四级写作及翻译词汇
四年级 说明文 27572字 1210人浏览 badweb1983

四级写作分类词汇精选

Education:

parenting n. 家长对小孩的教育

schooling n. 学校对学生的教育

cultivate vt. 培养

awareness = sense n. 意识

creative /original adj. 有创造力的

physical adj. 身体的

psychological adj. 心理的

peer n. 同龄人

motivation n. 动力

motivated adj. 有动力的

adapt to 适应……

discipline n. 学科,纪律

memorize v. 记忆

acquire vt. 获得(后面经常跟knowledge/skills)

stimulating adj. 有趣的(在教育类作文中经常可以代替interesting )

Media:

prevalent adj. 无处不在的,经常可代替everywhere

objective adj. 客观的

biased adj. 不客观的

celebrity n. 名人

journalists n. 记者

the press 出版社

coverage n. 报道 cover v. 报道

misleading n. 误导的

dependable adj. 可靠的

up-to-the-minute adj. 非常及时的

sway vt. 媒体影响公众 经常sway+宾语

informative adj. 信息量大的

entertaining adj. 娱乐性强的

Technology:

transform vt. 改变,代替change

breakthrough n. 突破

advance v. / n. 发展

a staggering rate 惊人的速度

information overload 信息爆炸

enhance = boost vt. 提高,增强

innovations n. 创新,发明

telecommunications n. 远程通信

productive adj. 高产率的

productivity n.

Government:

priority n. 首要任务

stability n. 稳定

establish vt. 建立

solve = combat = tackle = resolve =address vt. 解决

alleviate = ease 减轻,缓解

invest in = allocate money to 对…投资

the authorities 当局

ban = forbid= prohibit vt. 禁止

monitor vt. 监督

administer = regulate vt. 管理

tax revenue 税收

democratic adj. 民主的

demand vt/n. 需求

efficient adj. 高效率的

Tourism:

broaden one’s horizons/expand one’s outlook 开阔人的眼界 conflicts n. 冲突

explore vt. 探索

promote vt. 促进 反义词:restrict 阻碍,限制

tourist attraction 旅游点

local residents = local inhabitants 当地居民

mutual understanding 相互了解

enrich one’s experience 丰富人的经历

Languages:

the proliferation of ……的大量扩散(比如英语,互联网,环境污染等 plays a dominant role in … 在……占统治地位

go extinct 灭绝

lesser-known languages 小语种

the widespread use of … 。。。广泛的使用

Culture:

ancestors n. 祖先

descendants n. 后代

cultural assimilation 文化同化

indiscriminate adj. 盲目的

time-honored adj. 历史悠久的

cultural heritage 文化遗产

cultural diversity 文化多样性

cultural identity 文化特性

ethnic minorities 少数民族

Development:

the pace of life = the tempo of life 生活节奏

the gap between the urban area and the rural area 城乡差距 eliminate vt. 消除

inferior adj. 质量差的

facilities n. 设施

alienated adj. (人与人之间)疏远的

materialistic adj. (人)物质化的,现实的

the present situation = the current situation = the status quo 现状 exterior n. (建筑)外观

function n. 功能

Globalization:

sweeping trends 席卷一切的潮流

synthesize the Asian and the Western cultures 有机结合东西方文化 erode vt. 侵蚀(本土文化)

universal adj. 普遍的

isolated adj. 孤立的

import vt./ n. 进口的

export vt/n 出口的

Women:

domestic violence 家庭暴力

gender equality 性别平等

discrimination n. 歧视 discrimination against

an enlightened society 一个开明的社会

household chores 家务事

be tied down by 被…所拖累

Family:

offspring n. 后代

personality clashes 性格冲突

household n. 家庭的另一种写法

affluent adj. 富裕的

impoverished adj. 贫穷的

community n. 社区

family values 家庭观念

generation gap 代沟

family bonds 亲情

harmony n. 和谐

Crime:

crimes = offence = criminal acts n. 犯罪

commit a crime 犯罪(动词短语)

stringent adj. 严厉的

punishment / penalty n. 惩罚

the crime rate = the incidence of crime 犯罪率

rampant adj. 猖獗的

violate the law 违法

restrict vt. 限制(自由等)

impulsive adj. 冲动的

consequence n. 后果

circumstance n. 处境,状况

reform /rehabilitate criminals 改造罪犯

Animals:

preserve vt. 保护(某种资源,比如natural resources, old buildings,保护人可用protect )

inhumane adj. 残酷的

biodiversity n. 生物多样性

companions n. 伙伴

replacements = alternatives n. 替代物

habitat n. 栖息地

endangered species 濒危动物

hide n. 兽皮 (皮毛:fur )

Environment:

sustainable development 可持续发展

exploit natural resources 开采自然资源

the ecosystem 生态系统 (eco 开头的词都和生态有关)

disposable adj. 一次性的(disposable chopsticks)

conserve vt. 节约(环境类可代替save )

deteriorate vt. 恶化(某种现象自身恶化)

aggravate vt. 恶化(某种现象导致别的恶化,)

discharge vt. 排放(污染物)

contamination n. 污染(词很大,不宜多用)

consume = deplete vt. 消耗(资源)

eco-friendly adj. 有益于环保的

scarcity n. 短缺

历史与文化翻译词汇

京剧 Peking opera

秦腔 Qin opera

功夫Kungfo

太极Tai Chi

口技 ventriloquism

木偶戏puppet show

皮影戏 shadow play

折子戏 opera highlights

杂技 acrobatics

相声 witty dialogue comedy

刺绣 embroidery

苏绣 Suzhou embroidery

泥人 clay figure

书法 calligraphy

中国画 traditional Chinese painting

水墨画 Chinese brush painting

中国结 Chinese knot

中国古代四大发明 the four great inventions of ancient China 火药 gunpowder

印刷术printing

造纸术 paper-making

指南针 the compass

青铜器 bronze ware

瓷器 porcelain; china

唐三彩 tri-color glazed pottery of the Tang Dynasty

景泰蓝cloisonne

武术 martial arts

儒家思想Confucianism

儒家文化 Confucian culture

道教 Taoism

墨家Monism

法家 Legalism

佛教 Buddhism

孔子 Confucius

孟子 Mencius

老子 Lao Tzu

庄子 Chuang Tzu

墨子 Mo Tzu

孙子Sun Tzu

文房四宝(笔墨纸观)the Four Treasures of the Study (brush, ink stick, paper, and ink stone)

《大学》The Great Learning

《中庸》The Doctrine of the Mean

《论语》The Analects of Confucius

《孟子》The Mencius

《孙子兵法》The Art of War

《三国演义》Three Kingdoms

《西游记》Journey to the West

《红楼梦》Dream of the Red Mansions 《水浒传》Heroes of the Marshes

《山海经》The Classic of Mountains and Rivers 《资治通鉴》History as a Mirror

《春秋》The Spring and Autumn Annals 《史记》Historical Records

《诗经》The Book of Songs

《易经》The I Ching; The Book of Changes 《礼记》The Book of Rites

《三字经》Three-character Scriptures 八股文 eight-part essay

五言绝句 five-character quatrain

七言律诗 seven-character octave

中山装 Chinese tunic suit

唐装 Tang suit

阳历 Solar calendar

阴历 Lunar calendar

闰年 leap year

十二生肖zodiac

春节 the Spring Festival

元宵节 the Lantern Festival 清明节 the Tomb-sweeping Day 端午节 the Dragon-boat Festival 中秋节 the Mid-autumn Day 重阳节 the Double-ninth Day 七夕节 the Double-seventh Day 春联 spring couplets

庙会 temple fair

爆竹 firecracker

年画(traditional) New Year pictures 压岁钱 New Year gift-money 舞龙dragon dance

元宵 sweet sticky rice dumplings 花灯 festival lantern

灯谜 lantern riddle

舞狮 lion dance

踩高跷 stilt walking

赛龙舟 dragon boat race 胡同hutong

长城 the Great Wall of China 烽火台 beacon tower

秦士台皇陵 the Mausoleum of Emperor Qinshihuang

兵马俑 Terracotta Warriors and Horses 大雁塔 Big Wild Goose Pagoda

丝绸之路the Silk Road

敦煌莫高窟Mogao Grottoes

华清池 Huaqing Hot Springs

五台山"Wutai Mountain

九华山 Jiuhua Mountain

蛾眉山Mount Emei

泰山 Mount Tai

黄山 Mount Huangshan; the Yellow Mountain 故宫 the Imperial Palace

天坛 the Temple of Heaven

午门 Meridian Gate

大运河 Grand Canal

护城河the Moat

回音壁Echo Wall

居庸关 Juyongguan Pass

九龙壁 the Nine Dragon Wall

黄帝陵 the Mausoleum of Emperor Huangdi 十三陵 the Ming Tombs

苏州园林 Suzhou gardens

西湖 West Lake

九寨沟 Jiuzhaigou Valley

日月潭 Sun Moon Lake

布达拉宫Potala Palace

鼓楼 drum tower

四合院 quadrangle; courtyard complex

孔庙 Confucius Temple

喇嘛Lama

乐山大佛 Leshan Giant Buddha

十八罗汉 the Eighteen Disciples of the Buddha

相关题材翻译阅读

Chinese culture

1.

2.Tea

3.Great Wall

4 China 瓷器

5. Terracotta Warriors and Horses of Qin Shi Huang 6. Dragon

Chinese Dragon

Dragon totem worship in China has been around for the last 8,000 years. The ancients in China considered the dragon (or loong) a fetish that combines animals including the fish, snake, horse and ox with cloud, thunder, lightning and other natural celestial phenomena. The Chinese dragon was formed in accordance with the multicultural fusion process of the Chinese nation. To the Chinese, the dragon signifies innovation and cohesion.

对龙图腾的崇拜在中国大约已绵延了八千多年。 中国龙是古人将鱼、蛇、马、牛等动物与云雾、雷电等自然天象集合而成的一种神物。 中国龙的形成与中华民族的多元融合过程同步。在中国人的心目中,龙具有振奋腾飞、开拓变化的寓意和团结凝聚的精神。

7.Dumplings

Dumplings are one of the Chinese people’s favorite traditional dishes. According to an ancient Chinese legend, dumplings were first made by the medical saint---Zhang Zhongjing. There are three steps involved in making dumplings: 1) make dumpling wrappers out of dumpling flour; 2) prepare the dumpling stuffing; 3) make dumplings and boil them. With thin and elastic dough skin, fresh and tender stuffing, delicious taste, and unique shapes, dumplings are worth eating hundreds of times. There’s an old saying that claims, “Nothing could be more delicious than dumplings”. During the Spring Festival and other holidays, or when treating relatives and friends, Chinese people like to follow the auspicious custom of eating dumplings. To Chinese people who show high reverence for family love, having dumplings at the moment the old year is replaced by the new is an essential part of bidding farewell to the old and ushering in the new year.

饺子是深受中国人民喜爱的传统食品。 相传为古代医圣张仲景发明。饺子的制作是包括: 1) 擀皮、2) 备馅、3) 包馅水煮三个步骤。其特点是皮薄馅嫩,味道鲜美,形状独特,百食不厌。民间有“好吃不过饺子”的俗语。中国人接亲待客、逢年过节都有包饺子吃的习俗,寓意吉利。对崇尚亲情的中国人来说,“更岁交子”吃饺子,更是欢度除夕、辞旧迎新必不可少的内容。

8. Acupuncture

Acupuncture is an important part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In accordance with the “main and collateral channels” theory in TCM, the purpose of acupuncture is to dredge the channel and regulate qi and blood, so as to keep the body’s yin and yang balanced and achieve reconciliation between the internal organs. It features in traditional Chinese medicine that “internal diseases are to be treated with external therapy”. The main therapy of acupuncture involves using needles to pierce certain acupoints of the patient’s body, or adopting mox ibustion to stimulate the patient’s acupoints so as to stimulate the channels and relieve pain. With its unique advantages, acupuncture has been handed down generation after generation and has now spread all over the world. Nowadays, acupuncture, along with Chinese food, kung fu (otherwise known as Chinese martial arts), and traditional Chinese medicine, has been internationally hailed as one of the “four new national treasures.”

针灸是中医学的重要组成部分。按照中医的经络理论,针灸疗法主要是通过疏通经络、调和气血,来达到阴阳归于平衡,使脏腑趋于调和之目的。其特点是“内病外治”。主要疗法是用针刺入病人身体的一定穴位,或用艾火的温热刺激

烧灼病人的穴位,以达到刺激经络。治疗病痛的目的。针灸以其独特的优势,流传至今并传播到了世界,与中餐、功夫、中药一起被海外誉为中国的“新四大国粹”。

9.Chinese Kung Fu

Chinese kung fu, or Chinese martial arts, carries traditional Chinese culture in abundance. It is a traditional Chinese sport which applies the art of attack and defence in combat and the motions engaged with a series of skill and tricks. The core idea of Chinese king fu is derived from the Confucian theory of both “the mean and harmony” and “cultivating qi” (otherwise known as nourishing one’s spirit). Meanwhile, it also includes thoughts of Taoism and Buddhism. Chinese kung fu has a long history, with multi-various sects and many different boxing styles, and emphasizes coupling hardness with softness and internal and external training. It co ntains the ancient great thinkers’ pondering of life and the universe. The skills in wielding the 18 kinds of weapons named by the later generations mainly involve the skills of bare-handed boxing, such as shadow boxing (Taijiquan), form and will boxing (Xingyiquan), eight trigram palm (Baguazhang), and the skills of kung fu weaponry, such as the skill of using swords, spears, two-edged swords and halberds, axes, tomahawks, kooks, prongs and so on.

中国功夫即中国武术,是将技击寓于搏斗和套路运动之中的中国传统体育项

目,承载着丰富的中国民族传统文化。其核心思想是儒家的中和养气之说,同时兼容了道家、释家的思想。中国武术源远流长、流派林立、拳种繁多,讲究刚柔并济、内外兼修,蕴含着先哲们对生命和宇宙的参悟。后世所称十八般武艺,主要指:徒手拳艺,如太极拳、形意拳、八卦掌等;器械功夫,如刀枪剑戟、斧钺钩叉等。

10. Chinese Characters

Chinese characters were initially meant to be simple pictures used to help people remember things. After a long period of development, it finally became a unique character system that embodies phonetic sound, image, idea, and rhyme at the same time. The writing system, which was extremely advanced in ancient times, began with inscriptions on bones and tortoise shells, and these are regarded as the original forms of Chinese characters. Afterwards, Chinese characters went through numerous calligraphic styles: bronze inscriptions, official script, regular script, cursive script,

running script, etc. Chinese characters are usually round outside and square inside, which is rooted in ancient Chinese beliefs of an orbicular sky and a rectangular Earth. The five basic strokes of Chinese characters are “---“ (the horizontal stroke) “│” (the vertical stroke), “/”( the left-falling stroke), “\” (the right-falling stroke), and “乙” (the turning stroke).

汉字是从原始人用以记事的简单图画,经过不断演变发展最终成为一种兼具音、形、意韵的独特文字。现存中国古代最早成熟的文字是甲骨文,被认为是现代汉字的初形。此后,汉字又经历了金文、隶书、楷书、草书、行书等不同的阶段。汉字结构“外圆内方“, 源于古人”天圆地方“的观念。汉字有五种基本笔画,即:横、竖、撇、捺、折。

11. Chinese Chopsticks

The Chinese way of eating with chopsticks is unique in the world. The recorded history of chopsticks started more than three thousand years ago. Chopsticks were named zhu in ancient Chinese. They look deceptively simple to use, but possess multi-various functions, such as clamping, turning over, lifting up, raking, stirring, scooping, poking, tearing, and so on. Chopsticks were taken as an auspicious mascot by ordinary people in ancient China. For example, the partial tone of chopsticks is often used by people as a metaphor at weddings to indicate a blessing or benediction for the couple to have a baby soon. Unlike using a knife and fork or one’s own hands, a pair of chopsticks also implies the meaning of “Harmony is what matters”. Chopsticks are highly praised by Westerners as a hallmark of ancient oriental civilization.

中国人使用筷子就餐的方式在世界上独树一帜。有史记载用筷的历史已有三千多年。筷子古时称为箸,它看似简单,但却同时具有夹、拨、挑、扒、拌、撮、戳、撕等多种功能。中国民间视筷子为吉祥之物,如婚俗中将筷子隐喻为快生贵子的祝福等。与使用刀叉以及手抓的方式不同,成双结对的筷子含有“和为贵“的意蕴。西方人赞誉筷子是古老的东方文明。

12.Chinese Seal

A seal can also be defined as a stamp. Both the Chinese official and private seal of various dynasties have different titles, such as stamp, zhu note, contract, fu, lease and others. The seals used by the emperors of ancient China were called xi, yin, bao, etc. According to historical records, seals were widely used during the Warring States

Period (475BC-221BC). The making of a seal is to engrave fonts, such as seal characters and official script and so on; or images in the form of intaglio and embossment into the seal, basically shaped as round or square. Covered with a vermilion overlay, the Chinese seal is not only used in daily life, but it is also used to represent signatures on paintings and calligraphies. It is gradually becoming one of China’s unique artworks.

印章就是图章。中国历代官、私所用的印章有印信、朱记、合同、符、契等等不同的称谓,而帝王所用的印章古时称玺、印、宝、章等。据史料记载,印章在战国时代已普遍使用。印章的制作是将篆隶等字体、图像用阴、阳的形式雕刻而成,形状以圆、方为主。印章用朱色

钤盖,除日常应用外,又多用于书画题识,逐渐成为中国特有的艺术形式之一。

13.Chinese Era

The Chinese era is the symbol that the Chinese calendar uses for recording and naming years. The ten Heavenly Stems are: jia, yi, bing, ding, wu, ji, geng, xin, ren, gui. The twelve Earthly Branches are: zi.chou, yin, mou, chen, si, wu, wei, shen, you, xu, hai. After observing the lunar month, the ancients found that the moon always wazes and wanes roughly 12 times a year, and two lunar months account for about 60 days, so the order of the ten Heavenly Stems and the order of the twelve Earthly Branches are properly matched in turn. In terms of recording date, 60 years is considered to be a full time cycle. The Chinese era chronology was first invented in ancient times and is still in use now. according to the chronology of the “ten Heavenly Stems,” 2011 is the year of “the seventh of the ten Heavenly Stems” and “ the fifth of the twelve Earthly Branches”.

天干地支是中国历法中用以记录和命名年岁的方法。十天干为:甲、乙、丙、丁、戊、已、庚、辛、壬、癸;十二地支为:子、丑、寅、卯、辰、巳、午、未、申、酉、戊、亥。古人观测朔望月,发现月亮圆缺12次大体上是一年的天数,而两个朔望月约是60天。古人以十天干与十二地支的顺序依次相配,记录不同年份,60年为一个轮回。干支纪年法从古沿用至今。按干支纪年法,2011年便是辛卯年。

14. Chinese Beijing Opera

Praised as “Oriental Opera”, Beijing Opera is a genuine national quintessence of China. It originated from many kinds of ancient local operas, especially huiban in

southern China. At the end of the 19th Century, Beijing Opera evolved and took shape, becoming the greatest kind of opera in China. Beijing Opera is a blend of performing arts---song, speech, performance, acrobatix fighting and dance. Beijing Opera portrays and narrates the plot and characters through stylized acting. The main types of roles in Beijing Opera are sheng(male), dan (young female), jing (painted face, male), and chou( clown, male or female).

京剧被誉为“东方歌剧”, 是地道的中国国粹。它起源于中国多种古老的地方戏剧,特别是南方的“徽班”。到了19世纪末,京剧形成并成为中国最大的戏曲剧种。京剧是综合性表演艺术,集唱(歌唱)、念(念白)、做(表演)、打(武)、舞(舞蹈)为一体,通过程式化的表演手段,叙述故事,刻画人物。角色主要分生(男性)、旦(女性)、净(男性)、丑(男性女性皆有)四大行当。

15. Chinese Taoism

Taoism first originated in China. The founder of Taoism is Laozi, a philosopher and thinker who lived in the late Spring and Autumn Period (770BC-476BC). Tao Te Ching whose authorship has been attributed to Laozi, is considered to be the main Taoist classic. Taoism advocates the value of a human being’s life, recommends the discarding of all desires and worries from one’s mind, and encourages the cultivation of moral character and the nourishment of human nature. The following is an example of Laozi’s golden saying:

The way that can be told of is not an unvarying way;

The names that can be named are not unvarying names.

It was from the nameless that Heaven and Earth sprang;

The named is but the mother that rears the ten thousand creatures, each after its kind. Truly, only he that rids himself forever of desire can see the secret essences; He that has never rid himself of desire can see only the outcomes.

道教是中国土生土长长的宗教。创始人是春秋末期的哲学家、思想家老子。道教以老子所著的《道德经》为主要经典。道教主张“重人贵生”。崇尚清静无为,修身养性。“道可道,非常道。名可名,非常名。无名天地之始;有名万物之母。故常无,欲以观其妙;常有,欲以观其徼”便是老子的至理名言。

11.Chinese Idioms

Chinese idioms refer to comprehensive and integrated fixed phrases and

expressions. Idioms are established and accepted by constant usage and common practice. An idiom is a language unit that is larger than a word, but has the same grammatical function as a word. Most Chinese idioms consist of four characters. For example, ziqiangbuxi ( make unremitting efforts to improve oneself), qingchuyulan(bluer than indigo), and houjibofa (success comes with time and effort). Idioms are extrated from folk proverbs, ancient works of literature, poems, fables, allusions, and well-known sayings. Idioms are a part of the Chinese language that are concise and have great vitality.

中国成语是汉语中意义完整的表示一般概念的固定词组或短语。“成语”中的“成”既是约定俗成。成语是比词大而语法功能又相当于词的语言单位。绝大多数的中国成语由四个汉字组成,例如:自强不息、青出于蓝、厚积薄发。成语主要从民间谚语、古代文学作品、诗歌、寓言、典故、名言警句等方面提炼而成,是汉语语言中精炼而又富有生命力的一部分。

12.Chinese silk

China is the home of silk. Mulberry planting, sericulture, silk reeling and thickening are all great inventions of the ancient Chinese. As early as the Shang and Zhou Dynasties (1600BC-256BC), the Chinese people’s silk-weaving techniques had reached an extremely high level. During the Western Han Dynasty (206BC-25AD), Zhang Qian, an outstanding diplomat, travelled around central Asia and connected China with the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean, opening up a new era of Sino-foreign trade, exchange and communication. From then on, China’s silk became well known for its extraordinary quality, exquisite design and color, and abundant culture connotations. Hitherto, Chinese silk has been accepted as a symbol of Chinese culture and the emissary of oriental civilization.

中国是丝绸的故乡。栽桑、养蚕、缫丝、织绸是中国古代人民的伟大发明。商周时期丝绸的生产技术就已发展到相当高的水平。西汉时张骞通西域,把中原与波斯湾、地中海紧密联系起来,开辟了中外交流贸易的新纪元。从此中国的丝绸以其卓越的品质、精美的花色和丰富的文化内涵闻名于世,成为中国文化的象征。东方文明的使者。

13. Chinese Classical Garden 中国园林

The Chinese classical garden is a precious treasure of our ancient Chinese architecture. It is a kind of environment art, which systematically combines artificial

mountains and rivers, plants and buildings with the natural landscape. The construction standard of a Chinese classical garden is “artificial as it is, the garden must look ingenious and natural.” When you go sightseeing in a Chinese classical garden, you should be able to appreciate its artistic concept which “makes use of the natural landscape to create the real fun of mountains and rivers for viewers.” Of the world ’s three major garden systems, the Chinese classical garden is hailed as one of the origins of the world’s garden due to its long history and abundant connotations.

中国园林是把人造的山水、植物、建筑等与自然地貌有机结合的环境艺术,是我国古代建筑艺术的珍宝。其建造原则是“妙极自然,宛自天开”。游赏中国古典园林,能充分领略“假自然之景,创山水真趣”的园林意境。在世界三大园林体系中,中国园林历史悠久、内涵丰富,被誉为世界造园史上的渊源之一。

14. The Four Treasures of the Study (文房四宝)

The writing brush, ink stick, ink stone, and paper were requisite treasures in the study of the scholars of ancient China, and they are often referred to as the “Four Treasures of the Study.” The writing brush and ink stick have been used by the Chinese to write and paint since 5,000 years ago. In the Qin Dynasty (221BC---206BC), people already used feathers of different hardness and bamboo trunks to make brushes. During the Han Dynasty (206BC-220AD), man-made ink was used instead of natural ink. After paper was invented by the Chinese, bamboo slips, wooden tablets, brocade and silk, which originally functioned as writing surfaces, gradually faded out. The ink stone was first developed with the use of writing brushes and ink. After the Song Dynasty (960AD---1279AD), the “Four Treasure of the Study” particularly referred to hubi , the writing brush produced in Huzhou, Zhejiang province; huimo, the ink stick produced in Huizhou, Anhui province; xuan paper, a kind of paper produced in Xuanzhou, Anhui province; and duanyan , the ink stone made in Zhaoqing, Guangdong province (Zhaoqing was earlier called Duanzhou). Indeed, the Four Treasures of the Study” have writtin the whole Chinese civilization, as it is.

笔墨纸砚是中国古代文人书房当中必备的宝贝,被称为“文房四宝”。用笔墨书写绘画在中国可追溯到五千年前。秦时已用不同硬度的毛和竹管制笔;汉代以人工制墨替代了天然墨;有了纸张以后,简牍锦帛逐失其用;砚台则随笔墨的使用而发展。 “文房四宝”到宋朝以后特指湖笔、徽墨、宣纸、端砚。可以说

文房四宝书写了整个中华文明。

15. 春节

Spring Festival is the most important holiday for Chinese people. Excitement

and happiness are palpable this time of the year, and they reach the peak on lunar New Year’s Eve.Though the 15-day period, which starts with the first day of the lunar new year and ends on the 15th day (known as Lantern Festival), is relatively long, it is the busiest time of the year for Chinese people. The arrangements they have to make for family reunions, buying necessities and preparing food keeps them busy throughout the holiday. Many of them travel back home and meet friends over dinner and drinks. The celebrations include decorating the house and setting off fireworks.

春节对于中国人来说是最重要的节日。在每年的春节都让人兴高采烈,尤其是大年三十那晚,更是达到了高潮。春节历时15天,也就从大年初一开始,到元月十五元宵节结束。这段比较长的时间是中国人最忙的时候。他们为家庭聚会作安排,采购年货,准备丰盛的食物,以至于整个春节假期都忙忙碌碌的。许多人在春季期间都要回老家过年,跟朋友碰碰头,聚个餐。庆祝春节也包括大扫除和放烟火。

16. 元宵节

Lantern Festival is a China’s traditional festival. It is celebrated on the fifteenth day of the first month of the lunar year. Lantern Festival is one of the biggest holidays in China. Several days before Lantern Festival, people begin to make lanterns. Lanterns are made in the shape of different animals, vegetables, fruits and many, other things. While making lanterns people usually write riddles on lanterns. On the eve of Lantern Festival, all the lanterns are hung up. On Lantern Festival people go outside to have a look at the lanterns and guess the riddles on the lanterns. Perhaps you call see some wonderful folk performances,Dragon Dance and Yangko. Everything is very interesting and everyone is very happy. Our life is rich and varied. 元宵节是中国的一个传统节日。通常在阴历年的第一个月的第十五天庆祝。 元宵节是中国最大的节日之一。在元宵节到来的几天前,人们就开始做灯笼,有的被做成动物,有的被做成蔬菜,有的被做成水果,各种样式都有。做灯笼时,人们通常在上面写上谜语。在元宵节前夜,所有的灯笼都被挂起来。 在元宵节这天,人们都出来看灯笼和猜灯谜,也许你还能看见一些精彩的民间表演龙舞和秧歌。每件事都很有趣,每个人都很高兴,我们的生活丰富多彩。

17. 端午节

The Dragon Boat Festival, also called the Duanwu Festival, is a traditional Chinese holiday occurring on the fifth day of the fifth lunar month. The festival is believed to have originated in ancient China. Today several explanations exist concerning its origins. However, the most popular one relates to the suicide of Qu Yuan, an upright(正直的)poet and statesman of the Warring States Period. He drowned himself in the Miluo River, where the local resident paddled(划桨)boats out to retrieve(找回)his body and then to scare(吓跑)the fish away, which is said to be the origin of the Dragon Boat Festival.Until today, as a celebration of the festival, the dragon boat racing is still practiced ——a number of dragon-shaped boats row forward in cadence with(随着节奏)a drumbeat(鼓声)competing to reach the finish. It’s quite a spectacle(奇观)with colorful boats and thousands of audience cheering along the riversides. Besides, the festival is also marked by eating “zongzi”, a pyramid -shaped (锥形的)dumpling made of glutinous rice(糯米)and wrapped in reed(芦苇)leaves to add a special flavor. Other customs are also observed, including hanging healthy herbs(香草)on the front door, drinkingrealgarwine(雄黄酒).

18.Mid-autume Day

The Midautumn Festival is the traditional festival in China.In this day,people, espically family members will have a happy get-together.So Chinese people vaule this festival for its important meaning of "reunion".And the mooncake is the symbolic food.It represents the "reunion" just like the full moon. Chinese Mid-Autumn Festival is one of the four major traditional festivals. There are evening meal, people who work outside the home have to come back happy. After dinner, people lit lanterns, usually red lanterns round. The children will happily play their toy lanterns.You Yuanyou the moon in the evening, people eating at the same time to celebrate the Mid-Autumn Festival special foods - cakes. People with the past, look to the future. It is said that there are dragon in the sky, it is necessary to swallow the moon. In order to protect the moon, the children have to come up with a large ring of the dragons away.

中秋节是中国四大传统节日之一。晚上有一顿美餐,离家在外工作的人也要回来团圆。晚饭后,人们点亮灯笼,一般是红色的圆灯笼。孩子们会高高兴兴地

玩他们的玩具灯笼。晚上月亮又圆又大,人们在赏月的同时吃着中秋节特别的食品——月饼。人们在一起回顾过去,展望未来。据说天上有一条龙,它要把月亮吞下去。为了保护月亮,孩子们要弄出很大的响动把龙吓跑。

18. 上海

朝气蓬勃,充满活力,丰富多彩的上海是现代中国的缩影。虽然上海的文化遗迹不能与北京媲美,但是上海迷人的城市风貌,风格各异的万国建筑为这座城市注入了无限的魅力。今日之上海,已经成为享誉中外的国际大都市。

漫步在这座日新月异的现代大都市里,你会发现许多精彩的历史亮点,隐现在众多摩天大楼背后的是上海发展变化的轨迹。它们记述了上海自十九世纪末开埠以来,尤其是新中国成立以后,是如何迅猛发展的。

Shanghai is a dynamic, diverse and stimulating city - the very epitome of modern China. Though Shanghai cannot rival Beijing in cultural heritage, its varied architectural styles and cosmopolitan feel give it a charm of its own. Today's Shanghai has become a world-famous international metropolis.

A walk through this booming city reveals many glimpses of its colorful past. Hidden amongst the skyscrapers are remains of the original Shanghai. They keep on showing how Shanghai has been developing fast and enormously since its opening as a commercial port in the late 19th century, especially after the founding of new China.

19. 亚洲

近代以来,亚洲经历了曲折和艰难的发展历程。亚洲人们为改变自己的命运,始终以不屈的意志和艰辛的奋斗开辟前进道路。今天,人们所看到的亚洲发展成就,是勤劳智慧的亚洲人民不屈不挠、锲而不舍奋斗的结果。

亚洲人民深知,世界上没有放之四海而皆准的发展模式,也没有一成不变的发展道路,亚洲人民勇于变革创新,不断开拓进取,探索和开辟适应时代潮流,符合自身实际的发展道路,为经济社会发展打开了广阔前景。

In modern times, Asia experienced twists and turns in its development. To change their destiny, the people of Asia have been forging ahead in an indomitable spirit and with hard struggle. Asia's development achievements today are the result of the persistent efforts of the industrious and talented Asian people.

The people of Asia are fully aware that there is no ready model or unchanging path of development that is universally applicable. They never shy away from reform

and innovation. Instead, they are committed to exploring and finding development paths that are in line with the trend of the times and their own situations, and have opened up bright prospects for economic and social development.

20. 长江是中国最长的河流,也是世界第三长河,仅次于非洲的尼罗河和拉丁美洲的亚马逊河。长江总长度约为6 300米,发源于青海省,向东流入东海。长江流域是中国重要的农作物产区,粮、棉产量分别占全国总量的40%和30%。长江三峡大坝是世界上最大的水利枢纽工程之一,为通航、发电和运输带来了很大的便利。

The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang is the longest river in China and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa and the Amazon in South America. The river is about 6 300 km long and flows from its source in Qinghai Province, eastward into the East China Sea. The Yangtze River valley has always been an important agricultural base in China. Grain and cotton outputs make up 40 percent and 30 percent of China’s total respectively. As one of the largest water control project in the world, the Three Gorge Dam s for navigation, generating electricity and transportation.