太傻网:GMAT写作速成攻略
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太傻网:GMAT 写作速成攻略

GMAT 写作analysis of argument 是要求对所给的一段逻辑论述展开分析。这段逻辑论述有一定的逻辑错误,一般3-4个,需找出并加以分析,但不要求陈述自己对所涉及的问题的立场和观点。常见的逻辑错误有七种。

1 类比错误

逻辑论述题目可能会通过与类似事物的比较得出关于某一个事物的结论。但是,这样的论述过程其实是假设,由于两个事物在某些方面具有相似性,所以在其他方面也都具有相似性---至少在论证中考虑的方面具有相似性。除非题目能够提供足够的证据来支持这一假设,这个题目很容易遭到攻击。下面这个例子就包括两个错误类比。

题目:

“...in order to boost Cutter's saggering profits we should relocate our hair salon from its current suburban-mall location to downtown Apton. After all, Hair-Dooz, our chief competitor at the mall, has relo cated downtown and is

prospering in its location... ”besides, in neighboring Brainard, the most successful hair salon is located in that city's downtown district. By emulating these two successful salons we'll surely succeed as well."

分析:

The argument relies on what might be a false analogy between Cutters and the Brainard and Hair-Dooz salons. In order for the last two salons to serve as models which Cutter should emulate,the manager must assume that all relevant

circumstances involving the business are essentially the same. However, this

assumption is unwarranted. Foe example, the argument overlooks the possibility that the Hair-Dooz move was motivated by other concerns besides profitability. Perhaps the owners of owners of Hair-Dooz relocated the salon to cater to a certain clientele that Cutters would not attract.

2 混淆因果关系和相关性或时间先后次序

许多GMAT 驳论文题目中所依据的论断都是某事的发生造成了另外一件事的发生。因果关心论断的基础可能是:(1)两个现象发生的显著相关性;(2) 两者的时间关系。两个现象之间的显著相关性或者时间关系可能是两者之间因果关系的一个表征,但是这两者都不足以证明因果关系的存在。除非论证能够考虑并排除所有其他可能造成结果的原因,否则论证很容易遭到攻击。例如:

题目:

“many states have enacted laws prohibiting environmental emissions of nitro byproducts, on the basis that these byproducts have been shown to cause Urkin's Disease in human. These laws have clearly been effective in preventing the disease. After all, in every state that has enacted such a law the incidence of Urkin's Disease is lower than in any state that has bot enacted a similar law... ”

分析:

The argument concludes, based on a known correlation between laws

prohibiting certain emissions and the low incidence of Urkin's Disease, that the latter is attributable partly to the former. Yet the correlation alone amounts to scant evidence of the claimed cause-and-effect relationship. Perhaps Urkin's Disease can be caused by other factors as well, which are absent in these particular states but present in all others.

3 认为整体特征使用于群体中的每个个体

GMAT 驳论文中可能会利用一个群体的情况——例如学生、雇员或者老师来支持关于群体中某个成员的论断。例如:

题目:

“it's a well-established fact that in today's society, more and more people are moving from the suburbs to downtown area. So, in order to boost Cutter's sagging profits, we should relocate each of our hair salons currently located in a suburban mall to the downtown area nearest to it... ”

分析:

The argument assumes that the demographic trend in the specific region

where Cutters operates reflects the general trend upon which the argument relies. Yet, Cutters' president fails to offer any evidence to substantiate this crucial

assumption. Absent such evidence, it is just as likely that in the region where

Cutters operations, people are not moving from the suburbs to downtown areas; for that matter, perhaps in this region the demographic trend is in the opposite direction, in which event the president's recommendation would amount to especially poor advice.

4 认为一个条件是某个特定结果的必要或者充分条件

GMAT 驳论文题目中可能会根据以下两个论断来建议某项活动:(1)某项行为是实现某个结果的必要条件;(2)某项行为是实现某个结果的充分条件。对于第一个论断,题目必须提出证据证明要得到同样结果不存在其他手段; 对于第二个论断,题目必须提出证据证明提议的行动本身就足以得到预期效果。在缺少这种证据的情况下,就不能用这些论断来支持建议。 题目:

“in order to raise the level of reading skills of our district's elementary school students to a level that at least represents the national average, we should adopt the "Back to Basics"reading program. After all, this reading program has a superior record for improving reading skills among youngers nationwide. By adopting Back to Basics, the parents of our young students would be assured that their children will develop the reading skills they will need throughout their lives...”

分析:

The recommendation depends on the assumption that no alternative means of improving the student's reading skills are available. Yet no evidence is offered to substantiate this assumption. Admittedly, the superior record of the Back to Basics program is some evidence that no other program is as likely to achieve the desired result. However, it is entirely possible that this or any other reading program would also achieve the desired result. Perhaps the desired improvement could be achieved if the school instead hired special reading instructors, or encouraged parents to read with their children.Without considering and ruling out these and other alternative means, the superintendent cannot confidently conclude that schools must adopt the BTB program.

The recommendation depends on the additional unsubstantiated assumption that adopting BTB would by itself improve student's reading skills to the desired extent. Absent evidence that this is the case, it is equally possible that adopting the program would not suffice itself. Students must be sufficiently attentive and motivated, and teachers must be sufficiently competent.

5 依赖于可能不具有代表性的统计数据

题目中可能会引用一项研究、调查或者民意测验的数据,这些数据中包含某些样本组或者本人群的资料。作者会根据这些数据得出关于这些样本组所代表的更大群体的结论。例如: 题目:

Today's undergraduate college students in this state will have better success obtaining jobs in this state if they do not persue advanced degree after graduation. After all, more than 90 percent of Urbanville University's undergraduate students are employed full-time within one year after they graduate. However, less than one half on the University's graduate students find employment within one year after receiving their graduate-level degrees..."

分析:

One problem with the argument involves the cited statistics about Urbanville graduates.it is unreasonable to draw any conclusions about graduates of all colleges in the state based on statistics about graduates of only one institution. Depending on the total number of colleges and college students in the state, it is entirely possible that Urbanville University, or its students are not representative of the state's colleges, or college students.

6 依赖于不准确的统计数据

正如上面所说,题目中可能会根据不够充分或者不具有代表性的样本得出的统计数据推出关于一个群体的结论。但是这并不是唯一的问题。搜集数据的过程中可能会有些问题,从而使数据的质量受到质疑,使数据的准确性受到影响。例如:

题目:

“Among Webo employees participating in our department's most recent survey, about half indicated that they are happy with our current four-day work week. These survey results show that the most effective way to improve overall productivity at Webco is to allow each employee to choose for himself or herself either a four-day or five-day week. ”

分析:

The survey method might be problematic in two respects. First, we are not informed whether the survey required that respondents choose their work-week preference between alternatives. If it did, then the result might distort the

preferences of the respondents, who might very well prefer a work-schedule choice not provided for in the survey. Secondly, we are not informed whether survey responses were anonymous. If they were not, then respondents might have

provided responses that they believed their superior would approve of, regardless of whether the responses were truthful.

7 认为所有的事物是恒定的

题目中可能会引用过去发生的事实得出关于现在或者将来的结论或者建议。 但是除非论证能够得出证据证明过去和现在或者将来的重要环境没有改变,否则这种论证不能成立。例如:

题目:

“United Motors trucks are clearly the safest trucks on the market...Last year the local television-news program In Focus reported in its annual truck-safety

survey that over the course of the last 10 years United Motors trucks were involved in at least 30 percent fewer fatalities to vehicles occupants than trucks built by any other single manufacturer...”

分析:

The ad's claim unfairly infers from United's comparatively strong safety record in the past that United's new truck this year must also be comparatively safe. Absent evidence to support this inference, it is just as likely that the safety of competing trucks has improved recently, or that the safety of United trucks has diminished recently. For that matter, perhaps United's trucks fatality record during the most recent years is no better or perhaps even worsen than those of its competitors.

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2.2GMAT 写作考试评分标准

对于正在备考GMAT 作文考试的考生来说,了解一些GMAT 作文的评分规则是非常有必要的,考生可以根据评分规则给出的限制条件进行针对性的备考工作,从而有效提高GMAT 作文的备考效率。下面就来简单介绍一下GMAT 作文考试的评分标准,以供参考。

一. 六分(outstanding):对事件的复杂性的分析清楚有力; 熟练驾驭有效写作的要素。

a) 在就某事件展开分析和阐述自己观点时摆出有洞察力的原因和/或有说服力的事例。 b) 结构清晰。

c) 对于语言(包括用词和句法多样性) 有很好的掌握。

d) 文章完全符合标准书面英语规范(包括语法、用法和拼写规则) ,但可能会有小错误。

二. 五分(strong):对事件的复杂性有充分的分析; 很好地掌握了有效写作的要素。 a) 阐述观点时能运用恰当有力的理由/或事例。

b) 结构较清晰。

c) 对于语言(包括用词和句法多样性) 有良好的掌握。

d) 较好的掌握标准书面英语规范(包括语法、用法和拼写规则) ,但可能会有小错误。

三. 四分(adequate):对事件的复杂性有一定的分析; 对写作的要素有一定的掌握。 a) 阐述观点时能举出与事件相关的理由/或事例。

b) 结构基本合理。

c) 对于语言(包括用词和句法) 有一定的掌握,但句法缺乏多样性。

d) 对于标准书面英语的规范有一定掌握,但有一些错误。

四. 三分(limited):对事件的复杂性有一定的分析; 对写作的要素有一定的握,但有明显缺陷,一般具备下列特征中的一项或几项:

a) 观点模糊或不充分。

b) 结构松散。

c) 不善于举出与议题相关的理由或事例。

d) 语言不准确且/或句子缺乏多样性。

e) 在语法、用法或拼写上偶有错误或常有小错误。

五. 二分(seriously flawed):在分析性写作技巧上表现出严重缺陷,一般具备下列特征一的一项或几项:

a) 观点不明确或未能充分展开。

b) 毫无结构可言。

c) 缺乏相关的理由或事例。

d) 在语言运用或句子结构上经常出现严重错误。

e) 在语法、用法或拼写上错误很多,影响文章表达。

六. 一分(fundamentally deficient):在分析性写作技巧上有根本缺陷,一般具备下列特征中的一项或几项。

a) 无法完整地叙述问题。

b) 在语言和句子结构上不断有严重错误。

c) 在语法、用法或拼写上有大量错误,严重影响文章表达。

七 .零分:跑题、非英语写作、重抄原题等

以上简单介绍了GMAT 作文考试的8类评分准则,考生可通过以上给出的评分条件进行针对性的复习,有效提高GMAT 作文的备考效率,从而在GMAT 作文考试中取得更好的成绩。

2.3GMAT 写作考试攻略

GMAT 的Argument 部分相对于中国考生来说写作难度略有降低,主要在于

Argument 是对于给定材料进行分析并表述观点,而给定材料中包括论点和相关论据,因而考生的主要任务就是针对所给出材料的瑕疵进行批判性分析从而提出对自己论点的支持。不难看出,Argument 部分主要考察的是考生的逻辑分析和判断能力,而提高此能力不妨结合CR 部分; 同时,考生也需要熟悉题库,力求对题目素材预先进行分析从而培养良好的判断和推论能力,并且多对行文结构和切入点有所构思甚至是设计,如此一来,便容易在考场上轻松写出一篇出色的文章了。

Argument 的结构规划与Issue 的思路类似,考生也应在应考之前便对要写作的文章的段落规划以至于句式安排都了熟于心,从而便可以节省耗费在构思上的时间。而在内容设计上,Argument 相比起Issue 来讲要相对容易,考生无需大量引用例证,因为批判的论据都来自于给定题目的素材,因而考生只要针对题目整理好论述的层次和所要批判的内容,找出其所隐含的瑕疵并有针对的从逻辑上进行反驳,或是可按素材进行推论在得出反面结论后再进行反驳亦可。很多针对GMAT 写作的复习资料都给出了一些既定的逻辑谬误,然而考生

最好在了解常见逻辑谬误的基础上,自行对素材进行分析并论述,从而避免过于模式化的语言框架。

应对GMAT 写作

当考生走上考场时,应牢记在心的几件事情如下:

①在开始写作时可先打好简单草稿并列出论证大纲以方便后面的写作;

②首先完成开篇段和收尾段,并写出中间部分各段的段首内容;

③尽量利用时间对中间部分加以论证,但需至少保证两段内容完整且结构合理,其他段落可视时间灵活补充或丰富;

④在写作中尽可能不要归于纠结于某一句子或表达方式,首要任务是完成段落的写作; ⑤避免在段落写作后对其中内容作修改,既耗费时间又扰乱思路。

综上所述,考生只要得当准备,GMAT 写作并非像所说的如此难于应对。在复习写作的时日中,相比起构思上的天资聪敏或是语言上的文采横溢,持之以恒的复习和不厌其烦的修改才是通往成功道路上更值得考生仰赖的法宝。一如茨威格所说,考生在面对GMAT 写作时,除了得意的文笔功夫以外,清静的头脑是必不可少的。切记:“事莫明于有效,论莫定于有证。”

以上就是GMAT Argument写作速成攻略的详细内容,考生可针对文中介绍的方法进行有针对性的备考。

太傻留学GMAT 频道:http://www.taisha.org/gmat/