概要写作
初三 记叙文 5781字 7797人浏览 zcy8828

一、2016年浙江新高考《考试说明》英语写作样题

概要写作(满分25分)

阅读下面短文,根据其内容写一篇60词左右的内容概要。

Getting rid of dirt, in the opinion of most people, is a good thing. However, the re is nothing fixed about attitudes to dirt.

In the early 16th century, people thought that dirt on the skin was a means to block out disease, as medical opinion had it that washing off dirt with hot water co uld open up the skin and let ills in. A particular danger was though to lie in public baths. By 1538, the French king had closed the bath houses in his kingdom. So di d the king of England in 1546. Thus began a long time when the rich and the poo r in Europe lived with dirt in a friendly way. Henry IV, King of France, was famousl y dirty. Upon learning that a nobleman had taken a bath, the king ordered that, to avoid the attack of disease, the nobleman should not go out.

Though the belief in the merit (好处) of dirt was long-lived, dirt has no longer been regarded as a nice neighbor ever since the 18 century. Scientifically speaking, cleaning away dirt is good to health. Clean water supply and hand washing are pr actical means of preventing disease. Yet, it seems that standards of cleanliness hav e moved beyond science since World War II. Advertisements repeatedly sell the ide a: clothes need to be whiter than white, cloths ever softer, surfaces to shine. Has t he hate for dirt, however, gone too far?

Attitudes to dirt still differ hugely nowadays. Many first-time parents nervously tr y to warn their children off touching dirt, which might be responsible for the spread of disease. On the contrary, Mary Ruebush, an American immunologist (免疫学家), encourages children to play in the dirt to build up a strong immune system. And th e latter (后者) position is gaining some ground.

(原创范文,仅供参考)

One possible version :

People have mixed opinions towards dirt on our skin. (要点 1 ) For a long time in history, people of some European countries, such as France, believed that dirt pr otected people from getting ill. (要点 2 ) However, people began to change their att itudes to dirt about 200 years ago. People have been told that washing dirt off our body can keep us healthy. (要点 3) However, some scientists believe that exposure to some dirt may help our immune system. (要点 4)

【范文点拨】

(一) 要点分析

1. 文章第一段就是本篇文章的主题句,亮明了总的观点:However, there is nothing fixed about attitudes to dirt. 换句话说:Different people have different attitudes towa rds dirt. 再结合下文谈到的主题可知Different people have different attitudes towards dirt on the skin. 范文中的要点1“People have mixed opinions towards dirt on our ski n. ”概括非常精炼。

2.第二段主要谈到了在16世纪,人们认为dirt on the skin was a means to block out disease ,尤以英、法两国的贵族为代表。结合第三段第一句Though the belief in the merit of dirt was long-lived, dirt has no longer been regarded as a nice neighbor ever since 18 century. 可知,直到18世纪之前,人们都认为dirt 是很“友好的”,有助于预防疾病。范文中的要点2 “For a long time in history, people of some European countri es, such as France, believed that dirt protected people from getting ill.”很好地总结了这些要点。

3. 第三段用Though 引出人们对dirt 观点的转变“…since the 18th century. Scientific ally speaking, cleaning aw ay dirt is good to health.”再结合本段最后一部分Advertisem ents repeatedly sell the idea…可得出要点3“However, people began to change their a ttitudes to dirt about 200 years ago. People have been told that washing dirt off o ur body can keep us healthy.”

4. 文章最后一段第一句指出,现在人们对于dirt 的态度还是有所不同,On the contra ry 引出专家的观点,一位免疫学家认为dirt 有助于增强免疫系统。这一观点获得了一些支持。范文中的要点4“However, some scientists believe that exposure to some dirt may help our immune system.”表达很恰切。

(二) 要点连接

文章概要,在写完了要点之后,下一步的工作就是要把这些要点用适当的连接词进行连接,使上下句之间具有连贯性。本篇文章整篇结构是总分的结构,要点2和要点3在观点上截然相反,因此,之间需要表示转折的连接词,范文用了However 恰到好处。要点3和要点4在观点上又存在不同,因此,还是用表转折的连接词However 。不过小编认为,此处用Nevertheless 可以避免三句话内出现两次However 。

(三) 关键词汇

第一段:fixed (确定的;不变的) 第二段:means (手段,方法), block out (挡住), open up (打开), upon (……之后;立即) 第三段:long-lived (长期存在的), sell the ide a (说服某人接收某个观点) 第四段:warn sb off (警告某人不要靠近), position (观点), g ain some ground (取得优势)

以上这些关键词对于整篇文章的理解与转化成自己的语言都很关键,如果不能准确领会其用意,语篇理解的效果会大打折扣。所以,概要写作的基础是理解语篇,而读懂语篇的基

础是词汇,尤其是对关键词汇的掌握与运用。在此基础上,综合运用语法与句法结构,按照行文逻辑组织语言,形成概要。

二、题型解读

1. 题型介绍

◆选材特点

(1)所需阅读的短文词数在350以内;

(2)所选材料体裁没有限制,以说明文、议论文和记叙文为主。

◆评分参考

阅卷时主要考虑以下内容:

(1)对原文要点的理解和呈现情况;

(2)应用语法结构和词汇的准确性;

(3)上下文的连贯性;

(4)对各要点表达的独立性情况。

注意:理解准确,涵盖全部要求,完全使用自己的语言,准确使用相应的语法结构和词汇,得分相应比较高。相反,如果概要写作部分出现两句以上整句抄自原文现象,得分档次将会大大降低;所写内容与所提供内容无关不得分。

2考查能力

概要写作,简言之就是对所读过的文章简要概括,写出文章的中心大意,也可称之为摘要。写概要时,读者要是把文章的具体信息用一些具有概括功能的词和句表述出来,而不是抄袭文章的原句,更不是把细节性信息作为中心,而是要通过对文章中的单词、词组和句子进行合理转换,对文章的具体信息进行概括,再用合适的语言表述出来。这一题型主要考查学生对文章主旨大意的概括和准确获取关键词的能力,同时考查学生用简洁的语言概括文章重要信息的能力以及对文章整体结构的把握能力。因此,概要写作是基于阅读理解和书面表达,是二者的有机结合体,是阅读理解和书面表达的沟通桥梁。

3写作步骤

1)细读原文。首先要仔细阅读短文,掌握文章主旨和结构,明确各段的大意。

2)弄清要求。新高考的概要写作是写全文概要,不是写某一部分的概要,或者就某些问题写出要点。

3)列出原文要点。分析原文的内容和结构,将内容分项扼要表述并注意在结构上的顺序。在此基础上选出与文章主题密切相关的部分。

4)在写作时要特别注意下面几点:

(1)概要应包括原文中的主要事实,略去不必要的细节。

(2)安排好篇幅的比例,概要应同原文保持协调,即用较多的文字写重要内容,用较少的文字写次要内容。

(3)注意要点之间的衔接,要用适当的关联词语贯通全文,切忌只简单地写出一些互不相干的句子,但也不要每两句之间都加关联词语,以免显得生硬。

(4)不排斥用原文的某些词句,但不要照搬原文的句子,如果不能完全用自己的话语表达,至少对原文句子做一些同义词替换,如果结构上也能有一些转换会更好。

(5)计算词数,看是否符合规定的词数要求。

4. 备考建议

概要写作,其实我们考生并不陌生,在日常的英语教学中,教师经常让学生就所学英语课文逐段概括段落大意或者复述课文,这在一定程度上都为概要写作打基础。除此之外,作为考生,还要注意以下几点:

(1)积累常见的同义短语和句型转换,掌握并运用单词、短语和句型。“巧妇难为无米之炊”,即使有再好的写作技巧,如果没有相应的基础词汇和句法知识,也很难写出概要写作的上乘之作。因此,考生要在基础词汇和句法知识上下功夫,以不变应万变。

(2) 进行适度地专题练习。有计划地进行适度练习有利于考生快速掌握概要写作的要点,找到概要写作的感觉,冲破对概要写作的不适感。平时可多关注往年的高考阅读文章,进行结构分析和主旨概括训练。可按文体和题材,分类训练篇章结构的布局,增强对文章上下文连贯性的把握。概要写作首先要掌握各种文体的写作特点和框架。如:

记叙文:what / who / when / where / why / how

议论文:opinion / idea + argument (supporting ideas / reasons)

说明文:phenomenon / problem + reason + solution (cause and effect), introduction of an object (how it is made, how it is used, how it may change, what makes it new or significant)

新闻: a focus on the first paragraph and the first and last sentences of the other paragraphs

综合以上分析可知,新高考更加重视考查考生高中阶段英语基本技能的掌握情况,也注意考查考生进入高等学校继续学习的潜能,目标是利用高考命题的导向功能推动新课程的课堂教学改革。