万圣节的由来
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万圣节的由来 西方的鬼节——万圣节

在西方国家,每年的10月31日,有个“Halloween”,辞典解释为“The eve of All Saints'Day”,中文译作:“万圣节之夜”。万圣节是西方国家的传统节日。这一夜是一年中最“闹鬼”的一夜,所以也叫“鬼节”。

两千多年前,欧洲的天主教会把11月1日定为“天下圣徒之日” (ALL HALLOWS DAY) 。“HALLOW” 即圣徒之意。传说自公元前五百年,居住在爱尔兰、苏格兰等地的凯尔特人 (CELTS) 把这节日往前移了一天,即10月31日。他们认为该日是夏天正式结束的日子,也就是新年伊始,严酷的冬季开始的一天。那时人们相信,故人的亡魂会在这一天回到故居地在活人身上找寻生灵,借此再生,而且这是人在死后能获得再生的唯一希望。而活着的人则惧怕死魂来夺生,于是人们就在这一天熄掉炉火、烛光,让死魂无法找寻活人,又把自己打扮成妖魔鬼怪把死人之魂灵吓走。之后,他们又会把火种烛光重新燃起,开始新的一年的生活。传说那时凯尔特人部落还有在10月31日把活人杀死用以祭奠死人的习俗。

到了公元1世纪,占领了凯尔特部落领地的罗马人也渐渐接受了万圣节习俗,但从此废止了烧活人祭死人的野蛮做法。罗马人庆祝丰收的节日与凯尔特人仪式结合,戴着可怕的面具,打扮成动物或鬼怪,则是为了赶走在他们四周游荡的妖魔。这也就是今天全球大部分人以古灵精怪的打扮,来庆祝万圣节的由来。时间流逝,万圣节的意义逐渐起了变化,变得积极快乐起来,喜庆的意味成了主流。死魂找替身返世的说法也渐渐被摒弃和忘却。到了今天,象征万圣节的形象、图画如巫婆、黑猫等,大都有友善可爱和滑稽的脸。

万圣节的灯笼和恶作剧

One story about Jack, an Irishman, who was not allowed into Heaven because he was stingywith his money. So he was sent to hell. But down there he played tricks on the Devil (Satan), so he was kicked out of Hell and made to walk the earth forever carrying a lantern. 关于万圣节有这样一个故事。是说有一个叫杰克的爱尔半兰人,因为他对钱特别的吝啬,就不允许他进入天堂,而被打入地狱。但是在那里他老是捉弄魔鬼撒旦,所以被踢出地狱,罚他提着灯笼永远在人世里行走。

Well, Irish children made Jack's lanterns on October 31st from a large potato or turnip, hollowed out with the sides having holes and lit by little candles inside. And Irish children would carry them as they went from house to house begging for food for the village Halloween festival that honored the Druid god Muck Olla. The Irish name for these

lanterns was "Jack with the lantern" or "Jack of the lantern," abbreviated as "

Jack-o'-lantern" and now spelled "jack-o-lantern."

在十月三十一日爱尔兰的孩子们用土豆和罗卜制作“杰克的灯笼”,他们把中间挖掉、表面上打洞并在里边点上蜡烛。为村里庆祝督伊德神的万圣节,孩子们提着这种灯笼挨家挨户乞计食物。这种灯笼的爱尔兰名字是“拿灯笼的杰克”或者“杰克的灯笼”,缩写为Jack-o'-lantern ,现在拼写为jack-o-lantern 。

The traditional Halloween you can read about in most books was just children's fun night. Halloween celebrations would start in October in every elementary school. Children would make Halloween decorations, all kinds of orange-paper jack-o-lanterns. And from black paper you'd cut "scary" designs ---an evil witch with a pointed hat riding through the sky on a broomstick, maybe with black bats flying across the moon, and that meant bad luck. And of course black cats for more bad luck.

现在你在大多数书里读到的万圣节只是孩子们开心的夜晚。在小学校里,万圣节是每年十月份开始庆祝的。 孩子们会制作万圣节的装饰品:各种各样桔红色的南瓜灯。你可以用黑色的纸做一个可怕的造形——一个骑在扫帚把上戴著尖尖帽子的女巫飞过天空,或者是黑蝙蝠飞过月亮。这些都代表恶运。当然黑猫代表运气更差。

Sometimes a black cat would ride away into the sky on the back of the witch's broom. And on Halloween night we'd dress up in Mom or Dad's old shoes and clothes, put on a mask, and be ready to go outside. The little kids (children younger than we were) had to go with their mothers, but we older ones went together to neighbors' houses, ringing their doorbell and yelling, "Trick or treat!" meaning, "Give us a treat (something to eat) or we'll play a trick on you!"

有时候会出现黑猫骑在女巫扫帚后面飞向天空的造形。 在万圣节的晚上,我们都穿着爸爸妈妈的旧衣服和旧鞋子,戴上面具,打算外出。比我们小的孩子必须和他们的母亲一块出去,我们大一点的就一起哄到领居家,按他们的门铃并大声喊道:“恶作剧还是招待!”意思是给我们吃的,要不我们就捉弄你。

The people inside were supposed to come to the door and comment on our costumes. Oh! here's a ghost. Oh, there's a witch. Oh, here's an old lady. Sometimes they would play along with us and pretend to be scared by some ghost or witch. But they would always have some candy and maybe an apple to put in our "trick or treat bags." But what if no one come to the door, or if someone chased us away?

里边的人们应该评价我们的化装。 “噢!这是鬼,那是女巫,这是个老太婆。” 有时候他们会跟我们一起玩,假装被鬼或者女巫吓着了。但是他们通常会带一些糖果或者苹果放进我们的“恶作剧还是招待”的口袋里。可是要是没人回答门铃或者是有人把我们赶开该怎么办呢? Then we'd play a trick on them, usually taking a piece of soap and make marks on their windows. And afterwards we would go home and count who got the most candy. One popular teen-agers' Halloween trick was to unroll a roll of toilet paper and throw it high into

a tree again and again until the tree was all wrapped in the white paper. The paper would often stay in the tree for weeks until a heavy snow or rain washed it off.

我们就捉弄他们,通常是拿一块肥皂把他们的玻璃涂得乱七八糟。然后我们回家,数数谁的糖果最多。 还有一个典型的万圣节花招是把一卷手纸拉开,不停地往树上扔,直到树全被白纸裹起。除非下大雪或大雨把纸冲掉,纸会一直呆在树上。

No real harm done, but it made a big mess of both the tree and the yard under it. One kind of Halloween mischief.

这并不造成真正的伤害,只是把树和院子搞乱,一种万圣节的恶作剧。

万圣节古灵精怪英语

每当万圣夜到来,孩子们都会迫不及待地穿上五颜六色的化妆服,戴上千奇百怪的面具,提着一盏“杰克灯”走家窜户,向大人们索要节日的礼物。掐指一算,今年的万圣节即将到来,童心未泯喜欢惊险刺激又怎能错过这样一个瞎闹的机会。在你盛装出席之前,教你一些有用的万圣节英语lingo (方言) ,让你如同幽灵般惊悚全场。

一上来得先考考你万圣节的英文名。美其名曰: All Hallows Day 或者 All Saints Day, 即每年的11月1日这天。

Halloween 其实是All Hallows Eve (Evening)的缩写, 即All Hallows Day前夜。10月31日是万圣节前夕。通常叫做万圣节前夜(万圣夜)。传说最早在基督诞生前古西欧国家的德鲁伊特人间流传。德鲁伊特的新年在十一月一日,新年前夜,德鲁伊特人让年轻人集队,戴着各种怪异面具,拎着刻好的萝卜灯(南瓜灯系后期习俗,古西欧最早没有南瓜),他们游走于村落间,举行盛大的秋收庆典。

时光变迁,Halloween 的定义早已今非昔比,但dress up in costumes (wear special clothing, masks or disguises) to frighten the spirits away(身穿奇装异服来驱赶鬼魂)的传统仍保留至今,并盛行着。最受欢迎的装束莫过于vampires (吸血鬼), ghosts(魔鬼) (spirits of the dead) 和werewolves (狼人)了。

现代万圣节游玩宝典中,属Trick or Treating 最受孩子们的欢迎。他们在主人的屋内四处搜寻treats, 比如糖果和玩具。如果找不到任何treats, 就可以play a trick on the owners of the house, 对屋子的主人狠狠恶作剧一把。

Jack o' Lantern 的传统则来取自民间故事。传说有一个名叫杰克的人非常吝啬,因而死后不能进入天堂,而且因为他取笑魔鬼也不能进入地狱,于是他只能提着灯笼四处游荡,直到审判日那天。于是,杰克和南瓜灯便成了被诅咒的游魂的象征。人们为了在万圣节前夜吓走这些游魂,便用芜菁、甜菜或马铃薯雕刻成可怕的面孔来代表提着灯笼的杰克,这就是南瓜灯(Jack-o'-lantern )的由来。

除了这些之外,还有很多根万圣节有关的superstitions ——迷信。 像那些好莱坞大片经常出

现的supernatural creatures ,即ghosts and vampires. 至于他们到底存在与否?仁者见仁,智者见智。不过还是那句话,不要迷信哥,哥只是个传说。

此外,千万别小看了那些呼风唤雨的Witches 。打扮成她们的样子也很有腔调,前提是要感觉到位,别忘了随身带着坐骑,扫把。

所有这些象征物归根结底都给人们带来了一种Bad omens——不祥之兆。要不怎么叫玩儿的就是心跳?