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1

Hainan Island Tourism

Tie Yue 2014211967 Qian Cheng 2014212014 Li Xilin 2014212016 Fang Ke 2014212019 Zhang Tong

2014211965

2 Contents

1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 3

1.1 The background of Hainan . ...................................................................................... 3

1.2 The structure of the essay . ....................................................................................... 3

2. The role of stakeholders in Hainan .............................................................................. 4

2.1 The central governments (The People's Government of Hainan Province) . .... 5

2.2 Local communities (Local communities & residents in Hainan island) ............. 5

2.3 Investors (Tourism industries) . ................................................................................. 5

2.4 Tourists (Consumers & Supervisors) ...................................................................... 6

2.5 Island military (Military stationed in Hainan island) .............................................. 6

2.6 Non-government organizations (Environmental protection organization) ........ 7

3. The sustainability of tourism development in Hainan ............................................ 7

3.1 Environmental sustainability .................................................................................... 8

3.2 Socio-cultural sustainability . ..................................................................................... 8

3.3 Economical sustainability ......................................................................................... 9

4. Recommendations on tourism development in Hainan ....................................... 11

4.1 Environmental aspect ............................................................................................. 11

4.2 Socio-cultural aspect . .............................................................................................. 12

4.3 Economical aspect .................................................................................................. 12

5. Conclusion . ....................................................................................................................... 12

6. Reference List: . ................................................................................................................ 14

3 1. Introduction

1.1 The background of Hainan

Hainan island is one of the most popular tourism destinations in China for decades. In Hianan province, tourism is one of the fastest developing industries since the middle of 1980s. It has also been the particular region that draws attention from all scales of society with developing policies, investment and interest (Du, 2015). As the largest Chinese tropical marine province, the advantage of the resources lies in its unique tropical oceans and climate resources, especially the vast sea area and many islands, which provides a rich resource base for Hainan tourism development and has broad prospects for development (Yuan, 2015). Hainan key performance indicators are showed in chart 1 as follows. According to the statistics, from 2005 to 2015, the total number of tourists increased to 44929.5 thousand persons, and the total tourism earnings even reached 54300 million yuan. At the same time, the development of tourism has also led to the rapid development of the real estate, commerce, transportation, communications and other industries (HPBS, 2016).

1.2 The structure of the essay

As a whole, this study is composed of three major categories:

stakeholders,

4 sustainability and recommendations. The first part is the role of different stakeholders in Hainan tourism planning and development. It will be examined from six categories for the specific situation of Hainan island. The second part is the sustainability of its tourism development. It covers the fundamental issues related to the sustainable evaluation, and the influential aspects including environment, socio-culture and economy will be applied in this part. Finally, the recommendations will be put forward based on its future development through combining actual conditions of Hainan and theories. The study concludes by proposing several suggestions on the purpose of promoting Hainan island as a better tourism destination.

2. The role of stakeholders in Hainan

According to Freeman (1984), a stakeholder is ‘any group or individual who can affect or is affected by the achievement of the organization’s objectives’. Hainan, as China’s most important island tourism, the stakeholders involved in Hainan are composed of six main categories: the central governments, local communities, investors, tourists, island military and non-governmental organizations. Each group of stakeholders is a critical component of the tourism destination due to the fact that the initiatives and thoughts of stakeholders are external to the strategic planning and development processes (Dill, 1975). Each stakeholder in the pursuit of their own interests of the same time, it also should bear the social responsibility of their own. Hainan Island Tourism stakeholder relationship maps as showed in figure 1.

5 2.1 The central governments (The People's Government of Hainan Province)

In the tourism planning in Hainan, the local government and administrative departments are the core interests of the stakeholders, they have a stronger ability and a greater voice, therefore, they should assume more social responsibility. Hainan Province People Government should first assume the liability of the planners, coordinators and supervisors. At the same time, they not only coordinate the distribution of interests among various departments within the government, but also coordinate the benefit distribution between stakeholders and other stakeholders. The local governments and administrative departments should actively promote the process of development of Hainan island tourism through specific administrative means, establish a vertical flat administrative system, and promote the transformation from a number of individual county-level administrative regions in Hainan Island to a unified whole special economic function area (Zhang, 2014)

2.2 Local communities (Local communities & residents in Hainan island)

Among all the stakeholders, the organization of local communities and residents is relatively loose, discourse power and organization capabilities are very weak. Although local residents in the destination are located in a relatively weak position, its role in the island tourism planning process cannot be ignored. Their interests and aspirations should be earnestly considered, if the distribution of benefits of local residents cannot be properly handled, it will give Hainan island tourism development obstacles (Li, 2014).

Local residents are the main body of tourism development. They are the ultimate beneficiaries of the local tourism development and they are also parts of the tourism resources. To ensure the realization of the interests of local community residents, tourism planners cannot be ignored in the planning process. The way to fully listen to consider and properly coordinate their interests demands in the planning process, largely reflects the extent of success and perfection of the planning (Zhang, 2014).

2.3 Investors (Tourism industries)

The investment of tourism enterprises has an obligation to bear the huge market risk, which for pursuing the maximization of its own economic interests. Among all the

6 stakeholders, tourism enterprises are the decisive forces in the process of Hainan island tourism development. However, the individual interests of tourism enterprises and the overall interests of Hainan Island tourism are often inconsistent, so that the harmony between them becomes essential. Investors will be more concern about the regional tourism resources of the tourism planning due to the pursuit of the interests, so they will put forward to lots of recommendations for the plan in the entire tourism destination planning, which is also an improvement of the island tourism planning and design. Therefore, in order to better realize the interests of the pursuit, the developers will not only generally form a good interaction with the government, but also play a positive role in promoting on the island tourism planning and development (Li, 2014).

2.4 Tourists (Consumers & Supervisors)

Tourists are an essential link in the stakeholders' chain of Hainan Island tourism. As Hainan Island tourism products consumer groups, tourists have tropical island tourism sightseeing needs. It is noteworthy that the last years the height development of mobile Internet and the popularity of Weibo that emerging interactive media, which enhances the voice of tourists greatly (Li, 2013).

When the tourists in the stakeholder role transformed to the potential pressure groups, gradually they played a conscious or unconscious supervisor role in Hainan Island tourism. Tourists, as the consumers of the awareness improvement and the supervisors of the awareness enhancement, the development of tourism in Hainan island is both a challenge and an opportunity. Administrative departments and tourism enterprises need to understand the dissatisfaction and views of tourists, and effectively improve their own shortcomings to better satisfy the tourist needs of tourism (Li, 2013).

2.5 Island military (Military stationed in Hainan island)

Hainan island is the South Gate of China, which shoulder the principal strategic responsibility of defending the South China Sea and safeguarding the integrity and unification of the motherland. In a sense, these unconventional military facilities also constitute a tourist attraction to attract military interest to travel. However, there is a certain contradiction between the development of tourism resources and the

7 construction of military facilities. In Hainan island tourism, the military does not often express its interest appeal, but once the expression will be a priority to be met. Therefore, it is a significant and special stakeholder in Hainan island tourism (Zhang, 2014).

2.6 Non-government organizations (Media & Environmental protection organization)

In the Hainan island tourism planning process, on the one hand, the media reported kinds of national policy to provide policy guidance for planners, on the other hand, as the media pay attention to the planning and construction of the Hainan island, which makes ordinary people, domestic and foreign developers keep abreast of the trends of planning and development process, so that the construction and development of the destination can get potential tourists and potential financial support. The media participate in tourism planning and development from the perspective of a pursuit of social and cultural benefits mostly. Environmental protection organization gives advice and suggestions from the perspective of the interests of the environment, and put forward valuable relevant professional guidance for the sustainable development of Hainan island tourism (Zhang, 2014).

3. The sustainability of tourism development in Hainan

Since the 1990s, sustainable tourism development has gained attention and been adopted as a policy and planning approach by many governments around the world (Pigram & Wahab, 1997). The assessment of sustainability in Hainan is divided into three aspects: environment, socio-culture and economy. The sustainable development evaluation map as shown as follow.

9 cultural heritage protection projects, national intangible cultural heritage inheritor of 11 people and 89 provincial intangible cultural heritage protection projects (Zhang, 2012). Considering from the aspect of the protection of cultural heritage, the number of project accounted for the national population of Hainan is much higher than the national proportion, which is sustainable for Hainan tourism.

However, it is not sustainable for Hainan folk custom culture. Numerous tourist attractions didn’t conduct an adequate market research in the beginning of the construction, and it is launched blindly and built repeatedly. At the same time, in tourism development, because of the blind pursuit of economic interests, it makes the traditional culture commercialization and vulgarization. So that the folk tourism projects are too artistic and the folk culture is vulgarized, thus the folk characteristics will be dropped (Xiao, 2015).

3.3 Economical sustainability

Considering from the aspect of income-earning opportunities and contribution of poverty alleviation, it is sustainability. According to the urban and rural income growth rate, the per capital income of farmers in Hainan gradually exceeded the growth rate of urban residents' income. As showed in chart 2, from 2011, the per capital income of farmers began to exceed the urban residents. According to the latest statistics of the national economy in Hainan province, in 2013, the per capital net income of farmers reached 8343 yuan, increased 9.7% over the previous year, the per capital net income of urban residents reached 22929 yuan, increased 6.6% over the previous year (Yuan,2014). This shows that the development of tourism has resulted in the increasing of urban and rural residents' income, and gradually narrowing the gap between urban and rural areas.

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However, in the economic system, the economic benefits directly affect the development of the whole destination, which is not sustainable. In recent years, Sanya has become the main pillar of the tourism industry in Hainan with its pleasant climate, so that the government has set up a relatively sound financial policy to develop the hotel service industry in terms of capital investment, but it didn’t create a complete financial support policies for local farmers, agriculture and other industries. Guided by the government's financial policy, the Hainan commercial bank loans, private capital and foreign investment mainly put in hotels, restaurants and tourist attractions and other large projects which can fast profits, so Hainan capital co-ordination mechanism did not form multiple aspects and multiple level forms, and it can not fully meet the funds demand of developing local agriculture and other industry (Chen,2013).

It is also not sustainable in the aspect of employment. Since 1993 to 2002, the tourism of Hainan economic contribution rate jumped to more than 7%, the tourism industry replaced the real estate industry has become an important industry in Hainan economy, from 2003 to 2012, the direct contribution that tourism industry act on Hainan’s economy fell 6%-7% (Miao,2015). Except 2009 to 2014, the tourism

11 employment for all employees in proportion is about 1% lower than tourism contribution for economy, which proves that the development of tourism has not improved the level of employment.

4. Recommendations on tourism development in Hainan

According to UNWTO (2005), the informed participation of all the relevant stakeholders are required in sustainable tourism development process. Thus, in this part, recommendations will be given in three aspects including environment, socio-culture and economy, engaging governments, tourists, tourism organizations and companies to form an open-ended process to implement the vision of tourism sustainable development. The diagram between the relationships is showed as follow.

Additionally, the recommendations could structure a value chain comprising planning, promoting, operating and managing by tourism stakeholders (UNEP, 2009).

4.1 Environmental aspect

As discussed in environmental sustainability analysis part, forest coverage and marine resource are being damaged in recent years with pollution and waste of water. To improve or alleviate this problem, first of all, the People’s Government of Hainan Province and tourism board should consider both micro and macro perspective while making tourism develop plans, which suggest them to see both local eco-tourism and common ground of worldwide tourism within the scope of consideration. In order to protect natural resources like forest, Hainan government could establish a standard of using natural resource and a strict penalty scheme to punish the people or

organizations who are over-using it, so that protect water and marine resource, and

12 government also could establish a hierarchy water-using standard analogy with payroll taxes classification in China. Then, in the following practicing process, tourism companies are supposed to strictly compliance with policies and standards, responsible authorities must strictly implement and supervise the execution. In addition, warning notice signs could be hung up in some scenery spots and public areas to prompt tourists to behave themselves.

4.2 Socio-cultural aspect

As folk custom are being vulgarized with a commercialization, socio-cultural unsustainable problems gradually show up in tourism development of Hainan. As for this issue, related organizations and scenery spots, in practice, could attach more importance and enhance the promotion of traditional culture, traditional cultural education should be enrolled in teaching material for students in order to keep the most authentic custom of Hainan. For a specific example, employees could interpret the historical originate of Bamboo Dancing to visitors before they take part in the activity. Moreover, a sense of thinking highly of folk custom need to be fostered gradually so that most people in Hainan primarily inherit it.

4.3 Economical aspect

As illustrated in part 3.3, there’s a n imbalance of wealth distribution among different industries. In terms of this issue, on one hand, tourism industry could provide more employee opportunities for local people, especially people from rural and remote cities, by doing this, a viable local economies could be set up in Hainan tourism industry. On the other hand, it is of great importance to reach more local community involvement. By this way, Hainan government could deduct foreign investment, at the same time, increase local investment and lead local organizations to participate to the decision of the tourism industry.

5. Conclusion

In conclusion,different role of stakeholders of Hainan tourism has been analyzed with details in the first part of content; fundamental issues related to the sustainable evaluation in three aspects including economic, socio-culture and environmental has been discussed in the second part; at the last, recommendations are given in

13 responsibility attribution and Triple Bottom Line perspectives based on the interpret of stakeholders and sustainability.

14 6. Reference List:

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Chen, D. J. (2013). Choice and Countermeasures of sustainable development of Hainan economy. Times Finance, 510(3), 18-26.

Ding, N. (2012). The survey on the quality of Chinese citizens tourism. Journal of Hainan radio and TV University, 13(3), 72-77.

Hainan Provincal Bureau of Statistics. (2013). Opinions on promoting the development of Hainan international tourism island.Retrieved from

Hainan Provincal Bureau of Statistics. (2016). The data about Hainan statistical yearbook. Retrieved from .

Liu, Z. &Sun, T. (2013). System construction and biodiversity conservation of Hainan Nature Reserve. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 20(4), 22-24.

Li, H. H. (2014). Study on stakeholder theory in island tourism sustainable development. Liaoning Normal University.

Li, Y. Z. (2013). Analysis on stakeholder theory in island tourism sustainable planning. Ocean Development and Management,27(7), 108-110.

Miao, W. S. (2015). Study on the tourism industry to the economic growth of Hainan. Dalian University of Technology.

Ouyang, T. (2013). Problems and Countermeasures of environmental resources in Hainan. Environment Herald,19(2), 14-15.

Shu, H. (2013). A study of community participation in the construction of Hainan international tourism island. Contemporary tourism affairs, 13(2), 125-126.

UNWTO. (2005). Definition of sustainable tourism. Retrieved December 9th, 2016 from http://sdt.unwto.org/content/about-us-5

United Nations Environment Program. (2009). Policy recommendations on sustainable tourism development.

Xiao, X. (2015). Exploitation of Hainan Folk-custom Tourism Resources. Journal of Guangzhou University, 15(7), 57-65.

15 Yuan, F. Y. (2015). Analyze on Tourism Development of Hainan. Tianjin University. Yuan, Z. H. (2014). Study on the Problems of Tourism Development and Farmer’s Income in Hainan Province. Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Zhang, J. J. (2012). The protection and tourism development of the intangible cultural heritage in Hainan. Hunan University.

Zhang, X. (2014). The research on the development model of Hainan Tourism. Anhui University.