实用作文
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实用作文

书面英语要注意措词(diction )的准确。根据不同的交际目的和读者对象,写作中的措词有事正式,有时却口语化。一般说来,便条中的用于去想口语化,通知或布告中的语言通常较正式,有时也有口语化的。无论是便条还是通知,行文都要求简洁明了,表达直接、清晰,尽量避免冗余重复。

英文书信可分成两大类。第一类为私人信函,有时也称社交信函;第二类为事务信函。两者在格式上和语言上存在差异,通常前者为非正式文体,后者为正式文体。

英文邀请信或请柬可分为正式和非正式两种。因而在语言风格和格式的运用上也存在差异。官方邀请信或私人重要时间的邀请信通常为正式文体。朋友或熟人之间一般活动的邀请信通常为非正式文体。对于书面的邀请信,收信人要给予书面的回复,表示接受或谢绝。

便条(Short Messages and Notices)

格式:

包括日期、称呼和结尾三部分

1)日期

April 24th , 2005/April 24, 2005/ April 24/ /24/04/2005//04/24/2005

位置在右上角或左上角

2)称呼

开头不一定要用“dear ”来称呼,如果用的话,就是(Dear )Jack:(,) 位置在日期下面一行左侧

3)结尾也不一定用“sincerely ”,但是必须要署名

Y ours sincerely,/Yours,/Sincerely yours,/Sincerely,

Mike

4)格式需清楚,要么是齐头式要么是缩格式

行文简洁明了,可以使用不完整句子,具有口语的形式和特点。

通知或布告

1) 时间和地点

2) 活动内容

3) 其他有关细节

电子邮件通常有一下几个特点:

1) 包含一个说明邮件主题的标题

2) 通常围绕一个主题

3) 口语化又不失专业性

4)内容简洁,要注意格式和内容的准确与规范。

请求信:

1)清晰地陈述请求的内容或所要获取的信息

2)提出的问题数量不宜过多,要便于回答

3)解释收信人回信的理由

4)表示感谢

5)如有必要,附上有回信地址并贴有邮票的信封。

回复:

1)尽快回复

2)正确拼写对方的姓名和地址

3)采取有好的态度

4)提供所要求的有关帮助或信息。若因故不能提供,避免在信的一开始就加以拒绝,而要解释原因,争取对方谅解

5)为对方提供便利的后续服务

祝贺信:

祝贺信是对家人、好友或合作伙伴的人生或事业上的成功,如:结婚、生子、通过考试、晋职等事表示祝贺。祝贺信要及时发出,语言力求亲切、热情、真诚。 投诉信:

写投诉信时,写信人通常因对方的过失和错误感到失望,甚至表示愤怒。但是谨记:处理投诉的人通常并不是投诉对象,而是写信人希望帮助解决问题的人。因此,投诉信需要清晰地表述投诉的理由以及想要获得的解决办法,避免使用威胁、讽刺和控告的语气。一般投诉信包含以下几个信息要点:

1)投诉的事由

2) 投诉的凭据,如:所购物品的发票(复印件)

3)要求,如:建议改正措施,要求调换商品

4)礼貌地表达对投诉获得正确处理的信心

简历:

简历是申请人对自身工作经历和教育背景的概述,也是学校或招聘单位迅速了解申请人的经历与所求学位或职位是否相称,并决定是否给予面试的一个重要途径。通常,简历可分为三种类型:按时间顺序排列的简历,按功能排列的简历,兼有前两者特点的综合简历,主要内容:

1)页首:申请人的姓名、地址、联系电话或电子邮件

2)申请目标

3)教育:按从现在至过去的顺序排列接受教育的经历,列举出学校的名称(通常省略小学、中学的经历);修读的专业和主要课程;根据具体情况,对课程的GPA 可以植酸主要课程的GPA(Grade Point Average,大学课程平均成绩) ,所获学位、证书、荣誉和奖学金等。

4)工作经历

5)技能

6)奖励、荣誉与活动

7)推荐人(references )

Waxberries 杨梅

Pot Luck(参加聚会的每个人各带一味菜肴供共享的)百乐餐

ethnic costume 民族服饰

unscratched 未被划伤的

chip 缺口

crack 裂缝

alumni 校友

Extracurricular Activities 课外活动

段落

段落是一篇文章的组成部分,但因意义相对完整也可自成一体。一个段落表达一个中心或一个主题思想。通常由主题句(topic sentence)来表达。主题句通常是段落的第一个句子,但也由居于中间或末尾的。它使读者迅速、准确地掌握本段落讲述的主要内容。段落中的其他句子提供与主题句相关的支持信息,用来展开或讨论中心思想。这些支持信息可以是事实、细节、力争、推理、数据或轶事等。 一个好的段落应该意思完整、连贯。

1)完整,是指段落具有明确的中心思想,通常由主题句表现。但有些段落的主题并不由主题句点出而是隐藏在字里行间。段落中的所有句子都围绕这个中心思想展开,并得到具体细节的支持,这些具体细节使中心思想的表述呈现一定的层次。例如:

Topic sentence (general) →Support Point No.1 (specific)(explanation, example, or more details) → Support Point No. 2(specific) →Concluding Sentence (general)

实例:

It is unusual to live through a day without hearing or seeing an advertisement. There are arguments for and against this common phenomenon.

→The high cost of advertising has led many critics to attack it as wasteful, unnecessary, unreliable and annoying.

→These critics argue that the cost of goods is raised unnecessarily since the cost of advertising is included in production costs.

→In rebuttal (相反), the proponents(支持者) of promoting goods argue that by attracting consumers to buy commodities, advertising enables manufacturers to sell their products in much larger quantities than they would otherwise.

→ Modern economists say that advertising plays an integral role in the development of markets for low-cost goods.

2) 连贯,是指段落中的句子意思清楚,条理清晰,层次分明,段落的信息结构符合逻辑,句子之间过度自然顺畅。常用的过度方法有:使用平行结构;重复有关的词或词组;使用代词;保持人称和数,动词人次时态的一致等。等作者转换话题时,需要另起一段。

a)关键词的重复

对上一句话中关键词的重复使句子间过度自然顺畅。

Quality problems in production are often the result of inferior raw materials. Some companies have strong programs for ensuring the quality of incoming production materials and supplies.

b) 代词的使用

使用this,that ,they, these, those 这些代词使语篇增强连贯性。代词使用要确保其指代清楚。

Xerox has a four-point program to assist suppliers. This program includes written specifications for production materials and components. c) 过渡词的使用

过渡词或连接词使段落中的句子衔接自然。这些有标记的过度词使内容紧凑,连贯。可以帮助读者更好地理解段落所表达的内容。

时间:before, after, afterwards, first, second, meanwhile

地点或方向:above, below, next to,

比较:also, in the same manner, likewise, similarly

对比:although, but however, instead, nevertheless, on the other hand, 举例:for example, for instance, specially, in this way

逻辑关系:because, consequently, for this reason, hence, therefore, since, accordingly

附加想法:further, furthermore, in addition, moreover, and also, besides 结论: all in all, in conclusion, in other words, in short, in summary, on the whole, that is, therefore, to sum up.

类比和对比

在日常生活中,我们常对有关实务进行类比或对比,以便更清楚地描述或叙述某事。类比是指出两个或两个以上实务的相似之处,而对比则是突出他们的不同之处。

类比:

*Both tobacco and alcohol are injurious to health.

*Cairo is no bigger than some common European cities.

对比:

*Unlike a conventional circuit(常规电路), the circuit we are now designing attempts to use a microcomputer and a CAN bus controller for automatic printer sharing. *Arabic is read from right to left whereas English is read from left to right.

但是在写作时,类比和对比常常同时使用,作者既指出相似之处,又比较差异所在。

运用类比和对比,先要确定比较的点,然后选择一种方式来组织相似点和不同点进行比较。

*** 英语水平考试名目繁多从作文的体裁来看,一般包括议论文(argumentation ),描述文(description ) (通常要求将各种图标信息转换为文字, 对图标进行描述等) ,以及实用写作,例如,依据提供的有关情景信息写一封新建。每一项考试都有各自的作文评判要求,但是都可以概括为:切题。连贯,准确。切题就是要按照规定的要求来写,不离题。连贯指的是意义连贯,即表达思想要清楚、完整,层次分明。准确指的是语言运用准确、大意、作文的水平要求有高有低,题目形式多样,但是上述的要点是一致的。

在写图表作文时,作者应对图表进行客观的描述,而不应该抛开图表去发表自己主观的看法。通常,在开头部分,作者用一、二句话对图表有一个总体的描述,讲清楚这张图表要表达的主旨。在主体段落,对图表中的重要信息进行描述、概括或评述。如,总的趋势、数据之间的比较等,不必对所有信息事无巨细一一描述。最后的结尾部分,削除对比、对照的趋势,以及从这个趋势可以得出的结论。 议论文写作是作文考试最常见的一种体裁。考生需对某一现象或观点进行讨论,

陈述自己的观点。在讨论过程中,作者需要表达一个贺礼的、站得住脚的论点,因而需要全面客观地审视别人的观点或自己其他的想法、事务的优缺点、赞成与反对的论据等。通过对比和比较,评价各种不同的观点,最终给出自己的观点或标明自己的立场。例如

Passage1

Some people like to eat out at food stalls and restaurants, while others like to prepare food at home. This often depends on the kind of lifestyle people have. Those with very busy jobs don’t always have time to cook. They like the convenience of eating out. Overall, though, it is cheaper and healthier to eat at home.

While eating in restaurants is fast, you need to spend more money . When I have dinner at a restaurant with a friend, the bill is usually over fifty yuan. I can buy a lot of groceries with that much money . Even lunch at a fast-food stand usually costs at least ten yuan for one person. That ’s enough to feed the whole family for a meal at home.

In addition, meals in restaurants are often high in fat and calories, and big plates of food are served, which supplies much more food than you need to eat in one more meal. If you cook at home, you have more control over the ingredients. For example, you can use margarine(人造黄油) instead of butter on your potatoes. At home, you can control your portion size. Y ou can serve yourself as little as you want. In a restaurant, on the other hand, you may eat a full plate of food “because you paid for it ”.

It ’s true that eating out is convenient. Y ou don ’t have to shop, or cook, or clean up. But real home cooking doesn ’t have to take a lot of time. There are many simple meals that don’t take long to make. In fact, they are faster than eating out, especially if you think of the time you spend going to a restaurant, waiting for a table, waiting for service, and going back home.

Passage 2

Some people believe that television has destroyed communication among friends and family. I think this is an exaggeration. In my opinion, whether or not television hurts communication depends on what type of program is being viewed. More importantly ,

it also depends on the type of viewers.

There are empty programs and educational programs. Empty programs do not challenge people. They have just enough storyline (故事情节) to keep viewers from switching off the channel. There are also passive and active viewers. Passive viewers watch television without thinking about what they are seeing. They in fact enjoy the fact that they don’t have to think. They never break away to talk about the program with their friends and family. The combination of empty programs and passive viewers makes communication unlikely.

On the other hand, active viewers watching educational programs always want to share what they have seen with their friends and family. “Educational ” doesn ’t necessarily mean documentaries or learning programs from the open university. They could be drama with realistic relationships or action shows with a clever plot. When active viewers watch programs, they have ideas and they may talk about them with others. Good programs inspire viewers to change their thinking and other lives.

作结论通常是把讨论、陈述的观点进行概括;同时,提出自己的观点或标明自己的立场。做结论时要注意结论与前文的讨论分析在逻辑上的吻合。

一下两段话就是上面两个例子的结论:

* Both eating at restaurants and cooking at home can be satisfying. Both can taste good and be enjoyed with family and friends. I prefer cooking at home because of the money and health issues, but people will make the choice that fits their lifestyle best. * Television may destroy communication among passive viewers. Thos viewers probably don ’t want to communicate with friends and family much anyway . For active viewers who enjoy communicating, television is without doubt helpful!

表达法:

一、 写描述文的表达法和结构

1. Chart 1 shows the number of road accidents in a city over a period of two years.

2. As can be seen from (/in) the chart (diagram/table/graph), there is an increase of road accidents in 2003.

3. According to Table 1 (Figure 1/Chart 1), most people are interested in buying a car.

4. As (is) shown in Table 1(Figure 1/Chart 1), most students like their club.

5. The above graph reveals the amount of fast food consumed by British teenagers over a 10-year period between 1992 and 2002.

6. It can be seen from the chart (diagram/table/figures)that most office workers have quit smoking.

二、写议论文的表达法

1. The first thing (first of all) we have (I should like ) to consider is who should be to blame.

2. As far as I am concerned, this proposal seems feasible.

3. It is a fact (There is no doubt/I believe) that most people like the idea.

4. One of the main arguments in favor of (against) X is that people like to live in this area.

5. I agree with X when he writes (says) that smoking is harmful to people’s health.

6. To be frank, I would like to support X

7. I disagree with X when he says that the proposal is constructive.

8. After close inspection/examination, I would argue for the plan.

三、结论的表达结构

1. It is generally (widely) accepted (argued/held/believed) that people in this country have a sufficient daily intake of calories and protein.

2. From the table (figures/data/information), it can (may)be seen (concluded/shown/inferred) that people are getting less religious.

3. In conclusion (Finally), we can (may) say (it can/may/may be said) that there seems to be a close link between learner’s motivation and their language proficiency.