高三英语专题读写任务写作学案第1讲—— 许惠娜(总括&段落大意概括)
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第 1 页 共 15 页

广州卓越教育机构一对一 高三专题读写任务学案第1讲

总括 & 大意概括

总括

高考命题规律 考情表解

近六年高考读写任务的总体情况如下表所示:

由上表可以看出:

(一) 阅读材料: 较阅读理解的文章更容易, 大约是_________个词, 大多为__________, 也有应用文和说明文.

(二) 写作话题: 话题贴近考生的学习和生活, 考生有话可写.

关于发表看法的词数, 从历年的满分作文来看, 一般多达150—200个词, 因此只要是围绕中心, 不是可有可无的话, 可以不局限于约__________个词.

(三) 省平均分: 全省高考平均分还在__________分以内, 还不到满分25分的一半, 上升空间还很大. 望考生在写作上下功夫, 并把写作作为与其他考生拉开距离的有效突破口. 要点剖析

六年来发表观点部分每年都是3个要点,六年共18个要点。我们按照各个要点的特点,将其大致分为以下十类:

第 2 页 共 15 页 以上各类要点的常用套语或模板, 请参见以下各部分, 特别是”要点各个击破” .

高考解题秘招

四条备考建议

(一)将阅读与写作结合起来

在阅读课文或做完一篇阅读理解题之后,养成用大约30个词概括其内容要点的习惯,并思考,假如命题人利用这篇文章来命制读写任务题,可能如何命题;如果这样命题,我们应如何用英语来表达。

(二)将讨论热点新闻与写作结合起来

用英语讨论社会热点新闻可能是英语课堂的一个组成部分,我们要积极参加,然后根据讨论情况以及自己的观点,用英语写出来。

(三)坚持天天练,一天也不间断

每天可以花20来分钟写一篇正规的读写任务,也可以针对日常学习或生活中的某件事发表看法,自由表达思想,不局限于词数,甚至越长越好。

(四)熟读优美句子,背诵作文范文。

“熟读唐诗三百首,不会作诗也会吟。”平时注意收集优美句子,熟读并背诵。平时练习的写作题的范文,最好也能背诵。

第 3 页 共 15 页 大意概括

一.什么是概括?大意?摘要?

对一篇文章的主题思想的___________。它用最简洁的语言概括了原文的________。

二.写概括的几点小技巧

1. 删除细节。只保留主要观点,同时避免重复。

2. 不能加入个人的观点。

3. 压缩长的句子。如下列两例:

(1)―His courage in battle might without exaggeration be called lion-like.‖

________________________________________________________.

(2)―He was hard up for money and was being pressed by his creditor.‖

___________________________________________________________.

4. 你还可以使用词组代替整句或者从句。请看下面的例子:

―Beautiful mountains like Mount Tai, Lushan Mountain, and Mount Huang, were visited by only a few people in the past. Today, better wages, holidays with pay, new hotels on these mountains, and better train and bus services, have brought them within reach of many who never thought of visiting them ten years ago.‖

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

5. 使用概括性的名词代替具体的词,比如:

―She brought home several Chinese and English novels, a few copies of Time and Newsweek and some textbooks. She intended to read all of them during the winter vocation.‖

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

第 4 页 共 15 页 三. 篇章导学

阅读过程中

1. 判断阅读文章的文体(包括________ ,__________, _________, _________), 寻词摘句(―寻

词‖指寻找____________, ―摘句―指__________________).

2. 取舍内容,存主去次。

概括行文中

1. 人称。如果原文是第一人称的,要转为第三人称。

2. 时态。记叙文以_____________为主。若记叙文中有作者从中得到的―启示‖或―意义‖等,一

般用_____________表达。

3. 词数与句数。要求―以约30个词概括―,从近5年高考改卷的实际情况来看,满分作文概括

的词数在26-38个词之间。

4. 注意各种文体的概括。

四. 各种文体概括

记叙文

写作方法—串联要素法

记叙文的概要,一般包括记叙文的六个要素(who; when; where; what; how; why),也就是考生应先通读阅读短文,找出这六个要素,然后用自己的话将这六个要素串成一两句话即可。

当然,不一定每篇记叙文都包含这六个要素,但―某人做了某事,结果如何‖是应当包括的。因此,要写好概要,须找到以下两个问题的答案:

(1)谁做了什么?(who did what)

(2)结果如何?(what was the result)

如果是夹叙夹议的文章,作者对故事的内容发表了议论,或指出了故事给人们的启示的,我们概括时要加上这一内容。

典型例题

阅读下面短文,然后按要求写一篇150词左右的英语短文。

Good morning,Ladies and gentlemen. This is Li Hua from Senior Three. I'm here today to share with you a good lesson from an overseas Chinese student living in Germany. It is a true story. After years of hard work,the Chinese student graduated with amazing academic achievements. Everyone thought he was going to get a good job easily and have a bright future. But to his disappointment ,he was not even allowed the chance for an interview !The third time he was turned down ,he couldn't help telephoning the company to ask why they didn't want him. The answer was simple,―We don't hire dishonest people in Germany.‖

第 5 页 共 15 页 What wrong you might wonder? The truth is that,shortly after he arrived in Germany,this clever student found that it was easy to skip buying subway tickets. So,to save money,he often went without a ticket. As a result,he had been caught without a ticket in the subway three times.

From this story,we learn that we may get short-term benefits by dishonest means,but the truth will come out sooner or later and the cost is high.So remember:honesty is the best policy.

That's all for my speech. Thank you!

写作内容:

1.以约30个词概括这篇演讲稿的主要内容;

2.然后以约120个词写一篇读后感,说明―诚信的重要性‖。

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

解题过程:

第一步,根据[写作内容2],快速获取大意。【写作内容2】说明―诚信的重要性‖,扫读原文可以发现该文章是夹叙夹议的记叙文,那么我们可以形成概要框架:作者讲述了一个故事来说明诚信的重要性。这样,就有了方向和思路了。

第二步:阅读材料,回答以下三个问题。

(1)谁做了什么?The writer tells a story of an overseas Chinese student. The student had been caught without a ticket in the subway three times.

(2)结果如何?He was not even allowed the chance for an interview.

(3)说明了什么?Honesty is the best policy.

第三步:用自己的话将其串联起来。参考范文如下:

范文I ; Today I read an instructive speech, in which the speaker argues honesty is the best policy by telling the story of an overseas Chinese student who couldn't find a job because of dishonesty.

范文2 .The writer tells a story about a Chinese student with an excellent academic achievement couldn't find a' job in Germany because of his dishonesty to skip the subway tickets,which shows honesty is the best policy.

第 6 页 共 15 页 【即时练习】

练习I :阅读下面的短文,然后以约30个词概括这篇短文的主要内容。

Recently divorced in my 30s,I had no job and was on my way downtown on a rainy day to go to the employment offices. I had no umbrella,for my old one had fallen apart,and I couldn't afford another one.

I sat down in the streetcar一there against the seat was a beautiful silk umbrella with a silver handle inlaid with gold and bright enamel(珐琅).I had never seen anything so lovely. I examined the handle and saw a name on it. The usual procedure would have been to turn in the umbrella to the conductor,but I decided to take it and find the owner myself.

I got off the streetcar in a downpour and carefully opened the umbrella to protect myself. Then I searched a telephone book for the name on the umbrella and found it. I called and a lady answered. Yes,she said in surprise that was her umbrella,which her parents,now dead,had given her as。Birthday present,but it'd been stolen from her locker at school years before.

She was so excited that I forgot I was looking for a job and went directly to her house. She took the umbrella,her eyes filled with tears. I was only too happy to see her get back the lost umbrella ,and get a job she offered me.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

练习2; 阅读下面的短文,然后以约30个词概括这篇短文的主要内容。

There was a Nebraska farmer who grew award-winning corn. Each year he entered the district's farming competition where his corn always came out on top and won the blue ribbon.

One year a newspaper reporter interviewed him and learned something interesting about how he grew it. To his great surprise,the reporter discovered that each year the farmer shared his corn seed with his neighbors.

―Why do you share your best seed with your neighbors when they are competing against you?‖ the reporter asked. The farmer's reply made everything clear.

―Why sir,‖said the farmer,‗‘didn't you know? The wind will blow corn pollen(花粉)from field to field. If my neighbors grow poor corn,it will affect the quality of my corn. If I am to grow good corn,I must help my neighbors grow good corn.‖

His corn cannot improve unless his neighbors' corn also improves. And so it is in life. If we co-operate and help each other out,life can get better for everyone,and the benefits can be shared by all. But if we think only of ourselves,our selfishness will not only hurt others but it may come back to hurt

(附:[写作内容」2.然后以120个词就―互助才能共赢‖的话题进行议论)

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第 7 页 共 15 页 说明文

「写作方法」

我们根据说明文的不同类型,分别给出几种参考模板:

l .描写某事物的性质功用。即“对象+性质功用+利好”:

( In the passage ) the writer introduces ...(对象)to us , especially its ...(性质或功用),from which we know...(对象带来的利好)

2.针对某个问题提出解决方法或措施。即“问题十解决方法”:

The passage tells us...(问题),including... (方法1),二,(方法2 ) and...(方法3).

3.介绍某现象及其原因和结果。即“现象+原因+结果”:

( The author/writer said/talks about)…(现象)of‗二,because /but...(原因/本质1) ,and. 。二(原因/本质2).

特别提醒:在高考读写任务中,多为说明某种社会现象的说明文。

典型例题

阅读下面短文,然后以约30个词概括这篇短文的内容。

Eye care is an important factor in all of our lives. Without eyes,we seem to be able to do nothing. But,what can we do to take care of eyes? Firstly,we should eat healthy foods. Secondly,don't sit before a computer screen or TV for too long time and take regular rest at intervals so as to relax the eye muscles. Thirdly,having enough sleep is the best rest for eyes.

Besides those notices ,you should be aware of some threats 14, to eyes in daily lives. Excessive exposure to bright sunlight is harmful to eyes;therefore ,when going out,especially in summer time,put on a pair of qualified sunglasses. Stay away from smoking. Some ingredients in cigarettes are carcinogenic(致癌的),

Last but not least,take regular medical examines to check out the potential eye disease and prevent its deterioration(退化).Eyes are the most important sense organs and one should use proper eye care products to avoid further irritations(刺激)and ensure longevity at ease.

解题过程:

本文在指出眼睛的重秀性后,紧接着提出问题―为保护眼睛,我们可以做些什么呢‖,然后分三点说明应该做些什么。因此,我们可以套用―问题十解决方法‖模式:

Our eyes are important for us,so the author tells us how to take care of our eyes,including eating healthy food,giving them enough time to rest,knowing some threats,and taking frequent eye examinations.

___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

第 8 页 共 15 页 【即时练习】

练习1:阅读下面短文,然后以约30个词概括这篇短文的主要内容。

Imagine entering a very large building and you have no idea how to get to the office you are looking for. But then,as you're standing there,a nearly silent balloon floats over to you and speaks to you. It asks you where you want to go. You tell it,and then it simply says―follow me" like a child's game,and begins to float off in the direction of your destination. It keeps going,as you follow ,leading you to where you want to go.

The guide works itself, without any help from any human being. It says hello to people as they arrive in the building,speaks to them,processes their requests and then guides them to the destination .

The balloon has two tiny fans to help keep it floating and to provide just a touch of lift. Onboard is a wireless receiver for receiving directions from a computer that directs the fans and sensors that let it know where objects are around it.

The idea of such a simple robot is one that has been on the minds of scientists for years,and has been mentioned in novels many times. Today the iPhone does something similar but has to be connected to the Internet which is sometimes difficult.This is why this little balloon might be the wave of the future一because it is so much easier to follow!

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 练习2:阅读下面短文,然后以约30个词概括这篇短文的主要内容。

One of the most important things in the world is friendship. In order to have friends,you have to be a friend. But how can you be a good friend at school?

Listen 一Listen when they are talking. Don't say anything unless they ask you a question. Sometimes it's not necessary for you to have anything to say;they just need someone to talk to about their feelings.

Help them一If your friend is ever in need of something,be there to help them. You should try toput them first,but make sure you don't do everything they want you to do. Try to take an extra pencil orpen with you to classes in case they forget one.

Be there for them一Try to make something for your friends to help make them feel better in hard times. Making cards and encouraging them are among the nicest things you can do for a friend. Always remember this!If you don't want to stay with your friends when they're in hard times ,then you don't deserve to be with them when they're having a good time!

Try to make plans with your friends一Go shopping,go for ice cream and so on. Take time to know each other even better by doing something you both enjoy. By planning things together, you both can have a good time. And you'll remember these things when you're all old!

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第 9 页 共 15 页 练习3:阅读下面短文,然后以约30个词概括这篇短文的主要内容。

People are surrounded by the advertisements(ads )all the time. We can see advertisements here and there. TV,radios ,lifts ,buses ,newspapers ,magazines ,and even the, cars carry the information of the products or services to a wide audience. No wonder newspapers are becoming heavier and heavier. Advertisements are delivered into your hands ,your shopping bags ,your mailbox ,your house,etc. They are where you are.

The advertisements have brought great convenience to people. If someone wants the information of a product,he doesn't have to go in person to the shop. What he needs to do is to look at the ads(advertisements) which he can find everywhere. He can also compare the same products of different brands so as to select the one he likes best.

Sometimes ,however ,some ads mislead the consumers,for they exaggerate(夸大)the benefits of their products. So far as the consumers are concerned,they had better have their own judgment and not be puzzled by ads so as not to fall victims to such ads.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 议论文

【写作方法】

议论文通常包括论点、论据和结论,因此写议论文的概要主要是找出主题句(the topic sentences) 、支撑句(supporting sentences)和结论句(conclusion sentences)。其中最主要的是找准主题句。概要模板:论点+论据(+结论)

典型例题

(2011珠海一模)阅读下面短文,然后以约30个词概括这篇短文的主要内容。

Getting up early has been regarded as a good habit since ancient times. Many years ago,people thought that if we went to bed early and got up early,we would be energetic the whole day. So ,getting un early is of great importance to us all.

In fact,morning is the best time of a day. In the morning,the air is the freshest and people are usually in 'the best condition. Many of us may have the experiences that we memorize some things more quickly and accurately in the morning than any other time of the day.

If we do some morning exercises or only take a short walk in the morning,we can build our bodies and become much healthier. Also we will have enough time to make a plan and get ready for our work or study of the day if we get up early. However,if we get up late,we will probably have to do everything in a great hurry.

Let us remember getting up early is a good habit and try our best to keep it. it we stick to getting up early every day,we will certainly benefit a lot from it.

第 10 页 共 15 页 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 解题过程:

第一步,根据文体,找出要点。略读短文,本文是典型的议论文,第一段为议点,第二、三自然段为论据, 最后一段为结论, 首尾呼应. 论点, 论据和结论分别为:

论点: Getting up early has been regarded as a good habit

论据:(1)we memorize some things more quickly and accurately in the morning

(2)build our bodies and become much healthier

(3) have enough time to make a plan and get ready for

结论: getting up early is a good habit and try our best to keep

第二步,用自己的话将其表达出来。参考范文为:

(范文I )The passage mainly tells us getting up early in the morning is a good habit that will benefit us a lot. It enables us to have a better memory,healthier body and better preparation for the day.

(范文2)The passage tries to tell us that getting up early in the morning is a good habit that will benefit us a lot,including a better memory,healthier body and better preparation for the day.

【即时练习】

阅读下面短文,然后以约30个词概括这篇短文的主要内容。

It is necessary to develop some skills to increase one's chances of success in today's competitive world. Many .skills,for example,leadership ,a second language,and technical skills such as computer programming,are very useful today. However,the most useful skill is the ability to communicate well with others.

It is impossible to overstate the importance of good communication skills. A good communicator finds it easier to put forth his ideas clearly. In this way there will be fewer misunderstandings ,which can lead to bad feelings as well as lose time and efforts. In addition,a person with good communication skills is a good mediator and negotiator. He or she can play a valuable role in resolving disputes and enhancing cooperation. This means that a good communicator is often a natural leader. Finally ,with good communication skills,it is easier to persuade others to accept your point of view,which is a vital step on the way to success.

For all the above reasons ,it is my belief that strong communication skills are the most important to have. Good communication is important in all situations. So a skillful communicator will always be in high demand.

第 11 页 共 15 页 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________巩固作业

Passage 1

阅读下面短文,然后按照要求写一篇150 词左右的英语短文。

We could all benefit from the service of tutor some time in our life, whether we are beginners or we need specific help towards an examination. The greatest benefit of a tutor is that they offer a one- to – o ne teaching approach. Most teachers don‘t have the time to identify students‘ strengths and weaknesses, let alone teach them on a one- to – one basis. A good tutor will do both.

As we know, one- to – one instruction is the most effective and efficient way to learn, and tutoring is also extremely beneficial for students who only need help in one specific area of the test. Teenagers with busy schedules prefer tutoring because most tutors are willing to meet at times and locations convenient to the students.

Remember to inquire the tutor‘s qualifications. It is important to confirm that his or her score reflects a mastery of the knowledge. Many parents hire tutors that have never taken a real test, so it‘s impossible for them to convey the testing experience to the students.

【写作内容】

1.

以约30 个词概括文章的要点; 2. 然后以―家教的利弊‖为题,以约120个词写一篇短文,要包括以下要点;

1) 你是否赞同文中的观点并说明理由;

2) 你认为请家教有哪些弊端;

3) 你认为哪些情况下需要请家教。

[写作要求]

1. 在作文中可以使用自己亲身的经历或虚构的故事,也可以参照阅读材料的内容但不得

直接引用原文中的句子;

2. 作文中不能出现真实姓名和学校名称。

[评分标准] 概括准确,语言规范,内容合适,篇章连贯。

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 注:也可以写全篇

第 12 页 共 15 页 Passage 2

The motor vehicle has killed and disabled more people in its brief history than any bomb or weapon ever invented. Much of the blood on the street flows basically from careless behavior of drivers who refuse to respect the legal and moral rights of others. So the killing on the road may be regarded as a social problem.

In fact, the enemies of society on wheels are rather harmless people, just ordinary people acting carelessly, you might say. But carelessness is no excuse when one‘s actions could bring death or damage to others.

Researchers have estimated that as many as 80 percent of all automobile accidents are caused due to the psychological condition of the driver. Emotional upsets can slow drivers‘ judgment and reactions, and blind them to dangers that might otherwise be obvious. The experts warn that it is important for every driver to make an effort to keep one‘s emotions under control.

Yet drivers are not the only people to blame for road accidents. Street walkers regularly break traffic regulations. They are at fault in most vehicle walker accidents and many cyclists even believe that they need not follow the basic rules of the road.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

Passage 3

One beautiful spring day a red rose came out in a forest. As it looked around, a pine tree nearby said, ―What a beautiful flower! I wish I was that lovely.‖ Another tree said, ―Don‘t be sad, we can‘t have everything.‖

The red rose looked at a cactus (仙人掌) and said, ―What an ugly plant full of thorns (刺)!‖ The pine tree said, ―Red rose, what kind of talk is this? Who can say what beauty is? You have thorns too.‖

The proud red rose looked angrily at the pine and said, ―You don‘t know what beauty is. You can‘t compare me to a cactus.‖

Spring passed, and the weather became very warm. Life became difficult as no rain fell. The red rose was dying. One day the red rose saw birds suck water from the cactus. ―Doesn‘t it hurt when they bite into the cactus?‖ asked the red rose.

―Yes, but the cactus does not like to see any birds suffer‖, replied the pine. ―The birds can bring water to you if you ask the cactus for help.‖

But the red rose felt too ashamed of its past words to ask.

第 13 页 共 15 页 [写作内容]

你读了上面的故事后,准备就―故事给我带来的启示‖为话题用英语写一篇读后感参加读后感比赛。内容要点包括:

1. 以约30个词概括故事的内容;

2. 然后以约120词写一篇短文,内容包括:

1)你从故事中学到什么道理;

2)以你自己或他人的经历阐明这种道理。

[写作要求]

1. 在作文中可以使自己亲身的经历或虚构的故事,也可以参照阅读材料的内容但不得直接

引用原文中的句子;

2. 作文中不能出现真实姓名和学校名称。

[评分标准]

概括准确,语言规范,内容合适,篇章连贯。

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 注:也可以写全篇

第 14 页 共 15 页 参考答案

总括

一 200 记叙文 二 200 三 12

大意概括

一 简单陈述,主题

二 3. He was very brave in battle. He was in financial difficulties.

4. ‖Beautiful mountains like Mount Tai, once visited by only a few people, are today accessible to many, thanks to better wages, paid holidays, new hotels and better transportation services.

5. She brought home a lot of books to read

三. 1.记叙文、议论文、夹叙夹议文、说明文。寻找关键词,找出中心句。

概括行文中2. 一般过去时 一般现在时

四.记叙文

即时练习

练习1: The author happened to pick up an umbrella on a bus and tried to find its owner. She was pleased to find the owner and also got a job offered by the owner of the umbrella.

练习2(范文1) In the passage the writer uses the story of the award-winning farmer who shares his best corn seed with his neighbors to teach us that we all can benefit when we cooperate and share with each other.

(范文2) The writer teaches us that we all benefit more when we cooperate and share with each other by telling the story of the award-winning farmer who shares his corn seeds with his neighbors.

说明文

练习1:(―对象+性质功能+利好‖模式)

The writer introduces the idea of a balloon robot, especially how it helps to guide people to their destination without being connected to the Internet.

练习2:(问题+解决办法‖模式)

The passage tells us how to be a good friend, including listening more to friends‘ talking, offering help when necessary, staying with them and making plans together.

练习3:(―现象+原因‖模式)

The author talks about the popularity of advertisements, because they can bring convenience to people but the negative effects should be ignored.

议论文

Communication skills play an increasingly important role in our modern society. It is easier for a good communicator to express himself and persuades others to accept his ideas, so he is often a leader.

第 15 页 共 15 页 【巩固作业】

Passage 1

The passage mainly talks about the advantages of employing tutors, such as the one- to- one teaching approach, which can benefit the students. It also gives some advice on choosing tutors.

I quite agree with the writer. First, lessons can be planned according to a student‘s personal learning level and learning style. Second, changes can be made easily during the teaching process to suit the student.

However, tutoring has its own disadvantages. Students may rely on the tutors so much that they will turn to their tutors whenever they meet with difficulties. Some even don‘t work hard to school and expect the tutors to explain everything and solve each problem for them. What‘s worse, tutoring is quite expensive, which adds to the financial burden of a family.

Anyway, if we need special help to improve a subject or make up some lessons missed, it‘s OK to employ tutors. Of course, our parents can afford the tuition fee. In my opinion, the best way is to study hard at school.

Passage 2

As more and more people have been killed or disabled by traffic accidents mostly caused by drivers‘ carelessness and bad psychological condition, every driver should try to control their emotion. Besides, street walkers and cyclists are also to blame.

Passage 3

A proud rose thinks that it‘s superior to other plants in the forest because of its beauty. But it later learns that beauty is not the only thing when it sees the cactus helping thirsty birds.

This story teaches us that we should not judge people or things based only on their appearance. There are other characteristics such as kindness and intelligence that are even more important. Beauty is only a superficial attraction but it doesn‘t show what is in a person‘s heart.

When I was in primary school a boy was often teased by his classmates because of his poor clothes. They judged him only on the surface but I knew he was very kind and honest. He was excellent at maths and would often help me with my lessons after school. Although his family had little money he refused to take any money from my parents for his help because he said ―I help you because you are my friend not because I want your money.‖ I was very touched by his words and was ashamed of what my classmates had done to him.