Beijing University, but I wonder if there are any further academic requirements. Second, how much are the tuition fees? Although I intend to be self-supporting, I would be interested to hear if there are any scholarships available for international students. Third, what is the situation as regards accommodation?

I look forward to your reply, and to attend your esteemed institution. Yours


Li Ming


Directions: As part of a student social survey project, you are leading a group to visit an exhibition in a small town. Write a letter:

1) Ask for information regarding such things as the contents of the


2) The dates of its opening and closing,

3) Any discounts.

Dear Sir or Madam:

I am organizing a group of students to pay a visit to the historical exhibition in your town. Therefore, I would be grateful if you could supply me with the following information.

First of all, what is the size of the exhibition, what is its theme and what objects are on display? Secondly, what are the dates between which the exhibition will be held, and what are the daily opening hours? Thirdly, are there any other activities being held in connection with the exhibition?

I must point out that I hope to bring over students to the exhibition. So I would like to inquire if there is any discount available on entrance tickets for students. I look forward to your reply.



Li Ming


Directions: You have just spent a weekend staying at the St. Regis Hotel in Beijing. When you get home you find that you have left a bag at the hotel. Write to the manager of the hotel:

1)Enquire whether the bag has been found,

2)Give any relevant information about the bag and its contents,

3)Ask the manager to contact you immediately if the bag is found and

tell him/her how the bag can be sent to you.

Dear Sir or Madam:

I stayed in Room 603 in your hotel on the 10th of June, 2005. When I arrived home, I discovered that I had left one of my bags at that hotel. Could you please check your Lost and Found Department and see if my bag is there?

The bag is a small black, leather document case. Inside it, you will find several business cards, a small address book and a photo of Mr. Old Fish. These things are not very valuable in money terms, but they have a lot of personal value.

I would appreciate it if you could contact me as soon as possible. If you could send the bag to me by Express Mail Service, I would be most grateful. Thank you for your help.



Li Ming


Directions: You live in a room in college which you share with another student. You find it very difficult to work there because your roommate always has friends visiting. Write a letter to the Accommodation Officer at the college and:

1) Ask for a new room next term,

2) Explain your reasons,

3) Want a single room.

Dear Sir or Madam:

I am writing to inform you that I wish to move into a new room next semester. I would prefer a single room, as I find the present sharing arrangement inconvenient.

I must explain that the reason for my dissatisfaction is my roommate ’s inconsiderate behavior. For one thing, his friends are constantly visiting him; for another, he regularly holds noisy parties. In these circumstances, I find it difficult to concentrate on my studies,

and I am falling behind in my assignments.

I am sure you will agree that the only solution is for me to move into a room of my own. Therefore, I would be grateful if you could find a single room for me, preferably not in the same building but as near to the college campus as possible.

Yours sincerely, Li Ming



Directions: You want to apply for the following job: Waiter/waitress required for evening work. Write a letter to Mr. Byron:

1) Show your interest,

2) Describe yourself,

3) Explain why you would be suitable for the job.

Dear Mr. Byron:

I am writing to express my interest in your recently advertised position for a waitress. Enclosed with this letter is my resume, which further details my previous work experience and qualifications.

First, not only do my qualifications and work experience make me a perfect candidate for the job, my personality is well suited to working as a waitress. Second, I am a very friendly person who can quickly establish rapporgt with people of all ages. Last, the fast-paced environment of waiting on tables suits me well because I thrive on working under pressure.

I would like to meet with you at your earliest convenience, to discuss the possibility of working at your restaurant. Thank you for your consideration of my application. I look forward to meeting you in the near future.

Yours sincerely, Li Ming


Directions: One of your friends wants to apply for a job involving working with foreign teenagers. Write a letter:

1)Recommend him/her,

2)Describe his/her past experience,

3)Explain the reasons.

Dear Sir or Madam:

I am writing to you to recommend one of my best friends, Zhou Botong, for this post. He used to be my classmate at Tsinghua University, where he was already a very active organizer and participant in extracurricular


First, with his outstanding leadership and cheerful personality, he was elected chairperson of the Student Union of our university several times. Second, busy as he was, he completed his major, teenage psychology, with an outstanding school record. Third, upon graduation he was assigned to be a teacher in Zhongguancun Middle School. What ’s more, he loves his job and enjoys working with children. This has won him great popularity among his students.

Therefore, I do not hesitate to recommend him as an ideal candidate for the post you advertised. I am sure you will make a wise decision in hiring him.

Yours sincerely, Li Ming


Directions: You are writing your first letter to a pen pal.

1)Describe your previous studies and work experience,

2)Your current activities, hobbies and interests,

3)Suggest meeting him/her.

Dear Audrey:

Hi! My name is Li Ming. I am very glad to have this chance to write to you and become pen pals.

First, let me first introduce myself. I’m currently working as a computer programmer in a large multi-national company. Second, I graduated from Beijing Normal University with a Bachelor’s Degree in computer science in 2004. While I enjoy my current job, I ’m interested in pursuing a Master ’s degree, and hope to begin graduate studies next September. Last, my hobbies include listening to pop music and traveling.

This summer, I will be traveling with Mr. Guo Jing to Norway. If you are free, I would be very happy to meet you in person. Well, let me finish here. I am already eagerly awaiting your reply. I hope that we can become good friends.

Yours sincerely, Li Ming


Directions :For this part ,you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay in honor of teachers on the occasion of Teacher ’s Day . you should write at least 120 words following the outline given below:

1、 向老师致以节日祝贺

2、 从一件难忘的事回忆老师的教诲和无私的奉献

3、 我如何回报老师的关爱


Directions: You have a friend who is about to enter university, and he

wants you to advise him on which subject to specialize in ——history, in which he is very interested, or computer science, which offers better job prospects.

1)Give your suggestions,

2)Explain the reasons,

3)Other recommendation.

Dear Xiaoqiang:

You have asked me for my advice concerning whether you should study history or computer science at university, and I will try to make some useful suggestions.

You must keep in mind that, above all, your university training is a preparation for your future career. First, there is no doubt that the field of computer science offers far wider job opportunities than history. Second , for the foreseeable future, not only will it be necessary for everyone to be computer-literate, it will also be necessary to be equipped with computer skills merely to earn a living. Last, history, I ’m afraid, however fascinating it may be, offers few career prospects.

Of course, I would recommend that you keep up your reading of history in your spare time.



Li Ming


Directions: You find your study load is too heavy. Write a letter to your college teacher:

1) The need to drop two courses,

2) Explain the reasons,

3) Ask if it is possible to obtain a refund.

Dear Professor Shakespeare:

I am writing to formally request to withdraw from two courses: Introduction to Elementary Education and Teaching Methods.

The main reason for reducing my course load is that I am finding it extremely difficult to manage six courses. Because I really have to work part time, I have no other choice but to decrease my course load. I would also like to request a tuition refund. I am sorry for any inconveniences I have caused by this change in plans.

This decision was not taken lightly, and I do appreciate the kind consideration you have shown to me. Thank you for your attention to these requests. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact me at 82036600. I look forward to hearing from you soon.

Yours sincerely,

Li Ming


Directions: One of your pen pals will shortly be visiting your city. For some reason, you cannot manage to meet him at the airport on time. Write a letter to him/her:

1)Explain the reasons,

2)Ask him to wait for you at the airport,

3)Tell him how to identify you.

Dear Wangcai:

I am very much looking forward to your visit to my city. Just think: after all these years of writing to each other, we will finally have the chance to meet! However, I regret to inform you that I will not be able to meet you at the airport as soon as you arrive.

The reason is that your flight will arrive early in the morning, and the quickest I can get to the airport will be about an hour after your land. Please wait for me in the arrival lounge.

By the way, as we have never met I must tell you how to recognize me: I am of medium height and have a small mustache. Looking forward to our first meeting.



Li Ming


Directions: You want to invite some friends to a party. Write an invitation letter to them individually:

1)Invite them to the party,

2)Elaborate on the reason why such a party should be held,

3)What activities will be arranged for them.

Dear Snoopy:

I am greatly honored to formally invite you to participate in Mr. Old Fish ’s wedding ceremony with Miss Fujiwora to be held at Beijing Grand Hotel from 8 to 10 p.m. on April 1, 2006.

As you are a close friend of us, we would very much like you to participate in the celebration and share our joy. The occasion will start at seven o ’clock in the evening, with the showing of their wedding ceremony. This will be followed by a dinner party. At around ten, we will hold a small musical soiree, at which a band will perform some works by Bach and Strauss.

If you do not have any prior appointment on April 1, we look forward to the pleasure of your company.

Y ours sincerely, Li Ming



Li Ming

P. O. Box 237, Beijing University

5, Yiheyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100871

Tel: 62768888 Email:

Career Objective: A position with management potential in the banking business

specializing in international corporate financing

Educational Background:

Sept 2001 to Beijing University

July 2005 Major in International Business Management

Main courses include English, Computer, Business Management,

Accounting, International Commercial Law

W ork Experience:

July 2004 to Bank of China

June 2005 Internship, Secretary to Deputy Manager of Marketing

Draft business correspondence

Schedule deputy manager’s appointments

Qualifications: University graduation certificate and bachelor degree to be

conferred upon graduation (2005)

College English Test Band 4 June 2004

Honors & Awards: Twice awarded scholarship by Beijing University 2002& 2003 Special Skills: Familiarity with Microsoft Word, Excel

Ability to work independently

Good Organizational skills

Experience: President of Student Union 2002-present

Personal Data: Date of Birth: 9/17/1985

Gender: Female

Marital Status: Unmarried



ü 自我介绍

1. 非英语专业

2. 医院

3. 新东方

ü 课程安排

1. 概述和书信

2. 书信和对立观点题

3. 对立观点和单一观点题

4. 单一观点和图表

5. 图表,改错和完型

ü 课程要求

1. 预读——范文,模板,泛读

2. 复读——例文,笔记

3. 实践——押题

ü 评分原则——内容与结构

ü 总体评分

1. 找:idea

2. 扫:从,写作方法

3. 感:文字,文法,文体,文笔


1. 作文格式

2. 拼写

3. 搭配

4. 三“一致”

ü 印象分——加分点/闪光点


1. 提问法

2. 总结法

3. “一些人认为”

4. 从句:宾语从句、定语从句

5. 并列句

6. 理由词汇

7. 理由段公式

8. 路线句型

9. 数据的表达

10. 结语


¶ 信件类型:


¶ 主考类型:


¶ 未考类型:


¶ 特殊要求主要体现在以下两个方面:

一是要求信息点覆盖全面。至少应当包含:时间、地点、人物、主要事件(或观点)等。 二是突出了语言的准确性、格式和语域。

¶ 下面归纳五大信函写作策略:

1. 求职信


主体段:介绍自己相关的工作经历、学习经历,以此证明你能胜任这个职位(人物)。 次要段:表明自己申请这个职位的理由(事情)。


2. 投诉信

开头段: 说明与收信人的相关性,点明你写作的意图(人物、关系)。

主体段: 写明投诉的原因,要展开说明,或者讲具体理由,或者谈问题的具体体现方式(事情)。


3. 订购信

开头段: 开篇点出写信的目的,定购你要的东西(事情)。

主体段: 详细说明你订购货物的规格、大小、颜色、尺寸等(时间、地点)。 结束段:表示对方回函以便确认(人物)。

4. 咨询信

开头段: 明确写信的目的,说明写这封信的目的是寻求某信息或帮助(事情)。 主体段:询问具体问题,强调所需信息的重要性(时间、地点)。


¶ 写作建议:




¶ 例文1

Dear Sir / Madam, To Whom It May Concern „ Yours faithfully

Dear Mr. / Ms / Mrs. / Miss(全名/名), „. Yours sincerely / truly

Dear Tom, „ (With) Best wishes, Yours „

Tommy, „ Yours (ever) „

Hai, „ Love


1. 问候型Long time no see.

2. I haven ’t written to you for ages because I ’ve been so busy over the last year and I never seem to have a minute to myself.

3. Long distance separates no bosom friends.

4. Though we have never seen each other, yet I have long heard of you.

5. How nice it was to hear from you at last!

6. 告知型You will be very glad to hear that„

7. With great delight I learned that„

8. To tell a piece of good news, I have/am doing„

9. I am writing this letter to tell/inform you that„

10. I have just received your kind letter regarding„


1. 客套型Thanks for your precious time.

2. Thanks again for your kind help / assistance.

3. Thank you in advance.

4. 展望型I am looking forward to seeing/meeting you here in Shanghai China.

5. 寄语型Your timely reply to this letter is highly appreciated by all the people concerned.

6. I would appreciate it if you contact me as soon as possible.

7. I am looking forward to your reply / hearing from you soon.

8. Write to me a.s.a.p.

9. Remember: I shall always my fingers crossed for you at any rate.

10. Shall you come across any problem, please do not hesitate to let me know.

11. Please let me know if I can help you any further.

12. I hope this information will help you.

13. Please feel free to contact me for more information / further confirmation.

14. I trust these suggestions will be of use to you.

¶ 泛读


¶ 押题




¶ 例文

¶ 十大闪光点之三——“一些人认为”——Some

无数的numerous/myriad (a myriad of)

大量的A great / large / huge / (in)considerable / significant / noticeable number / amount / quantity / portion of

对半的almost / nearly / some / close to / approximately half of

大多的the (vast / overwhelming) majority of

一些/另一些(抽象意义):some – others, majority – minority

¶ 十大闪光点之三——“一些人认为”——people

公众the general public

各行各业people from all walks of life / the circle/community/walk of education 学生examinees / testees / students

特殊人群readers / drivers

支持/反对者followers – objectors, dissenters – consenters

参与者participants / candidates / interviewees

¶ 十大闪光点之三——“一些人认为”——think

认为assume / argue / hold (the opinion) / claim / suggest / declare / say / assert / state / believe / insist/ maintain / doubt / suspect that

EMS=express mail service

支持give / express / show / demonstrate one’s support for

赞成/反对vote / ballot for/against

cast one’s vote / ballot for / against

side with / stand on the side of

接受take the advise / follow the suggestion / accept the opinion / idea that 意见是one ’s viewpoint is that / be with the view that

¶ 十大闪光点之一——提问法

A. 直接提问法

B. 间接提问法

C. 连续提问法

¶ 十大闪光点之二——总结法

1. 玫瑰All roses have thorns.

2. 花园No garden is without weeds.

3. 金币Every coin has 2 sides.

4. 利剑Every sword has 2 edges.

5. 利弊Every advantage has its disadvantages.

6. 众口It ’s hard to please all.

7. 仁智So many people, so many minds.

8. 伟人Great minds think alike.

9. 毒肉One man’s meat is another man’s poison.

10. 过及Throw the baby out with the bath water.


1. 背景法Along with the advent of„

2. As Chinese society develops, greater importance is attached to„

3. Gone is the days / years / age / period / era / times in which / when people regard / take / consider / think of / take sth. as a new / strange /

radical blessing /curse / curse / phenomenon / concept / notion / creation / invention

4. 提问法Is it a blessing or a curse?

5. 总结法Admittedly, there are merits to both sides of the argument.

6. All roses have thorns.

7. No garden is without weeds.

8. Answers shall find it hard to please all, as the old say goes.

9. As the proverb goes: “Every coin has its two sides”, ___ is no exception.

10. As to whether it is a blessing or a curse, however, people take different attitudes.

11. At present, some people think ____, while others claim ____. Both sides have their merits and drawbacks.

12. Consensus has never been reached on this issue.

13. Every advantage has its disadvantages.

14. 组合句型As the proverb goes: "So many people, so many minds.", it is quite understandable that people from different backgrounds put different interpretations on the same issue of sth.


1. On the one hand / For one thing„

2. Supporters firmly suggest that „

3. The majority is in favor of the idea / point out the fact that sth. is beneficial to „

4. These people hold the view that„

5. Thunderous applause could be heard to maintain the idea that„

6. 因果法They also argue that sth is helpful to„

7. 数据法According to a recent survey/statistics, „


1. One the other side of the coin / On the other hand / For another

2. Adverse criticism complains that„

3. Criticism could also be noticed to show people’s concern over„

4. Discommenders / Antis could not concur with the former by insisting„

5. 因果法The minority, however, stands on a different ground. They complain that it does harm to sth.

6. Moreover, they suggest, sth. might exert negative effects on „

7. 举例法A case in point, „


1. 单刀式All things considered, a unshakable conclusion could be safely drawn that „

2. As is mentioned above, „

3. Balancing the advantages and disadvantages / negative effects and positive effects of „ I intend to stand on the side that „

4. Based on the evidence before me, I am bound to accept the viewpoint that „

5. Given the factors listed before„

6. I am with the view that / I am inclined to stand on the side that / I would like to vote for the former / latter idea that / I prefer the former / latter viewpoint that „

7. 对比式I note the advantage / negative effect / influence / drawback of sth, but this alone could not substantial outweigh the positive effect / influence / merit / disadvantage of it as a whole.

8. 展望式Looking ahead, we can say with full confidence that China will raise its economic and social development to a new level despite of the current difficulties. ¶ 泛读

P11N2, 4, 7, 8, 25

¶ 押题




¶ 十大闪光点之四——从句(主语,宾语,表语,定语,状语,同位语)



¶ 十大闪光点之五——并列句

1. 简单连词:and, or, but, if, because

2. 关联连词:both „ and„, not only„ but also„

3. 短语连词:as if, as long as, in order that

4. 分词连词:supposing, considering, provided

2 十大闪光点之六——理由段公式

1. 序列词:

the 序数词 / first and foremost / last but not least

the other / another

a third

one of

2. + n. :

point / thing / fact / factor

merit / demerit / positive influence / advantage

rule / principle

3. + VP :

to remember / to be kept in mind / ought to be taken into consideration shall be borne / kept in mind / could not be forgot / neglected / ignored

worth mentioning

of great importance / significance

holding the balance

I would like to mention / that talks / that holds water

4. + is that

5. + 从句



1. 昂贵:costly, expensive, lavish, extravagant

2. 帮助:helpful, useful, beneficial , think / speak / praise highly of sth., assist, free „ from, make contribution to, do one’s bit to

Not a bit/not a little

3. 便利:efficiency, convenience, easy, handy(at hand), simple, comfortable, ready-to-use, environment friendly

4. 节省:save / waste time / money / space / energy, time-consuming “Live now, pay later.”

5. 节约:economical, thrifty/thrift/plain, frugal/frugality

6. 经验:social experience, enter the society, accumulate, inexperienced, green-hand, step by step

7. 提高:improve, enhance, develop, upgrade, better, perfect, upgrade, advance, make much progress/improvement in „(field)

8. 重视:pay attention to, attach importance to, lay / give emphasis on, give emphasis to, list sth. on the top of agenda, rank the first, sth. comes first

9. 重要:important, indispensable, essential, crucial, decisive, vital, fundamental, decisive, critical, inseparable, be of less importance, become one ’s utmost concern

10. 信任:loan/credit, decent background, world-renowned, trustworthy, respect, honor



1. 独立:independence, individuality(personality), by oneself, stand on one ’s own feet/depend on oneself

2. 目标:ambition, strategic goal

As long as it ’s strategically advantageous,civil servant, aim, realize, dreams come true,


3. 能力:competition, capability, ability, proficiency, creativity, tolerance, perseverance, capacity

4. 缺点:plastic surgery/laser bug,shortcoming/drawback/defect,in the long

run/overbearing傲慢的, arrogant, selfish(self-centered), dependent, conservative 保守的, isolated, self-centered, indifferent, neglect, pay no attention to, turn a blind eye to, turn a cold shoulder to sb., turn a deaf ear to

5. 团结:cooperate, team spirit, team player, considerate, thoughtful, sociable, work together, joint effort

6. 信心:(self)confidence, convince

¶ 十大闪光点之七——理由词汇


1. 肮脏:dirty, filthy, messy, at sixes and sevens

2. 环境:environment, surroundings, working condition/deplete

3. 卫生:public health, FDA/CDC hygiene/sanitary

4. 污染:pollute, pollutant(carbon dioxide/sulfur/nitrogen/oxygen/hydrogen/crude oil ), poisonous, harmful, contaminate, contaminant


1. 安全:in safe, free „ from

2. 疾病:disease, illness, heart attack, serious threat, spread

3. 健康:mental / physical/emotional health, physical well-being/well-off society, strong, energetic/vigor/balance/, keep fit, figure , build up, lose weight (yoga,out of shape)

4. 危险:in danger,at risk, hazard, harmful/ become extinct/extinction


1. 对比法There is no consensus of opinions among people about sth. Some people are of the view that„ While others take and opposite side, firmly believing that „ As far as I am concerned, the former/latter notion is preferable in many senses. The reasons are obvious.

2. If one has considered the following perspectives, he could only agree with the title statement as I do

3. 反问法Can we stress the importance of „ too much? Never!

4. 总分法I would state my objection to this issue after analyzing the following three reasons.

5. Among countless factors that influence my decision, there are two/three conspicuous aspects.

6. This view is based on the propensity of following points.

7. To assume that sth. is beneficial is destined to miss the following points.

8. There are numerous reasons why I advocate the argument of sth. and I would explore a few of the most important ones here.

9. In the following paragraph, I will venture to explore the reasons why „谦虚



1. In the following paragraph, I would venture to explore the reasons why„

2. To start with, first of all, first and foremost, when it comes to, Now there is a growing awareness that...

3. It is time we explore the truth of ...

4. Nowhere in history has the issue been more visible.

5. Besides, in addition, what’s more/worse, to make the matter worse„

6. Finally, last but not least, the last but not the least„

7. The main reason/factor/advantage that can be seen by everyone is that„

8. The major effect is that„效果(affect 影响)

9. Another „ that we must consider/take into consideration / cannot ignore is that „

10. ... but that is only part of the history.

11. Another equally important aspect is ...

12. A is but one of the many effects. Another is ...

13. Besides, other reasons are...


a) The first point to be kept in mind is that

b) The second merit I would like to mention is that

c) The third thing that should be taken into serious consideration is that

d) The fourth rule that could not be forgot / neglected / ignored is that ignorance career development


1. One very strong argument for doing sth. is that„

2. We may look into every possible reason, however, foremost reason for (doing) sth. is „

3. The first reason can be seen by every person is that„

4. Those who object to this idea forget a universal truth: „

5. First, we can observe easily that„

6. The other notorious disadvantages of sth. is that„

7. Some agree with the statement without reservation since„

8. Among all of the supporting evidences, one is the strongest. That is,

9. Certainly no other reason in my decision is more crucial than the one as follow: „

10. In term of substantive level, the reason mentioned below seems to be advisable and deserve more consideration.

11. The main reason for my propensity is that„

12. Moreover, there is a further more subtle point we must consider

13. There is one impressive example I want to mention here.



1. 单刀式All things considered, a unshakable conclusion could be safely drawn that „

2. As is mentioned above, „

3. Balancing the advantages and disadvantages / negative effects and positive effects of „ I intend to stand on the side that „

4. Based on the evidence before me, I am bound to accept the viewpoint that „

5. Given the factors listed before„

6. I am with the view that / I am inclined to stand on the side that / I would like to vote for the former / latter idea that / I prefer the former / latter viewpoint that „

7. It’s safe to draw the conclusion, not difficult to reach the consensus

8. Judging from all evidence available, we can predict with confidence that „

9. My personal / humble opinion / view point / point of view / theory / understanding / view / belief is that „

10. Through above analysis, „

11. Weighing the pros and cons of the argument, I am inclined to agree with the former / latter.

12. Were I to offer my choice, I would not hesitate to stand on the side/show my support / vote for„

13. A natural conclusion from the above discussion is that

14. As a college student, I am most eligible to have a say in this discussion.

15. From what has been discussed above, we may finally draw the conclusion that„

16. So from what has been discussed, one can reach only this conclusion: „

17. From above, we can predict that

18. 组合式All in all / In a word / In short / On the whole / In brief / In conclusion, if we take a careful consideration / for the reasons presented above / given the factors I have just outlined / as is mentioned above, it is not difficult to reach the conclusion that / the writer believe that / it is sagacious to support the statement that / it is safe to draw the conclusion that the advantages of sth. could not easily overweigh its disadvantages.

19. Taking into all these factors, we may reasonably come to the conclusion that „

20. 对比式While the writer understand / accept that sth. has brought about some advantages / positive influences / effects, these benefits alone could not

substantially outweigh my serious / grave concern over its numerous / countless / immense / massive disadvantages / negative influences / effects to the development / advancement / benefit of study / country / society / economy as a whole.

21. I note the advantage / negative effect / influence / drawback of sth, but this alone could not substantial outweigh the positive effect / influence / merit / disadvantage of it as a whole.

22. 展望式Looking ahead, we can say with full confidence that China will raise its economic and social development to a new level despite of the current difficulties.

23. All in all, I would say the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. With the advance of society, if we encourage the merits and eliminate the drawbacks, all people will enjoy a better life in the near future.

24. 方案式What we must do is to encourage the strength and diminish the weaknesses to the least extent.

¶ 泛读


¶ 押题


[原创]六级写作之——第四课(ver.6502) 第四课——图表

¶ 重点:

一般数据V.S. 极端数据

相同之处V.S. 相异之处

静态数据V.S. 动态数据

¶ 词汇:

Nouns Verbs Phrase Adj. & Adv. 上升 Growth


Surge Ascend


Go up


Level up



Shoot up

Sore Increase up to

Reach a peak

Reach the highest point

Reach/increase a top

Be in the ascendance Upward

下降 Decrease


Reduction Descend

Go down


Level down







Touch the bottom

Go downhill

Be on the decline

Be on the reduction


稳定 Bottom

Summit Be similar to

keep Maintain

Be the same as


Stabilize Have the largest percentage

Occupy the lion’s share Moderate






Rise and fall Ups and downs Change


Vary between „ and „ Drastic




The number of (sth.) increased / jumped / rose | decreased / dropped / fell / fluctuated || slightly / steadily / gradually / slowly | suddenly / rapidly / significantly / dramatically / sharply / steeply || from (June) to (December) / between (June) and (December) / in the past „

The number was / reached / increased to / decreased to 2000.

The number increased by 100 from 200 to 300.


There was a significant increase / a sharp decrease / a fluctuation between 100 and 200 / little change in the number of television licenses from 1957 to 1974

3. The Diagram + VERB

The diagram / graph / pie chart / bar chart / table / picture || says / tells / releases / proves / shows / indicates / demonstrates || that (No.1) / a sudden / rapid / dramatic / significant / sharp / steep | steady / gradual / slow / slight || increase / jump / rise | decrease / drop / fall | fluctuation in the number of (sth.) from ... to ... / between ... and... / in the last „

4. It is p.p. that„

It is said / told / reported / estimated / quoted / proved that (No.1 / No.2)


The last / past 2 decades saw / witnessed / experienced the sharp decline in the cinema admissions.



1. 放松:relax, take it easy, break, rest

2. 流行:fashion, chic, popularity, a growing realization, more and more, in increasing number

3. 孤独:lonely, lonesome, all by oneself

4. 快乐:happy, gay, pleasure, joyful, enjoy sth. to one’s heart’s content

5. 疲倦:tiredness, boring, fatigue, weary, dull, monotonous, stereotype, same old story

6. 闲暇:leisure hours, extra-curriculum activity, after-school, free time, available

7. 娱乐:entertaining, colorful, interesting, enrich, cultivate, paint








1. In 1980, 30% of rural dwellers had drinking water compared with 50% 1990.

2. The students in class A are three times as many as those in class B.

3. The profit doubled / increase three-fold from May to June.

4. They made twice the profit in June than in March.

¶ 十大闪光点之十——路线句型

1. 发展路线

With the development of living standard„

Along with the promotion / improvement of science and technology„

Since the reform and opening-up policy applied„

2. 群众路线

All the social members, shall say “No! ” to„ / shall participate in

There is a growing realization of the advantages of sth. promoted by „

Mass media shall play an active role in doing / keep sb. well informed of sth.

3. 当局路线

The authorities concerned shall lose no time in doing sth. (put an end to / encourage) The local government shall take measures to (bring sth. under control)

The concerned government departments shall should their responsibility in doing

4. 法制路线

Laws and regulations shall be issued„

NPC and LPC ought to attach great importance to „


1. From the data presented in the graph / pie chart / bar chart / table / diagram / picture,

2. Apart form the figures, the fact below the graph / pie chart / bar chart / table / diagram / picture suggest that„

3. According to the graph / pie chart / bar chart / table / diagram / picture,

4. As (is) shown in the graph / pie chart / bar chart / table / diagram / picture,

5. As can be seen from the graph / pie chart / bar chart / table / diagram / picture,

6. Figures / statistics shows (that)...

7. It can be seen from the graph / pie chart / bar chart / table / diagram / picture,

8. It is clear from the graph / pie chart / bar chart / table / diagram / picture,

9. The diagram shows describes illustrates how...

10. The table/chart diagram graph shows (that)...

11. We can see from the graph / pie chart / bar chart / table / diagram / picture,

12. It is apparent from the table/chart diagram graph figures (that) ...

13. It is obvious in the graphic/table that the rate/number/amount of A has undergone dramatic changes,

14. It has gone up/grown/fallen/dropped considerably in recent years (as sth. varies). At the point of (time), A reaches its peak value of„

15. 20 years of reform and opening up have witnessed great improvement in the material life of the Chinese people.

16. The bar chart/pie chart/curve graph show„ From the diagram, we can have a understanding of the current situation of sth.

17. The pie chart is divided into (number of) parts. A consumes the largest portion of sth., while B accounts for „ and C „

18. As (is) shown in the„ / As can be seen from the „ / ... figures statistics shows (that)... / It can be seen from the „ / It is clear from the „ / It is apparent from the table/chart diagram graph figures (that) ... / Diagram shows describes illustrates how...


1. There are some possible reasons for this change / phenomenon. First, „

2. Such changes in the graph / pie chart / bar chart / table / diagram / picture should own to the following reasons. Firstly, „

3. There is a variety of reasons for the change / phenomenon in the graph / pie chart / bar chart / table / diagram / picture. First of all, „

4. What is the reason for this change? Mainly there are (number of) reasons behind the situation reflected in the graphic/table.

5. Experts from SASS (Shanghai Academy of Social Science) believe that changes described in the diagram are connected in the following (number of) ways.

6. There are at least (number of) reasons behind this development.

7. Amongst numerous reasons, the following (number) are the most distinctive and obvious ones.

8. The development of human civilization / Chinese society / China ’s economy / modern science and technology „

9. The improvement of people’s living standard / working conditions „

10. NPC and LPC have attached great importance to „

11. Authorities concerned have made much progress in The Municipal Government has paved the way for

12. A growing realization of the advantages of sth. has been promoted.

13. People in growing number come to realize the importance of „

14. Needless to say, the fact that sth. has found it way into common household in China attributes to a great extent to the recent sharp / stable decrease in the price of it.

15. Due to / Thanks to the advent of socialist market economy, people’s living standard rises sharply in the past 2 decades.

16. Besides this primary factor, moreover, the development of modern science and technology also contributes greatly to the advance of sth.

17. The growing realization of the advantages of sth promoted by mass media, needless to say, exerts an unavoidable influence on all walks of life as well.


1. As far as I am concerned, „

2. From the data presented in the graph / pie chart / bar chart / table / diagram / picture, we can conclude that „

3. the above analysis naturally leads us to the following possible solutions to the problem. First, „

4. Something must be done to solve the problem. Undoubtedly, we should„

5. It can be easily proved that „

6. Consequently / In the end, we can draw the conclusion that„

7. Therefore, we should realize that„

8. We have reasons to believe that„

9. From the above discussions, we have enough reasons to predict (what will happen in the near future). The trend described in the graphic/table will continue for quite a long time (if necessary measures are not taken).

10. It is strongly believed that as long as we work together our common future is very bright, though there is still a long way to struggle before the final realization of our shared goal.

11. We believe that as long as we work together, the people of China will certainly build a better future in the even greater new era.

¶ 泛读

P17N16, 19, 20, 21, 22

¶ 押题



1. 提问法

开篇提问法 是吸引阅卷老师注意力非常有效的方式之一。所以,如果有可能,我们就必须熟练掌握这种吸引“眼球”的写作方法。而提问法按照结构来分,基本上可以分为直接提问法(包括一般疑问句和特殊疑问句)和间接提问法(即引用)。当然,如果能够连续提问,不断将读者的注意力引向深入,就更为理想了。

2. 总结法


3. “一些人认为”


4. 从句



5. 并列句

并列句在一般同学看来似乎没有从句来的复杂,可是,使用得当的并列句也可以达到画龙点睛的效果。并列结构主要有连词构成,而连次按照其结构还可以分为:1。简单连词(如and );

2。关联连词(如both „ and„);3。短语连词(如as if );和4。分词连词(如supposing )。尤其是后三种连词的恰当使用,往往给考官留下语言简洁、结构明了的印象。

6. 理由词汇

在考生论证的过程中,如果只是给出一些诸如“good ”、“bad ”、“important ”之类空洞的词汇,非常容易引起考官的反感,因为这样的表达太多了。所以,对于特定的问题,我们应该恰到好处地使用一些相应的理由词汇。虽然作文的题目五花八门、与时俱进,但是总体来说,往往局限于学习工作、娱乐生活、性格态度、环境安全。所以,我们可以针对这四方面词汇进行专门的准备。

7. 理由段公式

要把犀利的理由词汇统一在同一论证框架之内,我们需要条理性逻辑性极强的理由段公式进行阐述。要把理由段本身的层次分清楚,我们首先要把理由段公式的层次分清楚。一言以蔽之,即,1。序列词;2。名词;3。动词短语;4。“is that”;5。从句。

8. 路线句型



9. 数据的表达


10. 结语







1. 直接

2. 真诚



1. 开篇道歉;

2. 解释错误、保证不再犯同样的错误;

3. 期待回复


l We are sorry for any inconvenience we caused you.

l We appreciate your patience in allowing us time to research the information and respond to your complaints.

l We try our best but occasionally errors do slip by. Please accept our apology for any inconvenience this may have caused you.

l Thank you for your patience while we straighten out the confusion about your order. l We are sorry that this is one of the few instances in which we cannot make a refund. 范文1: Forgot Business Meeting

December 5, 20

Ms. Hannah Brown

10 Jane Street

Middletown, NJ 00000

Dear Ms. Brown:

Please accept my apology for not meeting you for lunch Tuesday. I had the appointment written on my calendar and was looking forward to the occasion, but somehow I got my days mixed up and didn’t realize the mistake until now.

Please forgive me. I ’ll call you on Friday to see if we can reschedule our luncheon meeting at your convenience. I am eager to hear about the proposed Taylor project in more detail.






1. 清晰

2. 准确

3. 有礼


1. 开篇道歉

2. 说明原因

3. 建议调整时间、地点

范文2: Canceling an Appointment

June 2, 20 Mr. Michael J. Morgan


Jacobs, Mackenzy, Phillips

We have carefully checked our accounts and can find no record of the payment you believe you made April 2 to cover the sum of $297.48 due on the above-referenced invoice.

If you have received your canceled check from the bank, please send us a photocopy of it so that we can clear up this matter expeditiously. If you find you were mistaken about the payment, please send it immediately. Thank you.



范文 5: Step 2-Still Have Not Heard from you„

July 5, 20 Mr. Michael Smith

1011 Main Street

Midville, MI 00000

Re: Invoice 112657

Dear Mr. Smith:

Your payment of $297.48 for the above-referenced invoice is now more than thirty days past due.

Since we have hot heard from you in response to our precious correspondence, we assume that the balance is correct and that your records agree with ours.

It is essential that that this account be settled at once to avoid any problems with your credit standing. If there are circumstances beyond your control that are making it difficult for you to pay this amount all at once. We urge you to tell us about them immediately so we can discuss setting up an easy payment plan for you.

Please mail your payment or contact us right away. We must hear from you at once to avoid further action.



范文 6: Step 3-Last Chance Before Legal Action„

August 15, 20 Mr. Michael Smith

1011 Main Street

Midville, MI 00000

Re: Invoice 112657

Dear Mr. Smith:

Unfortunately, we have not received a reply to our many requests for payment of the above-mentioned account. As you know, the account is now considerably overdue. We are sure you understand that at our present wholesale prices we cannot afford to allow accounts to remain outstanding indefinitely. Therefore, if we do not receive remittance within ten days from the above date, we will have no choice but to pursue other collection procedures, including legal action, without further notice to you. We hope this will not be necessary and that you will send us the payment without any further delay.




P-H Editorial (Editor), 1990, PRENTICE HALL, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632