作文
初三 散文 11567字 541人浏览 WO807831777

一、审题

1、限定词

2、选立场:符合事实的一方好写,传统的模式更优

3、双问:

① ② ③

4、生僻词,看3年的考题

二、思路

思考方面:钱、时间、健康、教育、个人、家庭(社交网络)、社会(政府、国家;资源、政治、稳定)、权利(法律)

1、Money

2、Time

3、Health: physical/phychological,mental

4、Education

5、Individual: feeling, characteristic

6、Family&friends

7、Society

8、Rights

三、大作文结构

报告解释型(五段式) 首选,适用于理由观点充分

第一段:背景介绍

第二段:原因1

第三段:原因2

第四段:原因3

结尾:解决方法

In the past, family was a very crucial concept in people ’s minds. Nowadays, however, the relationship between family members is not as intimate as before. What factors lead to this phenomenon and what we can do to solve the problem have become a concern to many people. In my opinion, the following reasons need to be taken into consideration.

The first reason is that people face fierce competition and suffer from great pressure. They have to work and study hard to meet the requirement of the society. They have to devote more time and energy to their careers. Consequently, some people are too occupied to spare time for their family.

Another factor that we must consider is that there are more entertainment forms available. Nowadays, high technology brings us more interesting things which can easily attract people ’s attention, such as watching TV, surfing the Internet or playing video games. As a result, people are indulged in these activities, totally neglecting the feelings of other family members.

The third reason may lie in the fact that people are now more independent than before. It is

much easier to make more friends now as a result of the rapid improvement in telecommunication. Apart from their family, they can easily get help from their friends. Thus, they are not as dependent upon their families as before.

As to how to address the problem, people put forward various suggestions. The most important approach is that parents teach their children a sense of family when they are still young in order to form good habits like writing letters and making telephone calls to each other. In addition, the authorities should organize activities to promote public awareness of the importance of a harmonious family relationship.

报告解释型(四段式)

在论据难找,很难展开的时候适用,废话较多

第一段:背景介绍

第二段:段首原因综述,后写2-3个原因

第三段:段首解决方法综述,后写2-3个解决方法

结尾:总结

Topic: Nowadays, traffic congestion has become more and more serious. What are the reasons? How can we solve it?

In recent years, the urban problem that road traffic has become overcrowded has confronted various countries. It is undeniable that traffic congestion has adversely affected our working efficiency and mood. Therefore, how to address it becomes a thorny task for authorities. In this essay, I will analyse the reasons before outlining several suggested measures.

There are two major factors which lead to traffic congestion. First, it is closely related to the rapid development of the automobile industry. It is true that few policy-makers want to sacrifice economic benefits, and they encourage the use of private vehicles in order to increase tax revenue from the car industry. In addition to the increasing number of cars, poor public transportation systems are seen as another contributing factor. Although the increasingly congested streets have prompted authorities to construct more subways and roads, the effect remains less visible. The crowded buses, undeveloped transferring system and uncomfortable conditions of subways are the things that discourage most people from taking public transportation.

There are several measures which could tackle chronic traffic problems. It is certain that governments should take strong measures to limit the use of cars. For instance, Beijing municipal authorities have introduced some policies including discouraging car purchases by adopting a lottery system for vehicle registration permits and increasing parking fees. In addition, individuals should be encouraged to take public transportation tools through lowering the price of bus and subway tickets and through improving comfort by installing air conditioners and comfortable seats.

In conclusion, the increasingly serious traffic congestion could be relieved as long as the number of private cars declines and public transportation becomes more convenient.

论点数2:1,支撑句较多

第一段:表明观点A 好

第二段:A 的优点1

第三段:A 的优点2

第四段:A 的缺点1

①反驳;②削弱程度(没有那么不好,还有很多好的方面)

不要和前面的重复,在构思上,把论据较多的优点写在前面,论据较少的写成反驳

第五段:结论A 好

Topic: Some people believe that unpaid community service should be a compulsory part of high school programmes, such as working for the charity, improving the neighbourhood or teaching sports to younger children. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

As a vital component of high school education, community service should always be a part of whole educational system. Thus, some advocate that the community service should be added to the compulsory agenda. Personally, I could not agree more.

Obviously, establishing community service as a compulsory part in high school education is not only helpful for students but also meaningful for the whole society. Firstly, the community service perfectly combines text-based and society-based methods in order to accomplish a better outcome for those students. By doing so, they have the opportunity to put their newly-learnt theories into practice.

Secondly, throughout these charitable activities, students can understand those disabled people better, so they will pay more attention to these special groups in their daily life. More importantly, it will shape their strong and independent personality gradually. Namely, offering helps to others teaches the young to understand and support each other in the community.

Admittedly, unpaid jobs for charity organizations take up some time of students who need to spend more valuable time on their study. In a short term, this activity cannot bring any rewards for those participants. However, people should never judge some activities with a short-sighted view. Instead, long-sighted perspective becomes more reasonable and smarter. With sufficient social experience and working skills, students may be more competitive in the job market after graduation in the foreseeing future.

In conclusion, it is a must to add community service to the compulsory education, especially in high schools. I strongly recommend the government and some organizations involved to take the advice into consideration.

辩论型(平衡四段式)

论点数:2:2~3:3 适用于论点较多但是不好展开的话题

第一段:背景介绍,不给观点

第二段:缺点1、2、3(先写反对的)

第三段:优点1、2、3

第四段:优点>缺点(比较),得出结论

Topic: The Internet is important for people in modern society, but people hold different attitudes towards it. Discuss the advantages and disadvantage and give your own opinion.

In recent years, the Internet has been gaining its popularity at an amazing rate. It seems that anyone who only knows a little about the Internet is out of date. The Internet plays such an important role that it undoubtedly has become the biggest concern of the world.

Those who welcome the Internet hold that it brings us great convenience and efficiency. Firstly, we can send emails to our friends in other countries in a few seconds while sending a traditional letter takes us at least a week and costs much. Secondly, we can make friends with people from all parts of the world. It overcomes the geographical barriers and makes the world smaller.

While people speak highly of Internet, its drawbacks should not be ignored. For one thing, it can easily lead to psychological problems. It is common that Internet-addicted person tends to be isolated, self-centered and unsociable. For another, there is a sharp rise in the number of cyber crimes. More and more financial crimes are committed via the Internet. In addition, it also has negative impacts on young people because there are a lot of obscene and violent contents on line. In view of the fact that adolescents like to imitate what they have seen, it results in the increasing crime rate for young people to a certain extent.

In my opinion, the Internet has more disadvantages than advantages. It gives rise to people’s mental problems. It results in various computer crimes. It is harmful to the growth of the young. Something should be done as soon as possible to protect from the negative effects of the Internet.

四、支撑句(先从中文上寻找多样性、不同的表达)

1、因果:

因:It is obvious/ecident/undeniable/undoubted that ...

There is no doubt/denying that ...

果:In this case/Consequently, ...

Considering this fact/situation/phenomenon, ...

2、举例

For instance/example,

X can serve as an/ another evident example, ...

Taking X as an/ another example here, ...

3、对比

On the contrary/ in contract, ...

Compared with A, B...

4、调查数据

According to the servey provided/published by X, ...

It was reported that ...

It has been confirmed that ...

五、语法(1)

1、动名词 doing

△主语 △宾语

△表语

Abandon oneself to doing

2、动词不定式 to do

△状语 表目的“为了” To address this problem, ...

△主语&宾语 形式主语 It is almost impossible to reach an absolute consensus.

I find it difficult to answer your question.

◇短主语:ing

长主语:to do

3、分词

Doing 现在分词:进行 主动

Done 过去分词:完成 被动

△定语:There are three reasons leading to this phenomenon.

◇用途:

·从句改写: →Some people pouring into metropolises are expecting to find a well-paid and decent job. ·There be 句型

Some people support this practice.

→There are some prople supporting this practice.

△状语:表示前因后果

主语主动发出doing

Living far from home, children may feel lonely.

主语被动发出 done

Applied in many field, computer can bring us great convenience.

◇状语从句改写

Comparing A and B, I think ...

Compared with A, B ...

六、语法(2)

1、宾语从句(从句作宾语成分)

△陈述句:that 引导,不充当成分,无词义,可省略(仅此一个)

△一般疑问句:whether/ if 引导 “是否”

We can succeed.→I wonder whether/ if we can succeed.

△特殊疑问句:原有疑问词引导

What do the elderly need?→We must figure out what the elderly need.

2、表语从句(与宾语从句类似)

△陈述句:that 引导,不充当成分,无词义:The fact is that...

△一般疑问句:whether 引导【故写作不使用if 】

△特殊疑问句:原有疑问词引导

All in all, high-quality material life is exactly what people need.

3、主语从句

△陈述句:that 引导,不充当成分,无词义

形式主语【和不定式作主语是唯二两种形式主语的情况】

It is obvious that...

It is a fact /common sense that ...

It is well konwn that ...

It is universally ackowledge that ...

△一般疑问句:whether 引导,只能放在句首

Whether we can succeed relys on ...

△特殊疑问句:原有疑问词引导,只能放句首

What they are doing today will lay a heavy economic burden on the future.

4、同位语从句A=B

先行词(抽象)+同位语(从句)

如:“我们中国人”

△陈述句:that 引导,不充当成分,无词义

△一般疑问句:whether 引导

△特殊疑问句:原有疑问词引导

Some people hold the viewpoint/ attitude/ opinion that ...

We cannot deny/ ignore the fact that ...

There is no doubt/denying that ...

We can consequently draw the conclusion that ...

例句:In these years, the phenomenon that an increasing number of people pour into metropolis

5、状语从句

① 时间while, as soon as, since, before, after, not ..until...

② 条件 if, as long as, unless

③ 原因 because, since, as

④ 让步 though (用于句末), although(用于句首), even if

⑤ 结果 so that, such that

⑥ 目的 in order that

⑦ 比较 (not) as...as

⑧ 地点

⑨ 方式

◇as

只有“作为”的意思是介词,后加名词。“按照”“由于”“随着”是连词,后加句子

6、定语从句,that 充当句子成分

1) 关系代词

① Who 用于人作从句主语时

② Whom 人作从句宾语时,可以省略

③ Which 物作从句主语宾语时,作宾语时可以省略

④ That 人或物作从句主语或宾语时,作宾语可以省略

⑤ Whose 表示所属关系 “谁的... ”

◇非限制性定语从句用于修饰整个句子,“,”后只能用which

2) 关系副词

① Why 表原因

I don’t know the reason why he looks unhappy.原因状语从句

I don’t know the reason which/that makes him unhappy.从句中做成分,定语从句 ② When

③ Where

七、强调句

1、强调句

It is/ was 被强调部分 that 其他部分 “正是„„”

It is/ was not until 被强调部分 that 其他部分

I didn’t go to bed until my father got home.

→It was not until my father got home that i went to bed.

2、倒装句

△句首为否定,半否定词,句子作部分倒装(将助动词提前)

No/not/never/only/few/little/hardly...

Never have i seen...

△Only in this way, can the government address the problem.(only不能连接句子)

3、虚拟条件句

① 与当下事实相反 if 一般过去时(were ),should/could/would/might+一般现在时(do ) ② 与过去事实相反 if 过去完成时,should/could/would/might+现在完成时(have done) ③ 混合条件句 过去事实影响现在 过去事实用过去完成时,现在影响用一般现在 If the government had attached importance to exploiting alternative resources, people would not be confronted with energy crisis.