四级写作模板完整版
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四级写作模板班讲义

Mini-test :你的水平

首先,我祝愿大家更快乐,更健康。

Above of all I congrataulate all the students to happier than before, body is healtier.

First, I wish all students are happier and healthier.

四级写作和翻译占总分20%,满分为142;其中写作15%,满分为106.5

2011年12月四级写作复习重点:

2005年12月-2011年6月

1. 议论文:11次

2. 应用文:2次

3. 图表作文:0次

课程介绍:四个板块

1. 四级写作最有效复习方法

2. 考试概况

3. 功能段落模板及例题分析

4. 应用文和图表模板

关于模板那点事!

摈弃传统模板:

问题:张同学

模板,用还是不用?困惑

功能模板的概念:

提纲 功能段落

四级考试一般有三个提纲,可以总结为六种功能段落。因此,掌握好六种功能段落,也就掌握了所有作文的写作。

2011年6月大学英语四级考试真题

Part I Writing (30 minutes)

Directions : For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled Online Shopping. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below:

1. 现在网上购物已成为一种时尚

2. 网上购物有很多好处, 但也有不少问题

3. 我的建议

2010年12月大学英语四级考试真题

Part I Writing (30 minutes)

Directions :For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled How Should Parents Help Children to Be Independent? You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below.

1. 目前不少父母为孩子包办一切

2. 为了让孩子独立, 父母应该……

2010年6月19日大学英语四级考试试题

Part I Writing (30 minutes)

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay on the topic of Due Attention Should Be Given To Spelling. You should write at least 120 words following the outline

given below:

1. 如今不少学生在英语学习中不重视拼写

2. 出现这种情况的原因

3. 为了改变这种状况,我认为…

2009年12月大学英语四级考试

Part Ⅰ Writing (30 minutes)

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay on the topic of Creating a Green Campus. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below:

1. 建设绿色校园很重要

2. 绿色校园不仅指绿色的环境……

3. 为了建设绿色校园,我们应该……

2009年6月英语四级考试

Part I Writing (30 minutes)

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minute to write a short essay on the topic of Free Admission to Museums. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given bellow:

1. 越来越多的博物馆免费对外开放的目的是什么?

2. 也会带来一些问题

3. 你的看法?

段落层面:六种功能段落

1. 现象描述

2. 危害分析

3. 原因分析

4. 建议措施

5. 观点阐述(利弊)

6. 意义阐述

篇章层面:六种功能段落的排列组合

1. 问题解决型:2010年6月

2. 观点对比型(利弊分析):2011年6月

3. 现象阐述型:2009年12月

请区分以下提纲所对应的功能段落

2008年12月:Limiting the Use of Disposable Plastic Bags

1. 一次性塑料袋曾经广泛使用

2. 使用一次性塑料袋带来的问题

3. 限制一次性塑料袋的意义

2008年6月

Recreational Activities

1. 娱乐活动多种多样,

2. 娱乐可能使人们受益,也可能有危害性,

3. 作为大学生,我的看法。

2007年12月

What Electives to Choose

1. 各大学为大学生开设了各种各样的选修课

2. 学生出于各种原因选择了不同的选修课

3. 以我自己为例……

总结复习:

1. 现象描述

2. 危害分析

3. 原因分析

4. 建议措施

5. 观点阐述(利弊)

6. 意义阐述

写作概况:

1. 试题形式(考场注意事项)

2. 评分方法(高分作文要求)

3. 评卷实例(高分模版思路)

答题卡1:

Part I Writing (30 minutes)

Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)

试题形式:

Writing :2008年12月

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay on the topic of Limiting the Use of Disposable Plastic Bags. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given bellow:

1. 一次性塑料袋曾被广泛地使用

2. 造成的问题

3. 限制使用的意义

笔记

审题关注:

英文指令:题材+话题

汉语提纲:识别提纲功能

字数:至少120,最好140-150,

若题目读不懂:英文题目+汉语提纲

写作概况:评分方法

1.Global scoring

2.Rewarding score

原始赋分:满分15分 标准分:107分

五个分数档次:0、2、5、8、11、14

写作概况:评卷实例

:白卷,作文与题目毫不相关,或只有几个孤立的词而无法表达思想。

:基本切题,表达思想不够清楚,连贯性差,有较多严重错误。

14分:文章切题。文字通顺,条理清楚,无重大语言错误,仅有个别小错。

评卷实例:请思考高分作文特征

实例一

英文题目:Bicycles ——An Important Means of Transport in China

汉语提纲:

(1)为什么自行车在中国这样普及

(2)和汽车的比较

(3)自行车在中国的前途

模版的提炼过程:思路和表达

Bicycles are very popular in China. Almost every family in the city has two or three bicycles. During the rush hour, you can see that thousands of people -- man and woman, old and young -- ride their bicycles to work and study. That is why China is called ―the kingdom of bicycles‖.

单复数错误:man and woman → men and women

词性误用:old and young → the old and the young

专有名词: 第一个和最后一个单词首字母大写,其他:实词(名动形副代数)首字母大写;虚词(介连冠)首字母不大写。

简单句(Bicycles are very popular in China. )

→长难句???

我爱记歌词

In my eyes, you are the most beautiful.

In my eyes, no one is more beautiful than you.

高分句式: 双重否定

结构:No ___ is/are more ____ than ___.

原句:Bicycles are very popular in China.

→ In China, no means of transport is more popular and important than bicycles.

我能想到最浪漫的事就是和你一起变老。

首句改写:Bicycles are very popular in China.

词性转化:popular → popularity.

In China, bicycles have gained great popularity among Chinese people.

二句改写:Almost every family in the city has two or three bicycles.

调查法描述:Based on a recent report, a majority Chinese families in the cities acknowledge that they have two or three bicycles.

首段现象描述(正面)

In China, bicycles have gained great popularity among Chinese people. Based on a report, a majority of residents in the cities acknowledge that they have two or three bicycles. During the rush hour, it can be noticed that thousands of people – men and women, the old and the young- ride bicycles to work and study.

Compared with cars, bicycles are superior in many ways. First, they are cheap, convenient and easy to ride. Second, riding bicycle is good for health. Third, they bring no noise nor air pollution. Though cars are faster and more comfortable, they are too expensive. They consume plenty of oil and they pollute the air. Sometimes, it is difficult for a driver to park his car. Moreover they often cause traffic jams and accidents.

常用词积累

分词结构开头: compared with cars 。

be superior to = 优于

be inferior to = 低于

层次与逻辑:

first, second, third, moreover

常用理由:

便宜:

cheap / economical / inexpensive

方便:

convenient / convenience / inconvenience

对…有益

be good/ beneficial/ rewarding for

In my opinion, the future of bicycle is very promising. Since China is a developing country and has a large population, I think, riding bicycle is appropriate to Chinese present conditions. It will be an important means of transportation for quite a long time.

In my opinion, the future of bicycle is very promising.

→ I am convinced that the future of bicycle is very promising.

→ what convinces me is that …

高分特征:

1. 内容相关

(切题即可)

2. 结构清晰

(新闻联播三段论)

3. 语言精彩

(句子结构词多变)

如何做到内容切题和结构清晰?

三步法:

a. 审读英文题目和汉语提纲:识别提纲功能

b. 将三提纲转化为英文句子充当主题句 (若提纲是两个则添加一个)

c. 将主题句扩展成英文段落

内容如何扩展?

以TOEFL 写作为例:

万能话题:环境类

a. 在你家周围建一个工厂,你是否同意?

b. 你认为科学家对人类的贡献大还是艺术家对人类的贡献大?

c. 你的职业梦想是什么?

d. 如果让你发明一样机器,你会选择什么?

e. 如果你有一笔钱,你会用它来做什么?

再以四级考试为例

作业:题目:On English Learning

1. 英语学习很重要

2. 英语者所面临的困难

3. 如何学好英语

1992-6

1. 你在英语学习中有哪些困难?

2. 你是如何克服这些困难的?

How I Overcame my Difficulties in Learning English

1993-6

1. 我最喜爱的电视(或无线电) 节目是…...

2. 这类节目的内容和特点

3. 我喜欢它的原因

1994-6

1. 人们对职业各有不同的理想

2. 我理想的职业是什么

3. 我怎样为我理想的职业做准备

1997-1

1. 怎样理解―熟能生巧‖?

2. 例如:在英语学习中…

3. 又如…

Practice Makes Perfect

2000-1

1. 上大学的费用(tuition and fees)可以通过多种途径解决

2. 哪种途径适合于我(说明理由)

How I Finance My College Education

2000-6

1. 很多人认为有必要举行英语口语考试,理由是…

2. 也有人持不同意见...

3. 我的看法和打算

Is a Test of Spoken English Necessary

2003.6

1. 简单叙述一下这位同学生病(或受伤) 的情况

2. 同学、老师和我是如何帮助他/她的

3. 人与人之间的这种相互关爱给我的感受是……

2003.12

1. 建议报考的专业及理由

2. 报考该专业的基本条件

3. 应当如何备考

2005.1

1. 你认为自己具备了什么条件(能力、性格、爱好等) 可以胜任学生会主席的工作

2. 如果当选, 你将为本校同学做些什么

2005年6月

1. 向老师致以节日祝贺。

2. 从一件难忘的事回忆老师的教诲和无私的奉献。

3. 我如何回报老师的关爱

2006-6月

1. 校学生会将组织一次暑期志愿者活动,现招募志愿者。

2. 本次志愿者活动的目的,内容、安排等。

3. 报名条件及联系方式

2007年6月

欢迎辞,Welcome to our club

1. 表达你的欢迎;

2. 对你们俱乐部作一个简要介绍

2007年12月

1. 各大学开设了各种各样的选修课

2. 学生因为各种原因选择了不同的选修课

3. 以你自己为例 …

2010年6月

1. 如今不少学生在英语学习中不重视拼写。

2. 出现这种情况的原因。

3. 如何避免这一问题

Due Attention Should Be Given to Spelling

请记住:内容上

熟悉什么

就写什么

日常写作学习方法:

1. 背写:一个单词、标点都不错

2. 仿写:写作思路和表达

3. 翻译:英→ 汉→英→ 背写

4. 限时训练:

第三次课

写作基础:句子结构词多变

a. 遣词

b. 造句

遣词两方面:

If there is anyone out there who still doubts that America is a place where all things are possible, who still wonders if the dream of our founders is alive in our time, who still questions the power of our democracy, tonight is your answer.

1. 广度:a wide/rich variety of ..

a. 同义词法

b. 同根词法

c. 范畴词法:下义词

上义词

相关词汇

d. 代词替换

Eg:

think: deem = claim = hold = argue = maintain = …

2. 深度:弃用第一反应词: academic

Eg: important

significant=essential=crucial=indispensable…

Exercise:

very important = of great importance

very valuable = of great _____

very significant = of great ______

very necessary = of great ______

―hard forgetting‖

―heart flower angry open‖

―My heart is seven up eight down ‖

―you give me stop‖

―fuck food‖

Yesterday night, I was kicked by my girl friend.

She ran away with a small white face.

She is my green plum and bamboo horse.

However, could you please tell my why the injured is always me. I am very regret that she spent me a lot of money.

造句原则

a. 切忌逐字翻译

b. 汉语意思 英文结构

简单句:

Xiao Shenyang is disgusting. I like her.

并列句:

XSY is disgusting and I like her.

复合句:

If you shed tears when you miss the sun, you will also miss the stars.

简单句→长难句 我看到人。

今天,我在电视上看到一个高高的、瘦瘦的、留着披肩发、踩着高跟鞋、穿着花裙子、潇洒飘逸的男人。

短→长:加修饰成分

名词前:

加形容词、同位语、定语从句

简单句:

加状语(时间、地点、目的、方式等)

2008:娱乐活动多种多样。

5 words:

There are many recreational activities.

33 words:

In recent years, owing to the speedy development of our society, there are a great many recreational activities in people’s daily life, which include sports, watching TV, surfing the Internet, and playing games.

Review:六种功能段落

问题解决型写作思路:

现象描述+ 问题分析(原因或危害)+建议措施, 例如:2010年6月

Topic :Due Attention Should Be Given To Spelling.

1. 如今不少学生在英语学习中不重视拼写

2. 出现这种情况的原因

3. 为了改变这种状况,我认为…

现象描述段(正反)

→引出现象+具体描述+总结

1)引出现象:

☆首句1. Nobody/ No one could have failed to notice the fact that kids’ lack of independence has become a grave problem in many families.

负面:a grave problem

→ 正面:a common/popular phenomenon/practice

首句2. In the contemporary society, there is no denying the fact that + 客观事实(提纲1).

首句3. On many campuses/ In the contemporary society/ In the present-day society/ In recent decades, the shortage of housing is one of the most serious problems with which people are confronted.

☆首句4(正反均可): Nowadays/In the present-day society/In recent decades, it can be noticed that children depend more on their parents than ever before. (比较级引出问题)

首句5(正反均可) : In the present-day society/ In recent years, it has become a prevalent/ popular tendency/ trend/ practice for ___ to ___.

首句6: In recent decades, ____ has/have gained great popularity among _____.

首句7:The past years /decades have seen /witnessed the huge/speedy advancement/ development of people’s living standards/ quality.

2)具体描述:

二句1:(事实描述)An increasing number of individuals/people find it difficult/ hard/ troublesome to _spell simple words correctly_.

正面话题:convenient/ inexpensive/ beneficial …

越来越多的…

→A growing number of

→ People in growing numbers

二句2:(举例描述1)A case in point of this is /A typical example of this is/This phenomenon can be best illustrated by the fact that .

☆ (举例描述2)Turning a look around, we can find a great many/plenty of/a good deal of examples like this: 两个例子.

(举例描述3) :Our daily life has been filled with a variety of examples like this:两个例子

二句4:(调查法描述:)According to a recent survey/ report, a majority of /72.34% of people/ students /individuals /citizens /residents admit/reckon /acknowledge that ___

According to …→ Based on …

a majority of …→ a minority of …

3)总结问题:承上+启下

三句1:(承上)Thus/Therefore/Hence, (启下)how to cultivate teenagers’ independence effectively has become a matter of concern.

☆三句2:(承上)As a result/ Consequently/ Accordingly,(启下)_____ requires/ necessitates/ calls for close attention of the whole society.

三句3: (承上) So, (启下1)due attention should be paid to _____/

(或)we should pay due attention to this issue.

危害分析段

四句话(总分总)

主题句+危害1+危害2+总结危害

①分析危害:主题句

主题句1:Such _phenomenon /phenomena_ is /are bound to (generate/engender/result in/ give rise to/ lead to) (severe/negative/serious) (consequences/effects/impacts) if we keep turning a blind eye.

☆主题句2: Apparently enough, there are some negative impacts which we should not ignore/neglect.

☆主题句3:Quite obviously, it is of great necessity to figure out the negative influences behind it.

主题句4:To tackle this problem, it is of great/vital significance to analyze the potential negative impacts of this matter.

☆危害1:To begin with, it may damage/ hurt/ injure/ harm/ impair/ undermine the present-day ____of ____ (or the promising future 0f ____).

分析危害:现在或将来

☆危害2:Moreover, (强调句式) it is _____ that exerts/ produces/ generates bad impacts on _physical health/ psychological fitness.

危害3:In addition/ Furthermore/ What is worse/ Besides, ___ set bad examples to youngsters, leading them to ______.(对于他人影响)

☆危害4:Then, it is manifest that we are developing/gaining ____ at the expense of ______. 得:convenience/ profits/ pleasure

失:honesty/ morality / health

☆危害5(结果论):Besides, the results/ influences / impacts/ effects / qualities of ____ are not always as positive/ credible / trustworthy / reliable as expected because _____.

危害6:Besides, it can be argued that _____ means a grave waste of time/energy/natural resources. 危害总结

危害总结1:As has been noted, ____ do/does impact our ____ negatively to a large/some extent.

☆危害总结2:To conclude, it is undeniable that the bad impacts of _____ can never be turned a blind eye to.

原因分析段

原因分析段= 原因分析主题句+ 具体原因(2-3个)+原因总结

主题句1:Generally speaking, several reasons can account for this phenomenon. (中性话题)

☆主题句2:In general, there are several reasons/ factors/ causes/ purposes responsible for ____, but the following may be the most critical.(中性话题)

主题句3:It is evident that the causes of ____ are diverse.

主题句4:(To solve/deal with/ address this worrying/disturbing issue,) it is of vital significance to determine /explore investigate the possible reasons.

☆原因1:In the first place, _the present-day family structure is the root cause. An illustration of this point would be that there is only one child in each family. (原因+具体描述)

原因2:In the second place, _____ constitute another major cause. Specifically, _______. (原因+具体说明).

原因3:In addition, social prejudice/ignorance plays a critical role in this issue.

原因4:Besides, the _employment_ policy being carried out in _job markets_ (doesn’t) enables _women_ to enjoy the equal rights as men.

万能词汇:related

原因5: (强调句式)

What is more, it is _____ that makes /attracts/ enables ____ to ___.

原因总结1:Consequently, ____ has (not) been emphasized.

☆原因总结2:As a consequence, ____ paid relatively less attention to _____.

less → more

建议措施段

三句或四句

=总结+(建议1+建议2)+展望

总结句1(针对负面问题建议):

In view of the seriousness of the situation, effective measures should be taken before things get worse.

鉴于:in view of→ considering

seriousness → prevalence

总结句2(针对负面问题建议): Therefore/Thus/Hence/Accordingly/To tackle this problem, it is high time that we took feasible steps to stop/ limit this trend.

总结句3: (正反均可)People’s ways to _______ do vary/differ.

(☆替换:1. Evidently, there are a variety of ways in which people can _______. 或2. It is apparent that ways to tackle this issue are various.)Some _____; some ______; some others _____.

建议1:On the one hand, it is essential that laws and regulations should be worked out and enforced to ban/support ____.(法规监管)

☆建议2:On the other hand, it is suggested that _______ should enhance/ promote/ cultivate/ strengthen their awareness of _______. (强化意识)

建议3:Then, it is absolutely necessary/ important /significant for ____ to ____

建议4(被动句):Additionally, ____ are highly hoped/ expected/ well-advised to ______.

☆建议5(发动群众):Last but not least, we should educate/ advocate/ encourage _____ to _____. friends, classmates and acquaintances

展望未来1:Only by adopting these measures, can we hope/ expect to witness the ideal scenes in which ____ enjoy ____ to the utmost.

展望未来2:A promising and hopeful future is just awaiting us if we spare no effort to it.

展望未来3:Undoubtedly, if we spare no efforts to do so, the future/ prospect of ____ will be rosy, hopeful and promising.

观点对比型作文写作思路

请关注一下该类作文命题形式的变化。

Ⅰ段:现象描述

Ⅱ段:观点阐述:支持方观点(利)

Ⅲ段:观点阐述:支持方观点(弊)

Ⅳ段:我的看法

Online Shopping

1. 现在网上购物已成为一种时尚

2. 网上购物有很多好处, 但也有不少问题

3. 我的建议

Ⅰ段:现象描述

同现象描述段写法:

如:1. 现在网上购物已成为一种时尚

Ⅱ段:观点阐述:支持方观点(利)

支持方主题句1:There are some individuals arguing that ____ is of great importance/ benefit for ____.

☆支持方主题句2:A number of individuals favor / advocate _____ ( based on the following viewpoints).

支持方主题句3:Those who are in favor of ____ claim that ____ is / are superior to ____ .

☆支持方观点1:In their eyes, without _______ , it is impossible for individuals to __________

☆支持方观点2:They also point out that _____ will bring greater benefit /convenience/ more opportunities to _____.

☆支持方观点3: What makes them convinced is that ____ is of great value/necessity /significance for them to _____.

☆支持方观点4:From their viewpoints, _____ will definitely promote the development/efficiency of _____, which otherwise would be impossible.

支持方观点5:They firmly believe that ____ will enable them to enrich their social/academic / professional experience and broaden their horizons.

支持方观点6:Another evident advantage/ merit/ benefit is that ____ may offer /provide entertainment/ pleasure/ enjoyable life.

Ⅱ段:反方观点(弊)

反方观点(弊):本质为分析危害,因此用于分析危害的表达也可以用来写反方观点。

主题句1:Even so, others hold a different view that ____ carries some risks/doubts.

主题句2:Others, however, regard it differently.

主题句3:Advantageous/beneficial/rewarding/good/popular as it is, others have an opposite perspective.

主题句4:In spite of all these claims, others maintain that it is unnecessary to ____

☆反方观点1:_____ means a great amount of time or money; therefore, _____ may be afflicted .

☆反方观点3:In their eyes, ____ calls for/requires/necessities plenty of energy; nonetheless, the result/quality is not as satisfactory as expected.

反方观点4:In addition, what worries many parents/teachers is that some _____ may exert/generate/have negative influence on _____. For instance, some _____; some _____; some ______.

Ⅲ段:我的观点 3句

我的观点

+理由

+展望未来

我的观点1:As far as I am concerned, the advantages of _____ will far outweigh its / their disadvantages.

我的观点2:I, as well as many others, am convinced that _____ will do more good than harm.

我的观点3:As a college student, I am firmly convinced that it is necessary for us to ____.

我的观点4:(折中型)Who is right? I think there is something right in both arguments. However, what convinces me is that we should ____ firstly. Then, we are also expected to _______.

理由句:写法同第一段和第二段

展望未来:同问题解决型展望未来写法。

观点对比型实例

2008-6 :Recreational activities

1. 娱乐活动多种多样

2. 娱乐活动可能使人们受益,也可能有危害性

3. 作为大学生我的看法

描述现象:

In the contemporary society, a variety of recreational activities have gained great popularity among individuals. Turning a look around, we can find a great many examples: traveling, sports, playing games and so on.

正方观点(利)

Some people argue that it is absolutely necessary for people to participate in these activities, because they bring convenience and benefit.

In their eyes, without these activities, it is impossible for individuals to ease their working and studying pressure.

Moreover, what makes them convinced is that enjoying recreational time is of great significance for them to make friends.

反方观点

主题句:

Beneficial as these activities are, others have an opposite perspective.

反方原因1:

First, they argue that taking part in them means a great amount of time, money and energy; therefore, their work may be afflicted .

In addition, what worries many parents or teachers is that some games (gambling or computer games) may have negative influence on teenagers’ learning.

我的看法

(折中型)

Who is right? I think there is something right in both arguments.

However, what convinces me is that we should attach more importance to our study or work firstly. Then, we are also expected to get relaxed through positive recreation.

Only by doing so, can we hope to enjoy our work and recreation time to the utmost. (213 words)

写作时间安排

总计:30分钟

1. 审题: 识别提纲功能 2-3分钟

2. 以关键词形式打草稿3-4 分钟

3. 正文写作 18-20 分钟

4. 检查修正 2-3分钟