从高考阅卷看高三英语作文教与学 (2)
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从高考阅卷看高三英语作文教与学

笔者有幸参加了2008年湖南高考英语的阅卷工作,深有感触和启发。2006-2008三年的作文主题,都是写人,叙事,发感想。对学生的基本功要求比较高,难拿高分,这就是为什么三年来此题平均分逐年下降,今年只有10.47分。这就要求我们老师们不能把作文教学压在最后一两个月,起码高三一开始就要抓,最好从高一的句子抓起。怎样抓?我们在后面一起来探讨。

先就此题的评分原则说说:1,本题总分为25分,按5个档次给分。2,评分时,先根据文章的内容和语言初步确定其所属档次,然后以该档次的要求来衡量,确定或调整档次,最后给分。3,评分时,应注意的主要内容为:内容要点,应用词汇和语法结构的数量和准确性,上下文的连贯性及语言得体性。4,拼写与标点符号是语言准确性的一个方面,评分时,应视其对交际的影响程度予以考虑。英美拼写级及汇用法均可接受。5,如拼写较差,以致影响交际,将分数降低一个档次。

此次作文为三幅图和简单的文字提示,让学生任选一幅来作文。评分要点: 1,对该人物的简单介绍。(5分) 2,喜欢该人物的理由(7分)3,从该人物身上得到的启示。(5分)4,全文结构合理,内容连贯,行文流畅,给6分。5,字数符合要求,给2分. 字数可多于140个字,但不能少于80个字。6,语言错误在各信息点中酌情扣分。

要说明的是,1,内容要点可用不同方式表达。2,所做发挥应紧扣主题。 3,对于进入第五档的作文(21-25分),建议评分时对要点完整,用词简单,句式单调但没有错误的文章最高不超过21分。鼓励对虽然有少许错误但尝试使用较复杂结构或较高级词汇的作文加分。这里还要重点说说0分作文,所传达的信息或使用语言太少,无法评价,内容与写作任务无关或无法辨认。

针对这些,我觉得作为高中英语老师,指导写作时,要做到如下:1,教学生审好题,此次作文为三个人物和简单的文字提示,让学生任选一个,对该人物的简单介绍,(5分) 喜欢该人物的理由,(7分)从该人物身上得到的启示(5分)。但是却有不少同学三个人物都写了,篇幅长,费神,却最多只能得到第二档的分数(6-10分)。

2,养成学生工整的书写和按要点分段的习惯。标题居中,字稍大些。三段正文,,字不要挤得太紧隔得太开,要靠格线写,不要飘在格子中间。有些字太小太草,扫描出来,根本看不清楚,分数就要低一个档次。最好把每段的主题句写在段首,这样脉络清晰,卷面工整,在短短的30秒内甚至20来秒的评卷时间里,老师的印象分也会高一点,更不会出现误判考生要点不到,让他白白丢掉5-7分。

3,一定先训练学生写好简单句,练好五种基本句型,再去练复杂句和高级句型。特别强调句子一定要写好谓语,没有谓语动词的句子,一般视为词的堆聚,不记分或记少量分。建议老师们默写单词时,不要仅默写某个词或词组,可以组成五种简单句来写,养成学生输入单词习惯是完整的句子,不是零碎的词。等到他们自己写的时候,就是有头有脸有胳膊有腿的句子了。写好了简单句,其实就已经获得了写作的80%的胜利。

4,让学生写句子时,要有时态的概念,中文谓语无时态人称和数的变化,这就是中国学生写英语句子常常在谓语上出错的原因。我一般简化写作中的时态,分为现在和过去两个大时态,把一般现在时,现在进行时,一般将来时,现在完成时等叫做与现在相关联的时态,而把一般过去时,过去进行时,过去完成时,过去将来时等叫做与过去相关联的时态。例如,只要不把本来是日记形式的过去时态写成对比性议论文的现在时态,即使扣分也不多。

5,规范标点符号,标点符号错,至少按拼写错误扣分(-0.5分)影响到理解的按语法错误扣分(1分)。

6,让每个学生在写好简单句的基础上熟练用好5个左右复杂句,建议他们每次都用那几个句型,背些谚语格言,作为点睛之笔。

7,单词教学时,用英语词组解释词,用词来解释词组,例如,like---take delight in, make one’s mind ---decide, visit---pay a visit to,鼓励学生在写好基本词的情况下,用词组表意。

给学生们的Tips:

1, 分好段,没有分段的文章,再好,一般也在17分以下。

2, 不要做任何投机取巧的事情,比如抄写阅读和完型文章里的句子,滥竽充数,想瞒天过海。因为在阅卷前,阅卷老师被要求熟悉试卷上的所有文字。或者反复抄写几个词,这都是零分。

3, 不要在某个段落过分引申,拓展,势必导致其他段落不齐,要点不到。

Writing 1

Thomas Edison

Thomas Edison is a great inventor of world history at the same times. He is my most respected people.

Thomas Edison invented more than 1000 invente in his all life. His creative make me very surprise,only have a few of imagine and hard working that can gain the such as success. So, he said: “Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent persperation” In his view, persperation is a most important. Only have insperation that people can become a genius.

I think I have lack persperation. So, I hope I can increasing persperation in future, and I wish and gain the success like Thomas Edison.

专家给分:10分 漏掉了第三段 内容缺少连贯性,第一二段层次也不清楚。语法结构和错误频多,真正可以得分的句子只有几个。

Writing 2.

I most like Helen Keller. She was disabled not broken her heart. She was very breave. She doesn’t look down at sheslf. Helen Keller was ordinary but great woman. Her wisdom gave she a good learn heart. She set ,”If I had three days”. The words often told us, being human’s power from being human’s heart.

专家给分;5分 没有段落,也没有向目标读者传达有效信息。

Writing3

I am a middle student, and I have many of ideas about invention. So I like Thomas Edison best.

Thomas Edison is a inventor. He is a normal person, but he has the perseverence spirit. In his daily life, he had made many experiments. Before he was failed, but her never gave up, duing to his this spirit, finally, he gained a great success. Thomas Edison is a full of wisdom person, and he is full of creativity. His great achievement, I always keep in mind.

Thomas Edison said: Genius is one percent insperation and ninety-nine percent perspiration” Frome this word, I achieved most. I think we had to work hard,and the success would follow ours.

专家给分:15分。层次较清楚,也用到了一些连贯。有一些语法和拼写错误,但不影响理解。

Writing 4

Who is an ordinary but great woman? Who eager to learn in the dark never stop. Whom doing many thing good for education?

Who said:”If I had the power of sight for three days...” This sentences, make us feel the world is more beautiful than we see in the past time.

Who is she? She named Helen Keller, is my favourite woman. She is blind, but she can feel the sunshine from the world, from the life. Eve ry coin have two sides.Everyone’s life can change by himself(herself).Helen change her life, she have not sadness and hopeless. She eager to learn and be a writer.

I can know some by her. I can’t give up by a difficult thing. I must trust myself, I can do this, because, nothing is impossible.

专家给分:12分。第一二段层次不太清楚,用到了一些连贯。较多的语法和拼写错误,但不影响理解。

Writing 5

Among the celebrities, my favouriate one is Thomas Edison,who is a great inventor as he is a creative and diligent person full of wisdom. He was born in a poor american family, but he became one of the greatest people in the world through his own hard work.

I admire him not only for his inventions but also for his courage when faced to frustrating. He didn’t finish his school education. He once sold newspaper in the street.he even became def when he was young, but he never gave up his dream.He said that genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration. He succeeded at last after many failures.

I learn from him that only by working hard can we achieve our dream, and how to face failures with great courage.

专家给分:22分

Writing6

Helen Keller

Helen Keller is an ordinary but great woman. She is a fomous writer.

I’m in favour of she because of her qualities. Though she was disabled, she didn’t give up the courage of living up. In daily life, she was optimistic and was eager to learn everything around she. Helen Keller sets a good example for me.

From Hellen Keller, I know that life is just like a journary: We are to under go winds, snows and storms. Life is a challenge, meet it; Life is promise, fulfill it; Life is a obstacle, overcome it. Only in this way are we able to have a good life in future.

专家给分:18分 层次清楚,语法词汇句型都还好,但内容弱显空洞。

Writing7

Among the three great people, my favovate one is Thomas Edison.

As we know, he was a great inventor. He invented thousands of useful things during his liftime,including electrical lamps,telegraph and etc. He was always full of creative ideas and wisdom. What’s more, he was a person w ho worked very hard. Without the spirit of hardworking and he could not invent so many inventions and of course he could not become a great inventor thatmany people looks up to. Not only his dilligent brain but also his spirit of hardworking makes me admire him very much, and I am inspired by his perspiration.

As Edison said, Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration. I think what should I do in the future is studying hard and working hard. I will never give up when I am stuck by some challenges. I will keep working, for a more harmony society and for a more invironmental friendly world.

专家给分;24分

Writing 8

I like Thomas Edison very much. He is a great man. And he is one of the most famous inventor.He invented many useful thing for our life. It is convenient for us to use his inventions. He contributed all his life to our society.

He is full of wisdom, and he always has a creative mind. I admire him very much. He set a good example to our students. I like one of his famous sentences. It is that genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration. That will encourage us to study hard.

We can learn many things from Thoman Edison. We should study hard, and we should believe in ourselves. If you put your mind in something and work hard on it, you will realise your dream at last. Hard working is of great importance.

专家给分:23分