写作中的标点不可小觑
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SAT 写作中的标点不可小觑

1. 逗号使用3规则:

1). 使用逗号来分开插入从句和短语; 例如:

Gordon, who is a writer by profession, bakes an excellent cheesecake.

2). 用逗号分开系列成分。如果有2个以上相同成分,则应用逗号分开; 例如:

My recipe for buttermilk biscuits contains flour, soda and buttermilk.

3). 在引导性分词或介词短语后使用逗号; 例如:

After the banquet, Harold and Martha went dancing.

4). 利用逗号来分开连词连接的独立从句。例如:

Susan’s old car has been belching blue smoke from the tailpipe for two weeks, but it has not broken down yet.

2. 分号使用两大规则:

l 使用分号而不是并列连词来连接两个含义紧密的独立从句; 例如:

Whooping cranes are an endangered species; they are unlikely to survive if we continue to pollute.

l therefore、nevertheless 和moreover 等词连接的独立从句可用分号隔开。(sat)例如:

The staff meeting has been postponed until next Thursday; therefore, I will be unable to get approval for my project until then.

3. 冒号使用3大规则:

1). 在正式的写作中,冒号的作用仅在于表明其后是对前面所述内容的详细说明、定义、解释或过去发生事情的概述。冒号之前一般是独立从句,并且通常情况下有as follows、the following、namely 或like 等提示短语。例如:

正确:Your instructions are as follows: read the passage carefully, answer the questions on the last page, and turn over your answer sheet.

2). 动词和直接宾语间不要放冒号。例如:

错误:I want: a slice of pizza and a small green salad.

正确:This is what I want: A slice of pizza and a small green salad.

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3). 如果前后两句话有如上所述的紧密关系,即使没有上述表示这层关系的短语,也可使用冒号,并且在这种情况下,句号也可用。例如:

正确:We were aghast: The “charming country inn” that had been advertised in such glowing terms proved to be a leaking cabin full of mosquitoes.

4. 连字符号和破折号使用7大规则:

1). 行末单词分开时使用连字符号。例如:

正确:In this incredible canvas, the artist used only monochromatic elements.

2). 表示21-99这些数字和用作形容词的分数时,使用连字符号。

错误:A two thirds vote was necessary to carry the measure.

正确:A two-thirds vote was necessary to carry the measure.

3). 由前缀ex 、all 、self 、semi 或后缀elect 构成的词语,前缀或后缀和主体之间应有连字符号。

错误:The president elect was invited to chair the meeting.

正确:The president-elect was invited to chair the meeting.

4). 如果把复合形容词放在所修饰词语的前面,则该形容词各部分应由连字符号分开。

正确:The no-holds-barred argument continued into the night.

5). 专有名词或形容词前添加前缀,两部分应由连字符号隔开。例如:

错误:His pro African sentiments were heartily applauded.

正确:His pro-African sentiments were heartily applauded.

6). 如果复合构词法构成的词语容易与其他词语混淆,或者导致元音字母相邻,则应用连字符号隔开。例如:

错误:Most buildings in the ghost town are recreations of the original structures.

正确:Most buildings in the ghost town are re-creations of the original structures.

错误:She took an antiinflammatory drug for her sports injury.

正确:She took an anti-inflammatory drug for her sports injury.

7). 用破折号表明思路的突然变化。

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正确:To get a high score —and who doesn’t want to get a high score—you need to devote yourself to prolonged and concentrated study.

5. 撇号使用3大规则:

1). 表明动词缩写,但是在作文开始中应尽量避免缩写。

2). 表明名词所有格。

3). 代词都另有单词表示其所有格,比较特殊的是中性词one ,其所有格为one 加上撇号和s 。